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Intro to Criminal Justice

by: Mrs. Kim Hettinger

Intro to Criminal Justice CRJU 1100

Mrs. Kim Hettinger
GPA 3.56

Regan Gustafson

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Regan Gustafson
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Kim Hettinger on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CRJU 1100 at Georgia Southern University taught by Regan Gustafson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/222079/crju-1100-georgia-southern-university in Criminal Justice at Georgia Southern University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Measuring Crime Regan Gustafson Georgia Southern University Fall 2009 Readings for this Lecture Bohm amp Haley p 3748 Learning Objectives At the conclusion of this section students should be able to Explain what a rate is and why we use them Describe the 3 main sources of crime data Summarize the strengths and limitations of each main source of crime data Instructor NotesComments If you cannot con dently check offthese objectives after studying your readings and the lecture please contact me Your Notes Measuring Crime Counts vs Rates All data sources have important limitations and can provide only estimates with multiple caveats for interpretation 3 Data Types Official Statistics SelfReport Surveys Victimization Surveys Instructor NotesComments In order to know exactly what the resultant statistics mean and how well we can trustuse them we need to carefully examine where those numbers came from How was the data collected Remember the old adage garbage in garbage out All data sources have limitations That doesn t mean we don t use them but it means we need to make sure we use them appropriately with proper consideration of the limitations Your Notes Official Statistics Main Forms Uniform Crime Reports UCR NIBRS How It Works Limitations Hierarchy rule Only crimes known to the police Only known crimes recorded by the police Only recorded crimes voluntarily reported to UCR Jurisdictional variation in crime definitions recording policies and compliance Heavily reflects policing practices Data manipulation and political aspects Only certain types of crimes Instructor NotesComments Your Notes SelfReport Surveys Data from anonymous surveys or interviews in which respondents answer questions regarding their participation in illegal activities Aimed at examining quotdark figures of crimequot crime official data can tdon t count such as crimes that aren t reported Limitations UnderOverreporting Usually focus on less serious offenses Very expensive Typically nonrandom samples Instructor NotesComments V th any kind of survey how a question is asked can be as important as what the survey asks survey wording structure and sample are critical The data we get from a survey is only as useful as the quality ofthe survey Your Notes US Crime amp Justice Primer Regan Gustafson Georgia Southern University Fall 2009 Readings for this Lecture Bohm amp Haley Chap 1 Barkan amp Bryjak Chap 12 Learning Objectives At the conclusion of this section students should be able to Recognize the distorted nature of popular perceptions of crime and justice identify common sources of these distortions and describe some consequences of misconceptions about crime and justice Describe the basic elements of the US criminal justice system and list reasons why some refer to it as a nonsystem Compare and contrast the due process and crime control models of criminal justice Instructor NotesComments If you cannot con dently check offthese objectives after studying your readings and the lecture please contact me Your Notes Myth Versus Reality The national preoccupationfixation with crime Skewed news media attention Entertainment industry Just how distorted is our popular understanding of crime and justice Why it matters Check our preconceptions at the door Instructor NotesComments Your Notes The US Criminal Justice System An institution of social control A loose confederation of agencies at federal state and local levels of gov Jurisdiction A politically defined geographic area andor bounds of legal authority Jurisdictional variation Major Components Law Enforcement Courts Corrections Instructor NotesComments Your Notes The Nonsystem No single unified quotcriminal justice system Agencies at all levels of gov Different sometimes overlapping jurisdictions Variation in structure and process US vs state constitutions Different sometimes conflicting goals Internal and external pressures Tensions and gaps between components and agencies Instructor NotesComments Your Notes The CJS Process Basic Steps 39 Law Enforcement Complaint investigation Arrest Booking Courts Pretrial 39 InitialAppearance Summary Trial Set preliminary hearing and releasebail Preliminary Hearing 39 Grand Jury or An Information 0 Arraignment Trial Sentencing Corrections Instructor NotesComments Refer to and study Figure 12 on pages 1011 of your text Your Notes Views of Criminal Justice Instructor NotesComments Your Notes Models of Criminal Justice Crime Control Model Basic Principles Control of criminal behavior is by far the most important function of CJS Public protection above all l Presumption of guilt Focus on efficiency assembly line justicequot Speed Finality Uniformity Due Process Model Basic Principles The principle goal of Cl is at least as much to protect the innocent as it is to convict the guilty e Innocent until proven guilty doctrine of legal guilt Focus on procedures rights rules and process protect the accused societal ideals and safeguard the integrity of the process Reduceinequality and guarantee basic fairness Protect personal freedom Prevent tyranny and abuses of power Instructor NotesComments Your Notes What is Crime Regan Gustafson Georgia Southern University Fall 2009 Readings for this Lecture Bohm amp Haley p 2736 Learning Objectives At the conclusion of this section students should be able to Define norm and discuss how norms are related to defining crimes List and describe the 7 elements of a legal definition of crime and their exceptions Distinguish between misdemeanors and felonies Explain the difference between offenses that are male in se and those that are mala prohibita ldentify common crime classifications and basic definitions Instructor NotesComments If you cannot con dently check offthese objectives after studying your readings and the lecture please contact me Your Notes Norms amp Crime 39 Norm Any standard or rule regarding what human beings should or should not think say or do under given circumstances Norms influence what acts are defined as crimes Norms vary From society to society From group to group within a society According to diverse interpretations Overtime and place Instructor NotesComments Your Notes Legal Definitions of Crime Legal definitions of crime are the basis of the US CJ system Necessary elements to be a crime Harm external consequences Legality legally forbidden at the time of the offense law cannot be ex postfacto Actus reus intentional or criminally negligent conduct an action or criminal inaction must occur not enough just to think about committing a crime hypothetically or wanting to must actually do it Instructor NotesComments Your Notes Legal Definitions of Crime Mens rea criminal intent mental aspect of the act Exceptions Lack capacity or diminished capacity Underage gtgt Mentalhandicap Mentalillness Duress Defense of self or others defense of property if nonlethal and bl reasona e Necessity e Entrapment Concurrence octus reus and mens rea must occur together Causation clear causal relationship may require that harm occurred within a set time frame after act Punishment statutory provision for punishment or threat of punishment Instructor NotesComments Your Notes Problems with Legal Definitions Subjectivity Enforcement Unenforceable cannot be enforced Nonenforced simply is not enforced Overcriminalization activities that arguably should not be considered crimes are illegal Undercriminalization activities that arguably should be considered crimes are legal Instructor NotesComments Your Notes Degrees amp Categories of Crime Misdemeanors vs felonies Mala in se vs mala prohibita offenses Common crime categories Violent crimes Property crimes Public order crimes Drug crimes Victimless crimes Whitecollar crimes Environmental crimes Crimes against the state State crimes Instructor NotesComments Your Notes


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