BISC Notes from Midterm Review Session
BISC Notes from Midterm Review Session BISC 1005
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Review Session Q s Microbiome and is this one of the types of symbiotic relationships 0 O O Photosynthesis O Mutualistic and commensalism within microbiome There is a balance within the microbiome if this gets thrown off then it can become exploitative Symbiosis is like an umbrella term for exploitation and whatnot where does microbiome t in within that ETC NADPH Ph0t0 and ATP need minerals and water both gathered from roots pigments chloroplast light gt Chi oroplasts don t need to know details of ETC pigments H20 comes from roots a electron Photosystem System aka goesm and 02 dark cycle and carbon xation carbon xation inorganic carbon atom is made organic 0 C02 C goes with rubisco and becomes RuBP l unstable organic substance 0 To make inorganic l organic attach it to an organic compound rubisco an enzyme 0 Energy donated from ATP and NADPH stable sugar organic 0 ATP carries energy through 3 phosphate groups NADPH is like a taxi cab for electrons Sugar exits cycle and because it is a cycle we must recycle what we start with so RuBP is recycled End result of photosynthesis is sugar 02 is a byproduct Know common structures of all cells Know difference between plants and animal cells Know endosymbiosis Endosymbiosis Symbiosis intimate relationship between two species for signi cant part of their lifecycle 0 At some point during evolution early eukaryotic cells were able to take in smaller prokaryotic cells and eat them 0 When the prokaryotes were ingested they formed a membrane that looked like a eukaryotic membrane Eukaryotes have specialized digestive compartments Usually they degrade ingested things But in this case they did not mitochondrion energy producing cell 0 These produce so much energy 36 ATP that they were able to grow 0 We know mitochondria and chloroplasts were independent because they have their own DNA produce their own proteins and replicate on their own 0 Chloroplasts can make their own food Digestive Process 0 Mouth 0 Only have starch ls broken down into salivary amylase and is broken down into glucose Esophagus o Literally a tube that allows food to travel to the stomach Stomach 0 Proteins become denatured from HCL and then pepsin breaks it down into amino acids 0 Only absorbs 10 of nutrients Small Intestine o Carbohydrates di or polysaccharides Broken down via carbohydrases into monosaccharides 0 Proteins are broken down via proteases into amino acids 0 Fats and triglycerides and phospholipids Don t have to be broken down a lot but require two things 0 Bile pulls apart fat Lipases 0 Result is a fatty acid 0 You don t need to break down Cholesterol Vitamins Minerals 0 Absorbs 80 of nutrients 0 Large Intestine o Absorbs amino acids monosaccharides fats cholesterol This is to a minor degree except when you have eaten a berrich food o Vitamins and minerals are released or produced by microbiome in the large intestines o Absorbs 10 of nutrients Sterols and hormones Sterols are manufactured from cholesterol which is part of cell membrane and is the base substance for manufacturing hormones Cholesterol has two main roles o Stabilize at diff temps 0 Base molecules to produce hormones like testosterone Food Label 0 Under carbohydrates there is an amount for total carbs say 50g 0 Then there are sugars listed mono or di say 30g 0 And ber not digested polysaccharides say 5g Cellulose and chitin 0 Total amounts only add up to 35g and total is 50g 0 Any remaining 5035 is starch o KNOW HOW TO CALCULATE STARCH Unsaturated transfat o Hydrogenation o Transfat resembles saturated fat LOOK AT ANSWER KEYS FOR GROUP ACTIVITIES TWO AND FIVE 0 NATURAL minimally processed o ORGANIC about how you grow the organism holistic approach Blood Cholesterol 0 LDL and HDL highlow density lipoproteins o What you get measured at doctor s of ce 0 Complex of proteins cholesterol fatty acids phospholipids 0 LDL carries fats to cells Want to keep low 0 HDL brings fats back to liver to be stored Want to keep high 0 Know how different fats affect levels of LDL and HDL Know fungi invertebratesvertebrates and plants and animals that we eat Test is half de nition and half application