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Anatomy & Physiology I Lecture

by: Barton Frami

Anatomy & Physiology I Lecture BIOL 2210

Marketplace > Gordon College > Biology > BIOL 2210 > Anatomy Physiology I Lecture
Barton Frami

GPA 3.93

Cathy Lee

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Cathy Lee
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Barton Frami on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2210 at Gordon College taught by Cathy Lee in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see /class/222098/biol-2210-gordon-college in Biology at Gordon College.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
AampP Exam 1 Study Guide QCompare the similarities and the differences in the endocrine and nervous system in maintain homeostasis Both act together to coordinate functions of the body systems Nervous system sends action potentials through axons to dendrites and is a relatively closed system The endocrine system sends signals via chemicals known as hormones which unlike nerve impulses must enter the blood and are secreted at one area of the body and affect the target cells in another Q Compare the functional differences of autocrines and paracrines and their examples Hormones that affect neighboring cells without entering the blood stream are known as local hormones Autocrine Local hormones that act on the same cell which secreted them Paracrines Local hormones that act on neighboring cells Q What is the difference between downregulation and upregulation Downregulation If a hormone is present in excess then the number of target receptors may decrease Down regulation makes target cells less sensitive to a hormone UpRegulation When a hormone is deficient the number of receptors may increase Up regulation increases the target cells sensitivity to a hormone Q What are the types of two major chemical classes of hormones Lipid soluble and fat soluble Q Examples of each Lipid Soluble Steroid Hormones two types of thyroid hormones Tquot3 Tquot4 QMechanism of their cellular actions Lipid Soluble Hormones bind to receptors within target cells 1Diffuses through lipid bilayer of cell 2 If target cell binds to binds to activates the receptor 3 mRNA leaves nucleus enters cytosol direct creation of new enzyme 4 New protein alters cell activity and generates response to that hormone WaterSoluble Hormones 1Binds to membrane activates G Protein 2ATP converted to cAMP on inner membrane 3Activates protein kinase in cytosol 4Phosphorylation activates proteins in cell like on or off switch 5Causes reactions that produce physiological changes 6After brief period of time cAMP is turned off QHow are they transported in the blood WaterSoluble Most flow through the watery blood plasma in free form not attached to molecules Lipid Soluble Need to be bound to transport proteins in the blood Q What is the action of the receptorhormone complex in lipid soluble hormone The receptor hormone complex alters gene expression by turning specific genes within the nucleus on and off QWhy is cAMP called a second messenger protein Because watersoluble hormone must bind to the surface membrane and activate cAMP by G Protein and cAMP is basically the one within the cell that does produces the effect of the hormone QWhat three types of signals control hormone secretion Signals from the nervous system Chemical changes in the blood Other hormones Q What is the function of G Protein in generating a llsecond messenger of cAMP or Ca G Protein activate adenylate cyclase Which converts ATP into cAMP QWhat is the functional importance of the hypophyseal portal veins The hypophyseal portal veins carry blood from the median eminence of the hypothalamus where hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are secreted to the anterior pituitary where these hormones act QHormones released by hypothalamus and anterior and posterior pituitary and their relationships of each other and their target organs exreleasing and inhibiting hormones at hypothalamus Hypothalamic hormones Tropic Hormones 1 Growth hormone releasing hormone GHRH somatocrinin 2 Growth hormone inhibiting hormone GHIH somatostatin 3 Tyrotropin releasing hormone TRH 4 Corticotropin Releasing Hormone CRH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Releasing Hormone ACTHRH Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone GnRH Prolactin Releasing Hormone PRH Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone PIH Oxytocin CT Antidiuretic Hormone ADH denohypophysis Anterior Pituitary mostly Tropic Hormones except Prolactin Human Growth Hormone hGH Somatotropin ThyroidStimulating Hormone TSH Thyrotropin Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH Corticotropin FollicleStimulating Hormone FSH Luteinizing Hormone LH Interstitial CellStimulating Hormone ICSH Prolactin PRL MelanocyteStimulating Hormone MSH NOW WN9gtFOQONOW Neurohypophysis Posterior Pituitary Oxytocin OT 2 Antidiuretic Hormone ADH Q If a person has a pituitary tumor that secretes a large amount of hGH and the tumor cells are not responsible for regulation ofGHRH and GHIH will hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia be more likely Hyperglycemia is more likely to be a result from excessive hG H QWhat do somatotroph lactotroph corticotroph thryotroph and godanotroph cells do Somatotrophs Secrete hGH which stimulates IGF Lactotrophs Secretes PRL which initiates milk production in mammary glands Corticotrophs ACTH which stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids Thryotrophs secretes thyroid stimulating hormone and that controls secretions and functions of the thyroid gland Gonadotrophs Scretes follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone which act on the gonads Q Tropic Hormones examples Regulate the activity of other endocrine tissue for production and secretion of other hormones Ex TSF from pituitary causes thyroid to produce Tquot3 and Tquot4 Q Contrast the structural and functional differences between anterior and posterior pituitary glands Posterior Pituitary Does not synthesize hormones but stores and releases two hormones Secretes OT and ADH Is the down growth of the hypothalamus neural tissue Anterior Pituitary Composed of 5 different kinds of cells which synthesize and secrete 9 hormones It is the outpocketing of the oral mucosa so no direct contact with the hypothalamus QList endocrine organs which target hypothalamic and anterior pituitary hormones by negative feedback Thyroid hormones suppress secretion of TSH and TRH by the Hypothalamus Gonadal hormones suppress secretion of FSH and LH and GnRH by hypothalamic neurosecretory cells Q How do blood glucose levels maintained by hGHGHRH and GHIH negative a positive feedback hGH is regulated by the release of GHIH and GHRH GHIH inhibits secretions of hGH as a result IGF s decreases rate of glycogen breakdown in liver and glucose enters the blood slowly until it reachers normal levels GHRH stimulates secretions of hGH which speeds up breakdown of glycogen in the liver which results in more blood sugar So blood sugar levels raise Q How does oxcytocin control increase in distention of cervix and mil ejection during and after delivery of newborn How does infant suckling come into play t enhances contraction of smooth muscle cells in the wall of the uterus after delivery it stimulates milk ejection from the mammary glands Suckling creates a mechanical stimulus from the baby Q How does prolactin initiate and maintain milk production in mammary glands Each month before menstruation PIH decreases and PRL levels rise During pregnancy PRH is secreted and PRL levels rise and the suckling action of an infant causes a reduction in PIH How low and high blood estrogen levels and suckling of milk by infant play in this control Estrogen is one of the hormones which is needed to prime the mammary glands for secretions of milk Suckling action of a child decreases production of PRL What are permissive hormones for milk production Estrogens progesterone glucocorticoids hGH and insulin primes the breasts for milk secretion and they have no effect other then preparing the breast for milk secretion Q Target organs for ADH and list the effects of drinking water on the osmotic pressure and ADH levels in your blood Kidneys sweat glands and smooth muscle in blood vessel walls Absorption of a liter of water in the intestines would decrease the osmotic pressure of your blood plasma turning off secretions ofADH and decreasing the ADH level in you blood QCells secreting T3 and T4 and calcitonin and PTH and their bodily function Ca homeostasis and metabolic action Thyroid follicular cells trap iodide and create T3 and T4 internally It helps maintain the metabolic rate of the body Calcitonin is produced in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland Causes a decrease in blood calcium levels by stimulating the actions of osteoblasts Chief Cells produce PTH which regulates the level of calcium in the blood by increasing it by stimulating the action of osteoclasts Q How does alcohol and pain and stress involve blood pressure homeostasis QWhere are oscoreceptors located Neurons in the hypothalamus that monitor blood osmotic pressure Q What is the storage form of thyroid hormones The storage form of thyroid hormones is thyroglobulin Q Actions of thyroid hormones and their negative feedback action ncrease basal metabolic rate Second major effect is to stimulate synthesis of additional sodiumpotassium pumps Regulation of metabolism Together with hGH and insulin accelerates body body Q Adrenal glands cortex and medulla types of cells ad hormone secretions Zona Glomerulosa Outer most layer of cells and secrete hormones called mineralcorticoids Zona Fascicilata The middle zone of cells and secretes mainly glucocorticoids Zona reticularis nner most zone and the produce small amounts of weak androgens Mineralcorticoids regulates homeostasis of two mineral ions and help adjust blood pressure and blood volume Glucocorticoids regulate metabolism and resistance to stress Androgrens In females its plays an important role in promoting libido and are converted into estrogens Adrenal Medulla nner region of the adrenal gland contains hormone releasing cells called chromaffin cells and secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine Q Blood volume and pressure homeostasis by aldosterone targets and mechanisms exrenin angiotension mechanisms etc Aldosterone is the major chemical mineralcorticoid regulates homeostasis by two mineral ions potassium ions and sodium ions RAA pathway controls secretion of aldosterone Stimuli initiate RAA ex dehydration Conditions cause decrease in blood volume9lower blood pressure9 cells in kidneys release rennin9 rennin in the blood increasesangiotensinogen converted to angiotensin 19 circulates through the body9enzyme ACE converts U39 39 1 into U39 39 9 U39 39 II levels increase9 causes adrenal gland to stimulate more aldosterone9 in the kidneys less water is lost9 with increased water retention blood volume increases9blood pressure returns to normal9 Angiotensin II causes smooth muscles in artery walls to contract to increase blood pressure9 Q What does aldostrone do in kidney tubules In the kidneys it increases resorption of Na and water so less is lost in the urine Also stimulates the kidneys to increase secretion of K and H in the urine Q How do hypokalemia and hyperkalemia effect the adrenal cortex QWhere and by what cells release rennin Cells in the kidneys called juxtaglomerular cells secrete the enzyme rennin Q What is the function of rennin Renin converts angiotensinogen a plasma protein produced by the liver into angiotensin M Q Explain short term and long term stress response Fight or flight quickly mobilizes the body s resources for immediate physical activity Resistance reaction longer lasting response Exhaustion when the resources of the body become so depleted that they cannot sustain the resistance phase QAlarm reactionepinephrine and norepinephrine resistance reaction ACTH GHRH and TRH What are their effects on blood glucose Epinephrine and norepinephrine are used in the fight or flight response and cause occur only during stressful situations it causes blood glucose levels to rise ACTH GHRH and TRH CRH stimulates the release of ACTH during flight or flight that causes the adrenal cortex to release cortisol which causes liver cells to breakdown triglycerides into fatty acids tissue throughout the body used the glucose that was created And then GHRH causes secretions of hG H acting via IGF causes breakdown of glycogen into glucose and THR causes thyroid to stimulate TSH which stimulate increase use of glucose for ATP production Q What is meant by beta cell burnout Type 2 Diabetes from when the body has excessive insulin and can no longer process it normally QPancreatic islet cells and hormones for glucose homeostatsisinsulin glucagon somatostatin and their metabolic effectsglyogenolysis gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis Alpha cells secrete glucagon which raises blood glucose levels Beta cells secrete insulin which lowers blood glucose levels Delta Cells somatostatin which acts in a paracrine manner to inhibit both insulin and glucagon release from neighboring beta and alpha cells F cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide which inhibits somatostatin secretion gall bladder contraction and secretion of digestive enzymes by the pancreas Q Know the relationship with GnRH FSH LH estrogen progesterone and testosterone GnRH stimulates the production of FSH and LH which stimulates the ovaries and testes to produce estrogen progesterone and testosterone Q Functions of inhibin and relaxin Inhibin is produced by the ovaries and inhibits the secretion of FSH During pregnancy the ovaries produce relaxin which increases flexibility of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy and helps dilate the uterine cervix during labor delivery Chapter 19 Blood QDescribe the types and functions of blood cells Red Blood Cells Biconcave cells without nucleus and other organelles that have hemoglobin to transport oxygen around the body Average life span is 120 days White Blood Cells there are two types granular leukocytes and agrenular leukocytes Granular Leukocytes include neutrophils eosinophils and basophils Neutrophils granules are smaller and pale lilac in colour has 25 lobes on nucleus Basophils Stain blue purple with basic dyes the granules commonly obscure the nucleus which has two lobes Eosinophil Stain red orange with acidic dyes has two lobes connected by a thick strand of chromatin Agranular Leukocytes Grandules are not visible under microscopic light because they are so small Lymphocyte nucleus is round or slightly indented and stains easily Three Kinds T Cells B Cells NK Cells Monocytes nucleus is usually kidney or horseshoe shaped Q Describe the physical characteristics and principal components of blood Blood is a sticky opaque fluid with a metallic taste Colour varies from scarlet to dark red pH is 735745 Temperature is 38 C Is roughly 8 of body weight Two principal components of blood Blood plasma a watery liquid extracellular matrix which contains dissolved substances Formed elements which are cells and cell fragments QExplain the origin of blood cells expluripotent stem cells megakaryocyte etc Starts is red bone marrow from pluripotent stem cells they then divide to produce more pluripotent stem cells they then divide into either two kinds of cells myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells Myeloid stem cells give rise to red blood cells platelets monocytes neutrophils eosinphils and basophils Then myeloid cells become progenitor cells they are no longer able to replicate themselves and are commited to giving rise to more specific elements of blood Lymphoid cells being their development in red bone marrow but complete in lymphatic tissue they give rise to lymphocytes Next generation is known as precursor cells QHemopoietic growth factors examples Hemopoietic growth factors regulate the differentiation and proliferation of particular progenitor cells Erythropoietin increases the number of red blood cell precursors Thrombopoietin formed by the liver and stimulate the formation of platelets from mega ka ryocytes QStructure and function of RBC Hg Heme etc Biconcave discs essentially no organelles Filled with hemoglobin a protein that functions as a gas transport ATP is generated anaerobically QConnection to Sickle Cell Disease HbS is an abnormal kind of hemoglobin when it gives up oxygen is it forms long stiff rodlike structures that bend the red blood cell into a shape QHow many oxygen molecules can bind to Hg 4 oxygen molecules can bind to each hemoglobin molecule QWhy do urine and feces have a yellowish colour What is jaundice Urobilin gives urine it s yellow colour because it is secreted from the kidneys Sterobilin is a brown pigment that is eliminated in feces and gives it s characteristic colour Jaundice an abnormal discolouration of the eyes skin and mucus membranes due to excessive amounts of bilirubin in the blood QFunction of transferring Transferrin is a plasma protein which acts as a transporter for Fequot3 in the bloodstream QFormation and desctruction of RBCexbilirubin macrophages ferritin feces urin and Fe2 etc Lifespan is roughly 120 days RBS become rigid and fragile Dying RBC are engulfed by macrophages Heme and globin are separated and the iron is salvaged for reuse Heme is degraded to a yellow pigment called bilirubin The liver secrete bilirubin into the intestine as bile The Intestine metabolize it into urobilinogen This degraded pigment leaves body in feces as a pigment called sterobilin Globin is metabolized into amino acids and is released into the circulation Hb released into the blood is captured by haptoglobin and phgocytized Where and how hemoglobin is destroyed and metabolized for secretion Globin and heme portions are split apart and globin is broken down into amino acids which can be reused to synthesize other proteins QFeedback mechanism of erythropoiesisPeople in peru have low or high hemocrit f oxygen carrying capacity of the blood falls because erthyopoiesis is not keeping up with RBC destruction then a negative feedback system steps us RBC production Once your move to a high altitude your hematocrit would increase due to increased secretion of erythropoietin QFunctions of Granular or Agranular eukocyteshigh or low count means Help fight infection in immune responses such as bacteria viruses fungi and allergic reactions Higher counts can indicate infections lower counts can be stress on the body QSelectin and integrins on emigrations ofWBC Selectins are adhesion molecules in response to nearby injury or inflammation They stick to carbohyrdrates on the surface of neutrophils and causing them to slow down and roll along the endothelial surface ntegrins adhesion molecules located on the neutrophil surface which tether them to the endothelium and assist in their movement through blood vessel wall and into the interstitial fluid of injured tissue Q What is a differential white blood cell count Used to count the type of each white blood cells in the body for infection of inflammation Because each WBC has a specific response and target it can help diagnose symptoms QDescribe the three mechanisms that contribute to hemostasisvascular spasms platelet plus formation and coagulation Hemostasis a sequence of response that stops bleeding Vascular Spasm When arteries are damaged the smooth muscle in their walls contracts immediately reduces blood loss for several minutes to hours while other mechanisms come into play Platelet Plug Formation is limited only to the immediate area of injury with help of Willebrand factor adhere to collagen Are stimulated by thromboxane A2 stick to exposed collagen fibers and form a platelet plug Releases serotonin and ADP which attracts still more platelets Coagulationa set of reactions from which blood is converted from a liquid to a gell Q Coagulation ntrinsic and extrinsic pathwaysprothrombinase Extrinsic Pathway Has fewer steps and occurs in rapidly Tissue factor leaks into the blood from outside cells and initiates the formation of prothrombinase Intrinsic Pathway More complex and occurs more slowly then extrinsic pathway Named because the activators are located either direct contact with the blood or contained within it Common PathwayThrombin Formation of the prothrombinase marks the beginning of the common pathway In second state prothrombin is catabolized into thrombrin 3rd stage thrombin converts to fibrogen which is soluble to loose fibrin heads Clot Retraction Once clot is form it plugs the ruptured area of the blood vessels to stop bleeding Clot retraction is the tightening of the clot Connection to hemophilia It is the inherited deficiency of clotting in which bleeding may occur spontaneously or after only minor trauma QExplain the ABC and Rh blood groupsantigen and antibody The surface of red blood cells contain genetically determined assortment of antigens Bases on the presence of absence of various antigens blood can be categorized into two groups each with many possible sub groups What is agglutination Clumping of RBC when a the antibodies on the surface of RBC are not compatible during a transfusion Universal donor and recipient Type 0 blood it contains neither A or B antigens and is the universal donor AB blood does not contain antia and antib antigens and can in theory receive blood from any blood type so universal receiver How is blood typing performed in a lab Screen it for the presence of anti bodies that will react with certain serums Blood type genetics Hemolytic disease of the newbornHDN why is the firstborn baby unlikey to have HDN


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