Intro to Psychology
Intro to Psychology PSYC 1101
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This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Alize Rippin on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at Gordon College taught by Derek Marchman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/222101/psyc-1101-gordon-college in Psychlogy at Gordon College.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology Modules 5 amp 6 Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology Genes Our Codes for Life Twin and Adoption Studies Temperament and Heredity Nature and Nurture Gene Environment Interaction Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology Natural SelectiOn An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality Behavior Genetics Predicting Individual Differences Behavior Geneticists study our differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity and environment Genes Our C des for Life Chromosomes containing DNA deoxyg ribonucleic acid are situated in the nucleus of a cell Nucleus Chromosome the inner area of a cell that threadlike structure made houses chromosomes and largely of DNA molecules genes 7f Cell the basic structural unit of a living thing Genes Our gdes for Life Segments within DNA consist of genes that make proteins to determine our development threadlike structure made a spiraling complex molecule containing genes largely of DNA molecules segment of DNA containing the code for a particular protein determines our individual biological development Genome is the set of complete instructions for making an organism containing all the genes in that organism Thus the human genome makes us human and the genome for drosophila makes it a common house fly Twin and Adoption Studies Studying the effects of heredity and environment on two sets of twins identical and fraternal has Come in handy t 139 x Sameor Fraternal twm Separated Twins A number of studies compared identical twins reared separately from birth or close thereafter and found numerous similarities Separated Twins Personality Intelligence Abilities Attitudes Interests Fears Brain Waves Heart Rate l l a 4f 17 p v1 m L P 114 ii Ml Critics of separated twin studies note that such similarities can be found between strangers Researchers point out that differences between fraternal twins are greater than identical twins mtg mp9s qoa Bielegieal Versus Adoptive Relatives Adoption studies as Opposed to twin studies suggest that adoptees who may be biologically unrelated tend to be different from their adoptive parents and siblings i l 35 3W Adoptive studies strongly point to the simple fact that biologically related Children turn out to be different in a family So investigators ask Do siblings have differing experiences Do siblings despite sharing half of their genes have different combinations of the other half of their genes Ultimate question Does parenting have an effect Parenting does have an effect on biologically related and unrelated Children Parenting Influences Children s Attitudes Values Manners Beliefs Faith Politics Temperament and Heredity Temperament refers to a person s stable emotional reactivity and intensity Identical twins express similar temperaments suggesting heredity predisposes temperament Some human traits are fixed such as having two eyes However most psychological traits are liable to change with environmental experience Genes provide choices for the organism to change its form or traits when environmental variables change Therefore genes are pliable or self regulating a m U m a 3 Genes can influence traits which affect responses and environment can affect gene activity A genetic predisposition that makes a child restless and hyperactive evokes an angry response from his parents A stressful environment can trigger genes to manufacture neurotransmitters leading to depression Evolutionary Psychology Understanding Human Nature Evolutionary psychology studies why we as humans are alike In particular it studies the evolution of behavior and mind using principles of natural selection Natural Selection Natural selection is an evolutionary process through which adaptive traits are passed on to ongoing generations because these traits help animals survive and reproduce Artifieial Selection Biologists like Belyaev and Trut 1999 were able to artificially rear and domesticate wild foxes them for fril I traits 091758 6661 1511149138 1433 ng 11ml N39T I 7 39 I a Any trait that is favored naturally or artificially spreads to future generations A number of human traits have been identified as a result of pressures afforded by natural selection Why do infants fear strangers when they become mobile Why do people fear spiders and snakes and not electricity and guns How are men and women alike How and why do men s and women s sexuality differ Gender Differences in Sexuality Males and females to a large extent behave and think similarly Differences in sexes arise in regards to reproductive behaviors Question summarized Male Female Casual sex 58 34 Sex for affection 25 48 Think about sex everyday 54 19 if r m quotquot7 139 Wt w W til s z l a v 7 T c Evolutionary psychologists take a behavior and work backward to explain it in terms of natural selection Evolutionary psychology proposes genetic determinism and undercuts morality in establishing society Where genders are unequal gender preferences are wide but when they are closely equal preferences narrow down Evolutionary PS ChOlogiStS Reply Evolutionary psychologists argue that we need to test behaviors that expound evolutionary principles Evolutionary psychologists remind us how we have adapted but do not dictate how we ought to be Males and females are more alike than different and if we study these differences we can establish their causes Environmental Influences on Behavior Parents Peers Parents and Early Experiences We have looked at how genes influence our developmental differences What about the environment How do our early experiences our family our community and our culture affect these differences Experience and Brain Development V a Early postnatal experiences affect brain development Rosenzweig et al 1984 showed that rats raised in enriched environments developed thicker cortices than those in impoverished environment Experience 1 Faculties Early experiences ng development in humans show remarkable improvements in music languages and the arts aumg 393 go Asaimoa Brain Developing and Adulthood Brain development not stop when we reach adulthood Throughout our life brain tissue continues to grow and change 911591 pue JO 59111103 SOJOLI 11108 A welllearned ngertapping task leads to more motor cortical neurons right than baseline How Much Credit or Blame Do Parents eserve Parental influence is lary genetic This support is essential in nurturing children However other socializing factors also falay an important role Sweqms 391 Ianbiw Although raised the same famil r r 19 Peer Influence Children like adults attempt to fit into a group by conforming Peers are influential in such areas as learning to cooperate with others gaining popularity and developing interactions 516903119Z 3919510 Cultural Influences W w 33 ll Humans have the ability to evolve culture Culture is composed of behaviors ideas attitudes values and traditions shared by a group sigma5111qu 393 urAa1 Variation Across Culture Cultures differ Each culture develops norms rules for accepted and expected behavior Men holding hands in Saudi Arabia is the norm closer personal space but not in American culture srqlogsmmaa mega uosef Variation Time a t z 3 Bang Cultures change over time The rate of this change may be extremely fast In many Western countries culture has rapidly changed over the past 40 years or so This change cannot be attributed to changes in the human gene pool because genes evolve very slowly If a culture nurtures an individual s personal identity it is said to be individualist but if a group identity is favored then the culture is described as collectivist A collectivist support system can benefit groups who 39 experience disasters such as the39 2005 earthquake in Pakistan SMaN opozi1 Culture and the Self Q VALUE CONTRASTS BETWEEN INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM Concept Individualism Collectivism Self Independent identity from Interdependent identity from individual traits belonging Life task Discover and express one s Maintain connections fit in perform uniqueness role What matters Me personal achievement and Us group goals and solidarity ful llment rights and liberties social responsibilities and relation self esteem ships family duty Coping method Change reality Accommodate to reality Morality De ned by individuals self Defined by social networks duty based based Relationships Many often temporary or casu Few close and enduring harmony al confrontation acceptable valued Attributing behavior Behavior re ects one s person Behavior re ects socail norms and ality and attitudes roles Sources Adapted from Thomas Schoeneman 1994 and Harry Triandis 1994 Culture and hildRearing Individualist cultures European raise their Children as independent individuals whereas collectivist cultures Asian raise their children as interdependent q of ur 9112191an 950 Culture and ChildRearing 23 i u g Westernized Cultures AsianAfrican Cultures Responsible for your self Responsible to group Follow your conscience Priority to obedience Discover your gifts Be true to familyself Be true to yourself Be loyal to your group Be independent Be interdependent Developmental Similarities Across Groups Despite diverse cultural backgrounds humans are more similar than different in many ways We share the same genetic profile life cycle capacity for language and biological needs 11993 aAaig quIJCloa Gender Degyelopment M x it Based on genetic makeup males and females are alike since the majority of our inherited genes 45 chromosomes are unisex are similar Males and females differ biologically in body fat muscle height onset of puberty and life expectancy Gender Differenges in Aggression V Ri lgl V N I ll Men express themselves and behave in more aggressive ways than do women This aggression gender gap appears in many cultures and at various ages In males the nature of this aggression is physical Gender and Secial Power G In most societies men are socially dominant and are perceived as such In 2005 men accounted for 84 0f the governing parliaments Gender Differences and Connectedness Q Young and old womenwform more connections friendships with people than do men Men emphasize freedom and selfreliance saSeuq A1195 aSeu11 xaq Biology of Sex Biological sex is determin by the twentythird pair of chromosomes If the pair is XX a female is produced If the pair is XY a male child is produced V Y ChramosonIe i k Sexual Differentiation Sexual differentiation is not only biological but also psychological and social However genes and hormones play a very important role in defining gender especially in altering the brain and influencing gender differences as a result Gender Roles kv Our culture shapes our gender roles expectations of how men and women are supposed to behave Gender Identity means how a person Views himself or herself in terms of gender Gender Roles Theories a W i HI 1 all 1 Social Learning Theory proposes that we learn gender behavior like any other behavior reinforcement punishment and observation 2 Gender Schema Theory suggests that we learn a cultural recipe of how to be a male or a female which influences our gender based perceptions and behaviors Re ections on Nature and Nurture Biological in uences Shared human genome 0 Individual genetic variations Prenatal environment Sexrelated genes hormones and physiology Personal development I Socialcultural in uences 0 Parental in uences Peer in uences 0 Cultural individualism or collectivism 0 Cultural gender norms
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