Health & Wellness for Living
Health & Wellness for Living PHED 1001
Popular in Course
Popular in Physical Education
This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tommie Tremblay on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHED 1001 at Gordon College taught by Jeff White in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see /class/222103/phed-1001-gordon-college in Physical Education at Gordon College.
Reviews for Health & Wellness for Living
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/12/15
Emmanuel Amponsah Physical education 1001 What is wellness Pages 25 Wellness is the state of healthy living achieved by the practice of a healthy lifestyle which includes regular physical activity proper nutrition eliminating unhealthy behaviors and maintaining good emotional and spiritual health Total wellness can be achieved only by a balance of physical emotional intellectual spiritual social and environmental health The components of wellness do not work in isolation they interact strongly For example poor physical health can lead to poor emotional health What are the six of Wellness Physical Health Physical health refers to all the behaviors that keep your body healthy One of the Key aspects of maintaining a healthy body is physical fitness Physical fitness can have a positive effect on your health by reducing your risk of disease and improving your quality of life Getting proper nutrition performing selfexams and practicing personal safety are other important physical health behaviors Emotional Health7 Emotions play an important role in how you feel about yourself and others Emotional health also called mental health includes your social skills and interpersonal relationships Your level of selfesteem and your ability to cope with the routine stress of daily living are also aspects of emotional health Intellectual HealthiYou can maintain intellectual health by keeping your mind active through lifelong learning College is the ideal place to develop this wellness component partly because it exposes you to new ideas and ways of thinking about life Spiritual Health iThe term spiritual means different things to different people Most definitions of spiritual health include having a sense of meaning and purpose Many people define spiritual health according to their religious beliefs but it is not limited to religion People may also find meaning in helping others and being altruistic through prayer or enjoying the beauty of nature Whether you define spiritual health as religious beliefs or the establishment of personal values it is an important aspect of wellness is closely linked to emotional health and also in uences physical health Optimal spiritual health includes the ability to understand your basic purpose in life39 to experience love joy pain peace and sorrow and to care for and respect all living things Anyone who has experienced a beautiful sunset or smelled the first scents of spring can appreciate the pleasure of maintaining optimal spiritual health Social Healthisocial health is the development and maintenance of meaningful interpersonal relationships The result is the creation of a support network of friends and family Good social health helps you feel confident in social interactions and provides you with emotional security It is not necessarily the number Emmanuel Amponsah of people in your support network but the quality of those relationships that is important Being able to develop strong communication skills is one behavior that is crucial to maintain a strong social network Environmental Health7Environmental health is the in uence of the environment on your health as well as your behaviors that affect the condition of the environment Our environment can have a positive or negative impact on our total wellness For example air pollution and water contamination are two important environmental factors that can harm physical health What is exercise Physical activity 7 includes all physical movement regardless of the level of energy expenditure or the reason you do it Physical activity can be occupied lifestyle or leisure time Occupational activity is the activity that you carry out in the course of your job as for example a restaurant server or a construction worker Lifestyle activity includes housework walking to class or climbing the stairs to get to your apartment or dorm room Leisure time physical activity is any activity you choose to do in your free time Exercise 71s a type of Leisure time physical activity Virtually all conditioning activities and sports are considered exercise because they are planned and help maintain or improve physical fitness The main thing that distinguishes the exercise from other types of physical activity is that exercise is done specifically for health and fitness Cardiovascular disease CVD ie any ailment of the heart and blood vessels is a major cause of death in the United States In fact one of every three Americans dies CVD Regular physical activity and exercise can significantly for engaging in physical activity and exercise Leading Cause of death Diabetes 7 is a disease characterized by high blood pressure glucose levels Chronic elevation of blood glucose is associated with increased incidence of heart disease kidney disease nerve dysfunction and eye damage Osteoporosis 7Loss of bone mass and strength is called osteoporosis and it increases the risk of bone fractures Although osteoporosis can occur in men and women of all ages it is more common in older adults particularly women Exercise can improve bone health by strengthening your bones The mechanical force applied by muscular activity is a key factor in regulating bone mass and strength Five Major components of total health related physical tness Emmanuel Amponsah l Cardiorespiratory endurance 7 A measure of the heart s ability to pump oxygen 7 rich blood to the working muscles during exercise and of the muscles ability to take up and use the oxygen 2 Muscular strength 7 The maximal ability of a muscle to generate force 3 Muscular endurance 7 The ability of a muscle to generate a submaximal force over and over again 4 Flexibility 7The ability to move joints freely over and over again 5 Body composition 7 The relative amounts of fat and fat free tissue Muscle Organs bone found in the body 6 Stages of change Model 7 A framework for understanding how individuals move forward to adopt and maintaining health behavior changes Shaping 7 Breaking a behavior or task into small steps to accomplish the larger goal What is Health Literacy How is Health Literacy defined Why is Health Literacy so Important Health literacy 7 is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain process and understand basic health services needed to make appropriate health decisions Health literacy is dependent on communication skills cultural demands of healthcare systems and demands of the situation Being able to understand health information and make decisions from that information is vital to a person39s wellbeing Studies have shown a link between low literacy and poor health outcomes For example People with lower health literacy skills had a higher incidence of diabetesrelated problems Poor literacy was associated with a higher risk of hospital admission Low functional health literacy in women with diabetes was associated with factors that may negatively impact birth outcomes Inadequate health literacy was associated with poorer physical and mental health in older adults 51 61 De nitions Target behavior One well defined habit chosen as a primary focus for change Barriers to change 7 Stumbling blocks faced in the efforts to alter a current behavior Countering 7 Substituting a desired behavior for an undesirable one Journaling 7Keeping a written record of personal experiences interpretations and results Cardiovascular disease CVD 7 Any Disease that affects the heart or blood vessels Treatment of CVD 7 Catheterization 7 When stents are placed in the clogged arteries and hence allowing passage of blood Arteriosclerosis A group of diseases characterized by a narrowing or hardening of the arteries Atherosclerosis 7 A Special type of Arteriosclerosis that results in arterial blockage due to buildup of a fatty deposit called atherosclerotic plaque inside the blood vessel Emmanuel Amponsah Coronary heart disease CHD 7 Also called coronary artery disease the result of atherosclerotic plaque blocking one or more coronary arteries the blood vessels that supply the heart Heart Attack7 Stoppage of blood ow to the heart resulting in the death of heart cells also called myocardial infraction Stroke 7 Brain damage that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is reduced for a prolonged period of time Hypertension High blood pressure Arrhythmias An Irregular heartbeat Numbers for Hypertension High Cholesterol and Diabetes Hypertension Numbers Blood pressure over 140mm Hg systolic or 90mm Hg diastolic Normal blood pressure is lt120mg and lt 80 Prehypertension gt 130 or gt 85 Leads to Kidney Failure Blood vessel Damage Heart attack High cholesterol or Hygercholestermia LDL Low density lipoproteins Lipoproteins above 240 indicate high cholesterol Level LDL7 Bad 7 Considered High I Levels of ltl30 and lt100 mgdl or lower to be optimal for reducing the risk of developing CHD I Desirable total is lt 200 for HDL and LDL Levels I Levels above 190 and 160 indicate high risk of developing CHD I Developing diabetes 7 If one39s sugar level is above 200mgdl I lt1 10 is normal gt 126 if tested twice indicates Diabetes HDL high density lipoproteinsCholesterol 7 40 to 60 MGDl HDL 7 Good lt 40 Men lt 50 Women High density lipoproteins HDL a combination of protein fat and cholesterol in the blood composed of relatively large amounts of proteins Protects against the fatty plaque accumulation in the coronary arteries that lead to heart disease also called good cholesterol Diabetes 7is a disease that results in elevated blood sugar levels due to the body s inability to use blood sugar properly Diabetes occurs most often in middle age and is common in people who are overweight Occurs In the pancreas requires insulin Pre diabetes is equal to 100mg 125 mgdl Diabetes is a cholesterol level of over 200mgdl Diabetes can lead to Kidney failurequot r and 39 J lT p 39 7Low 1 p is a condition characterized by an abnormally low level of blood sugar glucose your body39s main energy source Hyperglycemia High blood sugar hyperglycemia affects people who have diabetes Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes including food and physical activity choices illness no diabetes medications or not taking enough glucoselowering medication Emmanuel Amponsah Cholesterol 7 cholesterol is a type of lipid that can either be consumed in foods or be synthesized in the body and it is a primary risk factor for CHD Comes from the Liver Moves fat to other parts of the body 7 uses blood vessels to transport highway system Hypertensi0n7 High blood pressure Hypertension is unique because it is both a disease in its own right and a risk factor for stroke and CHD It contributes to CHD by accelerating the rate of Atherosclerosis development Causes include high sodium intake 75 90 what Happens To the Cardiorespiratory system with exercise with exercise and training Cardiorespiratory System7 The Cardio respiratory system is made up of your cardiovascular system heart blood and blood vessels and your respiratory system lungs Together they provide the body with oxygen and nutrients and remove unwanted waste products Both systems are needed for aerobic activity So keep moving to help keep your body moving in a healthy direction Cardiorespiratory endurance 7 is the ability to perform aerobic exercises for a prolonged period of time Aerobic exercise 7 A common term to describe all forms of exercises that primarily use the aerobic energy system that are designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness V02Max 7 The maximum amount of oxygen the body can take in and use during exercise Pulmonary circuit 7 The vascular system that circulates blood from the right side of the heart through the lungs and back to the left side of the heart Systemic circuit 7 The vascular system that circulates blood from the left side of the heart throughout the body and back to the right side of the heart Arteries 7 The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body Veins 7 The blood vessels that transport blood towards the heart Capillaries 7 Thin 7walled vessels that permit the exchange of gases oxygen and carbon dioxide and nutrients between the blood and tissues Stroke volume 7 The amount of blood that is pumped with each heartbeat Cardiac output7The amount of blood that is pumped per minute Alveoli7 Tiny air sacs in the lungs that receive carbon dioxide and other wastes from oxygendepleted blood Adenosine triphosphate 7 A high 7 energy compound that is synthesized and stored in small quantities in muscle and other cells The breakdown of ATP results in a release of energy that can be used to fuel muscular contraction Manufactured in the mitochondria Anaerobic 7 Without oxygen in cells pertains to biochemical pathways do not require oxygen to produce energy Aerobic With Oxygen in cells pertains to biochemical pathways that use oxygen to produce energy Glycolysis 7 A process during which carbohydrates are broken down in cells Much of anaerobic ATP production in muscle cells occurs during glycolysis Emmanuel Amponsah Lactic Acid 7 A by 7 Product of glucose metabolism produced primarily during intense exercise ie greater than 5060 of maximal aerobic capacity In lg l l During an exercise session and after a regular exercise program your Cardio respiratory system undergoes several responses and adaptations Responses The changes that occur during exercise to help you meet the demands of the exercise session These changes return to normal levels shortly after the exercise sessions Adaptations Semi Permanent Changes that occur over time with regular exercise Adaptations can be reversed when a regular exercise program is stopped for an extended period of time 15 Mile run test One of the simplest and most accurate assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness Cycle ergometer It is a stationary exercise cycle that provides pedaling resistance so the amount of work can be measured Training threshold The training intensity above which there is an improvement in cardio fitness this intensity is approximately 50 of V02max Target Heart Rate THR 7 The range of heart rates that corresponds to an exercise intensity of approximately 50 85 V02max This is the range of training heart rates that result in improvements in aerobic capacity Heart Rate Reserve The difference between your maximal heart rate and resting heart rate Borg Rating of perceived Exertion RPE A subjective way of estimating exercise intensity based on a numerical scale of 6 to 20 Cross Training The use of a variety of activities for training the cardiorespiratory system Maximum Heart Rate Your maximum heart rate MHR is the fastest rate at which your heart will be in one minute Resting Heart Rate Resting heart rate RHR refers to the number of times your heart beats in one minute while at rest The average RHR is 7080 beats per minute BPM though athletes may have resting heart rates as low as 40 50 BPM RHR is often a measure of fitness as you become fit your RHR will decrease as your heart becomes more efficient If your resting heart rate is 100 or more BPM that may a sign of a problem and you should see your doctor 1 Five primagy risk factors for developing cancer 1 Tobacco 2 Genetics 3 Environmental Factors P Unsafe Sex 5 Sun Exposer 2 Cancer that is frequenth diagnosed in Male and females Emmanuel Amponsah Men 7 Prostate Cancer l in 6 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime 7 a new case is diagnosed every 21 minutes A man dies from prostate cancer every 18 minutes The normal prostate is a small squishy gland about the size of a walnut It sits under the bladder and in front of the rectum Women Breast cancer Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast There are two main types of breast cancer Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes ducts that move milk from the breast to the nipple 3 Top Cancer killers of males and females 1 Lung Cancer 2 Colon Cancer 3 Breast Cancer 4 Pancreatic Cancer 5 Prostate Cancer 4 Early Detection Screens Signs and Symptoms for the Following cancers A Breast Cancer Detection Screens 7 Mammography7 the study of the breast using x ray The actual test is called a mammogram There are two types of mammograms A screening mammogram is ordered for women who have no problems with their breasts Physical examination Signs amp Symptoms l Swelling of all or part of a breast even if no distinct lump is felt 2 Skin irritation or dimpling 3 Breast or nipple pain 4 Nipple retraction turning inward 5 Redness scaliness or thickening of the nipple or breast skin 6 Nipple discharge other than breast milk Risk Factors 1 Gender 7 Simply being a woman is the main risk factor for developing breast cancer 2 Aging 7 Risk of developing Breast Cancer increases as you get older 3 Genetic risk factors 7 Genes might play a vital role in a woman developing Breast Cancer 4 Dense Breast Tissue B Lung Cancer Detection Screens CT screening can reduce mortality from lung cancer shown recently with the results of the National Lung Screening Trial or N39LST Currently when patients undergo a CT scan it s possible to see a problem spot such as a lung nodule but difficult to determine whether or not it is cancer Signs and symptoms 1 A new cough that doesn39t go away 2 Changes in a chronic cough or quotsmoker s cough 3 Coughing up blood even a small amount 4 Shortness of breath Emmanuel Amponsah 5 Chest pain 6 Wheezing 7 Hoarseness 8 Losing weight without trying 9 Bone pain 10 Headache Risk Factors 1 Smoking and Secondhand Smoke 2 Exposer at Home and work that May Cause Lung Cancer C Prostate Cancer Detection Screens iPSA test 7 The PSA test is used primarily to screen for prostate cancer A PSA test measures the amount of prostatespecific antigen PSA in your blood PSA is a protein produced in the prostate a small gland that sits below a man39s bladder Signs and Symptoms 1 Trouble urinating 2 Decreased force in the stream of urine 3 Blood in the urine 4 Blood in the semen 5 Swelling in the legs 6 Discomfort in the pelvic area 7 Bone pain Risk Factors 1 Older age Prostate cancer is most common in men older than 65 2 Being black Black men have a greater risk of prostate cancer than do men of other races In black men prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced 3 Family history of prostate cancer If men in your family have had prostate cancer your risk may be increased 4 Obesity Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely to have advanced disease that39s more difficult to treat D Colon Cancer Definition Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by outofcontrol cell growth and colon cancer forms when this uncontrolled cell growth initiates with cells in the large intestine It is a tumor in the large intestines Emmanuel Amponsah Detection Screens 7 colonoscopy 7A colonoscopy is a procedure where a long flexible tube with a camera on one end is inserted into the rectum to inspect the inside of the colon If polyps are found in the colon they are removed and sent to a pathologist for biopsy an examination under a microscope that is used to detect cancerous or precancerous cells Signs and Symptoms Diarrhea or constipation Changes in stool consistency Narrow stools Rectal bleeding or blood in the stool l 2 3 4 5 Pain cramps or gas in the abdomen 6 Pain during bowel movements 7 Continual urges to defecate 8 Weakness or fatigue 9 Unexplained weight loss 10 Irritable bowel syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome comm only causes cramping abdominal pain bloating gas diarrhea and constipation 11 Iron deficiency anemia Risk Factors 1 Age over 50 7 colon cancer is more likely to occur as people get older More than 90 percent of people with this disease are diagnosed after age 50 2 Colon polyps 7 Polyps are growths on the inner wall of the colon or rectum They are common in people over age 50 Most polyps are benign not cancer but some polyps adenomas can become cancer 3 Family history of colon cancer 7 Close relatives parents brothers sisters or children of a person with a history of colon cancer are somewhat more likely to develop this disease themselves especially if the relative had the cancer at a young age 4 Genetic alterations 7 Changes in certain genes increase the risk of colon cancer 5 Diet and Lifestyle 7 studies suggest that diets high in red meat and fat especially animal fat and low in calcium folate and fiber may increase the risk of colon cancer 6 Cigarette smoking A person who smokes cigarettes may be at increased risk of developing polyps and colon cancer E Skin Cancer What is skin cancer Emmanuel Amponsah Skin cancer is the abnormal growth of skin cells 7 most often develops on skin exposed to the sun But this common form of cancer can also occur on areas of your skin not ordinarily exposed to sunlight Three major types of skin Cancer Basal Cell Squamous Cell Melanoma I Basal Cell 7 Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma begins in the basal cells a type of cell within the skin that produces new skin cells as old ones die off Detection Screening 7 Stay away from the sun The sun emits Gamma XRays Ultraviolet through visible and infrared Cover up Signs and Symptoms 1 An Open Sore 7 An open sore that bleeds oozes or crusts and remains open for a few weeks only to heal up and then bleed again 2 A Reddish Patch 7 A reddish patch or irritated area frequently occurring on the face chest shoulders arms or legs 3 A shiny Bump 0r Nodule 7 A shiny bump or nodule that is pearly or translucent and is often pink red or white Can be confused with a mole 4 A Pink Growth 7 A pink growth with a slightly elevated rolled border and a crusted indentation in the center As the growth slowly enlarges tiny blood vessels may develop on the surface 5 A Scarlike Area A scarlike area that is white yellow or waxy and often has poorly defined borders the skin itself appears shiny and taut This warning sign may indicate the presence of an invasive BCC that is larger than it appears to be on the surface I Sguamous cell 7 Squamous cell carcinoma begins in a different layer of the epidermis It is not as common as basal cell carcinoma and is typically found in places exposed to sunlight like the face or neck People who have fair skin light hair and blue green or gray eyes are at highest risk of developing the disease Detection Screening 7 Stay away from the sun The sun emits Gamma XRays Ultraviolet through visible and infrared Cover up Wear sun screen Signs and Symptoms l A bump or lump on the skin that can feel rough 2 As the bump or lump grows it may become domeshaped or crusty and can bleed 3 A sore that doesn t heal or heals and returns 4 Flat reddish scaly patch that grows slowly Bowen s disease 5 In rare cases SCC begins under a nail which can grow and destroy the nail Melanoma 7 Melanoma is a potentially dangerous type of skin cancer It is diagnosed less frequently than other types of skin cancer nonmelanoma skin cancer but has the ability to spread very quickly Melanoma most o en begins on the skin but can develop on the other parts of the body such as under ngernails toenails and the eyeball Detection Screening 7 Stay away from the sun The sun emits Gamma XRays Ultraviolet through visible and infrared Cover up Wear sun screen Emmanuel Amponsah Signs and Symptoms Anyone can get melanoma It s important to take time to look at the moles on your skin because this is a good way to find melanoma early When checking your skin you should look for the ABCDEs of melanoma N 9 He 5quot Asymmetry Normal moles or freckles are completely symmetrical If you were to draw a line through a normal spot you would have two symmetrical halves In cases of skin cancer spots will not look the same on both sides Border A mole or spot with blurry andor jagged edges Color A mole that is more than one hue color or shade is suspicious and needs to be evaluated by a doctor Normal spots are usually one color This can include lightening or darkening of the mole Diameter If the mole is larger than a pencil eraser about 14 inch or 6mm it needs to be examined by a doctor This includes areas that do not have any other abnormalities color border and asymmetry Evolution Evolution refers to change and in the case of melanoma change to existing moles Looking for changes in the size symmetry border F Testicular Cancer Definition Testicular cancer is a disease in which cells become malignant cancerous in one or both testicles Detection Screening Most testicular cancers can be found at an early stage In some men early testicular cancers cause symptoms that prompt them to call their doctor Most of the time a lump on the testicle is the first sign But some testicular cancers don39t cause symptoms until they have reached an advanced stage Sometimes testicular cancer is found during testing for other problems For instance fertility tests sometimes find testicular cancer Signs and Symptoms OPOSQEJ HeP N A lump or swelling in a testicle painless Pain in a testicle or scrotum Discomfort in a testicle or scrotum A sensation of heaviness in the scrotum A dull ache in the lower back A dull ache in the groin A dull ache in the abdomen A sudden accumulation of uid in the scrotum Unexplained tiredness or malaise Risk Factors The exact causes of testicular cancer are not known However studies have shown that several factors increase a man39s chance of developing this disease Emmanuel Amponsah l Undescended testicle testicle that does not move down into the scrotum 2 Congenital abnormalities en born with abnormalities of the testicles penis or kidneys as well as those with inguinal hernia hernia in the groin area where the thigh meets the abdomen may be at increased risk 3 History of testicular cancer Men who have had testicular cancer are at increased risk of developing cancer in the other testicle 4 Family history of testicular cancer The risk for testicular cancer is greater in men whose brother or father has had the disease G Cervical Cancer Definitioni Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix i the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina Detection Screening The Pap test or Pap smear looks for precancers cell changes on the cervix that might become cervical cancer if they are not treated appropriately Signs and Symptoms l Vaginal bleeding after intercourse between periods or after menopause 2 Watery bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor 3 Pelvic pain or pain during intercourse Risk Factors 1 Many sexual partners 2 Early sexual activity 3 Other sexually transmitted infections STIs 4 A weak immune system Emmanuel Amponsah H Pancreatic Cancer Definition 7 Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissues of your pancreas i an organ in your abdomen that lies horizontally behind the lower part of your stomach Your pancreas secretes enzymes thataid and hormones that help regulate the metabolism of sugars Detection Screening Computed tomography CT scan A scanner takes multiple Xray pictures and a computer reconstructs them into detailed images of the inside of the abdomen A CT scan helps doctors make a pancreatic cancer diagnosis Signs and Symptoms 1 Upper abdominal pain that may radiate to your back 2 Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes jaundice 3 Loss of appetite 4 Weight loss 5 Depression 6 Blood clots m l Being Afric anAm erican 2 Being overweight or obese 3 Chronic in ammation of the pancreas pancreatitis 4 Diabetes 5 Family history of genetic syndromes that can increase cancer risk including a BRCAZ gene mutation Lynch syndrome and familial atypical molem alignant melanoma F AMMIVI 6 Personal or family history of pancreatic cancer 7 Smoking 6 Cancer Terms A Metastasisi cancer cells that have spread to one or more sites elsewhere in the body often by way of the lymph system or bloodstream Regional or local metastasis is cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes tissues or organs close to where the cancer started the primary site Distant metastasis is cancer that has spread to organs or tissues that are farther away such as when lung cancer spreads to the brainThe plural of this word is metastases Emmanuel Amponsah B Tumor an abnormal lump or mass of tissue Tumors can be benign not cancer or malignant C BenignMalignant 7 Benign an abnormal growth that is not cancer and does not spread to other areas of the body Malignant Cancerous dangerous or likely to cause death if untreated D Carcinomas a cancer that begins in the lining layer epithelial cells of organs At least 80 of all cancers are carcinomas E Sarcomas a cancer that starts in connective tissue such as cartilage fat muscle or bone F Lymphoma a cancer of the lymphatic system a network of thin vessels and nodes throughout the body that helps to fight infection Lymphoma involves the type of white blood cells called lymphocytes The 2 main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin disease and nonHodgkin lymphoma G Leukemia cancer of the blood or bloodforming organs There are 2 major classes of leukemia myeloid and nonmyeloid types People with leukemia often have a very high number of white blood cells leukocytes H Survival Rate the percentage of people still alive within a certain period of time after diagnosis or treatment For cancer a 5year survival rate is often given This does not mean that people can t live more than 5 years nor does it mean that those who live for 5 years are permanently cured I Carcinogen any substance that causes cancer or helps cancer grow For example tobacco smoke contains many carcinogens that greatly increase the risk of lung cancer and many other types of cancer J Angiogenesis the formation of new blood vessels Some cancer treatments work by blocking angiogenesis which helps keep blood from reaching feeding the tumor K Pap smear a test in which cells are scraped from a woman s cervix and looked at under a microscope to see if abnormal cells are present Human papillomavirus HPV testing is often done at the same time and a pelvic examination is usually done as well but these are not part of the Pap test L Oncology the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer 1 Pound of fat 3500 Calories Nutrition 7 The study of food and the way the body uses it to produce energy and build or repair body tissues Nutrients 7 Substances in food that are necessary for good health Micronutrients 7 Carbohydrates fats and proteins which are necessary for building and maintaining body tissues and providing energy for daily activities Kilocalorie 7 The unit of measure used to quantify food energy expended by the body Technically a kilocalorie is the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 Celsius The term kilocalorie and calorie are often used interchangeably Carbohydrate 7 A micronutrient that is a key energy source for muscular contraction Glucose 7 A Simple Carbohydrate sugar that can be used directly by the body All other carbohydrates must be converted to glucose before being used for fuel Emmanuel Amponsah Glycogen 7 The storage form of glucose in the liver and skeletal muscles Fats triglycerides The form of lipid that is broken down in the body and used to produce energy to power muscle contractions during exercise Polyunsaturated fatty acids are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond chain of carbon atoms Fatty acids supply energy for the muscles heart and other organs They also aid in the formation of cell membranes and supply energy for the storage of fat Polyunsaturated fatty acids are quotgoodquot fatty acids that have many health benefits when used to replace saturated fatty acids m I Fish such as salmona albacore tuna and sardines I Walnuts I Flax seed oil I Fish oil supplements Monounsaturated fats 7 From a chemical standpoint monounsaturated fats are simply fats that have one double bonded unsaturated carbon in the molecule Monounsaturated fats are typically liquid at room temperature but start to turn solid when chilled Olive oil is an example of a type of oil that contains monounsaturated fats m I Canola oil I Peanut oil I Olives I Olive oil I Avocados I Seeds such as saf ower sun ower and pumpkin I Most nuts such as almonds cashews and peanuts I Almond butter peanut butter and cashew butter Both Monounsaturated Fats and Polyunsaturated fats are found in plants 7 including nuts seeds grains and vegetable oils Also called unsaturated fats all together Monounsaturated fats lower LDL and polyunsaturated fats lower LDL and HDL Saturated Fatty Acid A type of fatty acid that comes primarily from animal sources and is liquid at room temperature TransFatty Acids Atype of fatty acid that increases cholesterol in the blood and is a major contributor to heart disease Omega3 fatty acid A type of unsaturated fatty acid that lowers both blood cholesterol and triglyceridesand is found abundantly in some fish Reduces the risk of developing heart disease Emmanuel Amponsah Proteins are large molecules consisting of amino acids which our bodies and the cells in our bodies need to function properly Amino Acids 7 The building blocks of protein There are 20 different amino acids that can be linked in various combinations to create different proteins Essential amino acids The nine amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body and must therefore be consumed in the diet Nonessential amino acids Eleven amino acids that the body can make and therefore not necessary in the diet Complete proteins 7proteins containing all the essential amino acids found only in soy and animal foods meats and dairy products Incomplete proteins 7 Proteins that are missing one or more of the essential amino acids found in plants sources such as nuts and legumes Complex carbohydrates 7 Long chains of sugar units linked together to form starch or fiber Simple Carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates are composed of l or 2 sugar units that are broken down and digested quickly which can leave you feeling tired hungry and craving more sugar shortly after you ve eaten Fiber Soluble Viscous fiber found in oats barley peas and citrus fruits 7 dissolves in water Insoluble fiber 7 Type of fiber found in Whole Wheat and vegetables Does not dissolve in water