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Introduction Forensic Science

by: Candace Oberbrunner

Introduction Forensic Science BIOL 245

Marketplace > Guilford College > Biology > BIOL 245 > Introduction Forensic Science
Candace Oberbrunner

GPA 3.98

Frank Keegan

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Frank Keegan
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Candace Oberbrunner on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 245 at Guilford College taught by Frank Keegan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/222111/biol-245-guilford-college in Biology at Guilford College.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Exam 3 Preparation Introduction to Forensics BIOL 245 Topics covered Forensic Serology Sexual Assault Evidence Forensic DNA Analysis Fingerprints Laboratories covered Lab Blood Typing Paternity Testing and the Product Rule Lab Sexual Assault Crime Scenes Lab DNA Pro ling Lab Fingerprint Characteristics Lab Fingerprint Lifting 1 Fingerprint ridges are surface re ections of the speci c skin structural feature 2 In humans genes are positioned along berlike strands known as 3 In some state courts for a positive identi cation ngerprint points must match out of a total of of minutiae per print 4 To develop ngerprints on a mirror surface one should use because 5 Two methods for developing latent ngerprints on absorbent surfaces are and 6 Two methods for developing latent ngerprints on nonabsorbent surfaces are and 7 The most de nitive way to demonstrate that a sexual assault has taken place is to identify the presence of 8 Three organs that contribute to the composition of seminal uid are and 9 A colorimetric test for the enzyme produced by the can be used as a presumptive test for seminal uid 10 The Florence Test is a microcrystalline test for which provides presumptive evidence of 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 In addition to blood two body uids that can be used for blood typing are and A ngerprint left in a pool of fresh blood would be known as a print The distinguishing characteristics of a central pocket loop are The most common ngerprint patterns are of the type The ngerprint pattern known as does not have a delta The ninhydrin reagent is used for Draw the structure of the ninhydrin molecule An ulnar loop on the right middle nger can be identi ed by The secretions of reagent glands can be detected by the ninhydrin At a crime scene an example of a Visible print might be A secretor is an 39 39 who In our forensic DNA ngerprinting lab DNA fragments were separated in type of gel such that after electrophoresis the fragments that remained closer to the well were known to be A to the fragments that migrated farther from the well If a fresh blood sample is found to clumpagglutinate both washed puri ed Type A and Type B cells the fresh blood sample is Type In gel electrophoresis the driVing force for the separation of mixtures of molecules is The possible genotypes of the offspring resulting from a mating of a Type AB father and a Type AB mother are The structure of DNA requires the pairing of base A to and base C to A newspaper pro le of the Unabomber suspect referred to him as a most intelligent criminal who knew how to avoid detection because he did not lick the stamps he used on his mail bombs Explain this statement 27 28 29 40 41 Ifthe probeprimer used in a forensic PCR analysis had the base sequence rTCT CCT TCAG the sequence of the DNA sample to which it would bind is The National DNA Database is maintained by Forensic investigators would search for a cold hit match in CODIS when Possible genotypes for a person who is blood type A are and This person s phenotype is Genotypes for the MN blood typing system are easy to obtain because the alleles are The products of the genes of the MN and Rh blood typing systems are The product of the Type A allele is The four nucleotide building blocks of DNA are and Brie y describe the structure of the hereditary molecule that governs each individual s characteristics De ne Base Pair Humans have of building blocks pairs of 39 which together contain De ne Gene De ne Allele give an example and explain The use of polymorphic forensic markers is important because Genes make up of the total human genome 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 N L gt U 0 l 00 0 0 N L In a gel electropherogram of DNA heterozygosity at a forensic locus 717 2 is indicated by refer to diagram at right O thd fDNA tr t39 d 39f39 t39 f 39 ne me o 0 ex ac ion an puri ica ion rom crime scene samples involves the use of the chemicals The amount of DNA needed for an STR analysis is give unis A mL of saliva has more less DNA than a 1 cm2 bloodstain De ne PCR Primer Define CODIS Define STR Multiplexing De ne Allelic Ladder In the analysis of the blood collected at the murder scene of Nicole Simpson and Ron Goldman the following blood factors were identified Blood Factor Freguency in the African American Population A 26 EsD l 85 PGM 22 2 What is the expected frequency of this combination of blood factors among the African American population Show your calculations A fresh blood sample of bloodtype 0 would agglutinate purified blood cells of type ecause The proper storage of suspected seminal stains from a sexual assault crime scene is Blood stained evidence from a crime scene should be kept out of direct sunlight because be specific 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Forensic DNA markers must be inherited independently of each other because In forensic analysis multiplexing means In forensic STR DNA analysis the forensic alleles are separated according to Four specific CODIS loci are and Two requirements for the function of the enzyme DNA polymerase are and A man ofblood type B is being sued for child support by a woman of blood type 0 The child is blood type 0 The man denies paternity however a DNA profile shows that he is the father Provide the genotypes of each parent and the child Father Mother Child The repeat size for forensic STR markers is give units A fresh blood sample of blood type A would agglutinate purified blood cells of type because The distinguishing characteristics of a fingerprint radial loop are Two characteristics of the primers used in STR DNA profiling are and The secretions of glands can be detected by iodine fuming Noncoding sequences make up of the total human genome In the analysis of the blood collected at a murder scene the following blood factors were identified Blood Factor Freguency in relevant Population A 6 AK2 7 Rh negative 14 THOl 3 What is the expected frequency of this combination of blood factors in the relevant population Show your calculations Essay Questions Essay answers must be written in coherent paragraphs using acceptable English and spelling Be sure your responses are logical and detailed Accompany your responses with labeled drawings as appropriate a Describe the components of the ABO blood typing system What are antisera What type of antisera are needed to determine all of the ABO blood types Explain Describe and explain the AbsorptionElution Technique for typing dried bloodstains this is not the method we used in the lab Explain how information about blood types is useful to the forensic investigator Use an example to illustrate Describe the different types of ngerprint patterns Use labeled drawings to illustrate your descriptions What is the relative distribution of these patterns in the population Draw and label ve different types of points that might be used in a ngerprint identi cation Describe and explain one chemical method for developing latent ngerprints on absorbent surfaces You are the Crime Scene Technician called to the scene of a burglary where computers and other of ce equipment have been removed by the burglars An unknown number of burglars jimmied the lock on the of ce door from the common building hallway Describe your plan for gathering evidence at the crime scene What materials will you use Why Describe the mode of action of the reagents you would use How might you determine the number of burglars Suppose that you have lifted some ngerprints at the scene Use diagrams to illustrate how you will classify each ngerprint A er an AFIS search one of the ngerprints that you lifted comes back as a possible match Illustrate how you would make a pointbypoint comparison to positively identify the burglar Describe forensic DNA Pro ling with STRs What are STRs What is an STR pro le What criteria must forensic markers meet in order to be used in forensic pro ling What procedures are used to analyze a suspect s DNA for the determination of an STR pro le What is the CODIS database How is it used In some detail describe the molecular changes that occur during the various steps of the polymerase chain reaction Provide the reagents needed for each step and the temperatures used in each step Accompany your description with a series of labeled diagrams that illustrate the mechanism of the polymerase chain reaction


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