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Week 5 notes

by: Isaac Byrd

Week 5 notes HIST 1100 - 01

Isaac Byrd
American History to 1865
Benjamin Park

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American History to 1865
Benjamin Park
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isaac Byrd on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1100 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Benjamin Park in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see American History to 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Isaac Byrd 82515 American History Things to know Bering Straight Connects Asia to America 2500bc 800bc Was an ice bridge Paeolndians First people that discover the Americas by crossing the bearing straight Live in small groups of 15 50 people A reason why they cam over to America was for a large population of game animals to eat 23 of these large animals died within the rst 1000 years By 9000 bc people reached the southern tip of south America They kept moving due to weather In 500 bc people north of rio grand river could grow consistent crops Mound Builders settled the Mississippi river and valley Used river for trade routes Name refers to large burial mounds they build Their area became the biggest population in North America the largest being Cahokia 6 square miles and temples Fell apart in 13th century The great league of peace A number of tribes formed together to have a peaceful relationship and trade with one another Tribes that the British would work with north east America Resulted in a more of a civilized impression by Europeans Animism Connection between spirituality and land Everything has a spirit Manitou A spiritual life force founded in animate and inanimate life forms How many Indian and European communities similar on the eve of contact In what ways were they different How did Natives and Europeans view the environment differently Europeans viewed Native Americans as if they needed their help on civilizing They wanted to in uence culture and religion Common things between Natives and Europeans Weather impacted their lives Centralized powers and made them matter A sense of development in these situations Both civilizations practiced slavery in different forms Both were strongly religious Connection to politics You have wars between competing groups tribes nations and empires Differences native Americans Did not seek Women took a role in society Unassigned land was for everyone No ones owned land Wealth was not primary power indicator Lazier was power Sexual relations varied amongst tribes but in general there was more emphasis placed on family structures and broader balance Natives lack technology needed for war steel gun powder Didn t want to expand into new culture and other people Europeans were much more immune to foreign sicknesses Were more tuned to spirituality As a result of these differences the Europeans thought that the Natives were uncivilized and ignorant with the land Differences in tribes West Based around cannons of southwest East Much more closely aligned to empires Held political relations and much more war like Merged around 1500 North East League Week 2 Notes 831 Key Terms 0 Prince Ferdinand and Queen lsabella marriage that could create Spain 0 Demographic Decimation 0 Columbus Was not the scienti c modernist Devoutly religious and spiritual and his reasoning for exploring was to spread Christianity Was an experienced mariner Started around 1484 to nd a route to India appointed by god The trip was too expensive so he had to get money from Portugal and Spain Assumed Asia was 3500 miles away On 1492 he left with 3 ships and 19 men Followed trade route to Canary Islands and took 35 days to reach the Caribbean The landscape was the most impressive things to him He left 33 men went back to spain and spread the word Was published Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 something declared by the pope that left America to Spain and Africa to Portugal The Spanish empire then started to discover 0 How did the Canary Islands prepare Europeans to colonize America See listed notes below 0 Why do historians now use the term contact instead of discovery when talking about the early period Discovery assumed that it is the rst time that anyone has found it and contact is the rst contact between two different civilizations How did American colonization change the global economy Created a trade that connected Europe to America to Africa Colonial outposts Also rami cation of land being taken from natives and slavery started 0 In what ways was American colonization related to the scienti c revolution The premodern renaissance Coming up with new technology that helped them dominate Why were native populations decimated in such large numbers Disease caused them because they did not live in city environments and they didn t have trade from all of the world Domestication of animals spread disease Also large groups of dirty Europeans came This meant that they didn t have people that could take care of them resulting in more deaths The islands that Columbus encountered dropped from 1 million to nothing in half of a centry Mexico lost an estimated 90 of its population The North American Natives went from dozens of millions to a couple hundred thousands Half in a decade 50 years lead to 10 population 1500ad 50 million natives Europeans didn t want to kill off them because they used them for slavery Was not intentional The loss of Native populations resulted in the increase in imports from Africa Vegetation also changed New species came in contact with others Resulted in new crops that could be grown there that they couldn t grow in Europe Cross polarization was then created Pagues killed of a great population of explorers They thought the romans and Greeks had already explored the world The inability of Europe to trade with the middle east caused them to explore new trade routes First they wanted to explore Africa because they could dominate and take over but they failed while attempting Whie exploring they found the Canaries lslands Learned some things while exploring 1 It taught them how to handle prolong voyages Between spain and Portugal 2 Tested steel weapons mounted men and war dogs 3 Learned how to exploit local rivalries as well as introducing new sicknesses 4 They developed a slave trade 5 They discovered how to used counterclock wise winds that were necessary for crossing the Atlantic The depopulation of America started happening 82 Key terms 0 Tenochtitlan Aztec city Large native settlement One of the largest in the Americas Present day mexico city 200000 people Dominant in warfare Fell to cortez and his followers The Spanish had steel guns horses disease The natives had enemies also Conquistadores Private enterprises let by independent military contractors in pursuit of pro t They would give two options join Christianity or die Colonists are young men that moved to new world to nd new opportunities Bartolome de Las Casas Explorer that was religious and made a book that opened the eyes of people to realized the natives were being treated wrong Says that the Spanish are degrading religion As a result Spain outlaws lndian slavery Franciscan Missions Jesuits Devout religious purposes Wanted to convert natives Wanted a prosperous civilization The natives then joined communities and got access to steel and other weaponry that bene ted them Also caused con icts between native tribes that had different views 0 quotBlack Legendquot Spanish were way more cruel and more destructive than other Europeans in their treatment of Indians 0 Mestizos Mix between colonists and native Americans Outnumbered the native population by the 18th century As a result they established a new dominant race New spain became very rich Castas pure blooded new race Indians on bottom mixed in middle Spanish on top Pueblo Revolt 1680 in Sante Fe Reveled how the Spanish could have a step back at any moment Also showed how tribes could have unity language enemies the tribes then gained con dence to attack their enemies Natives began to doubt that the Christian gods could not save them As a result 400 spanish are killed including 2 dozen missionaries Spain was then kicked out of Mexican territory Even though the Spanish would eventually take back over they had a different relationship 0 How di the Spanish Empire justify their colonization Why were Spanish armies able to conquer native cities 0 What were the chief features of the French and Dutch empires in North America 0 How did different colonial powers interact with Indian Populations How did those approaches change over time 0 Compare and Contrast the institution of Calvary in two different colonial societies Empires are very occulating Different empires had different approaches on ways to conquer They would also progress Spanish rst to the land First to go inland to explore Started in 1493 by Columbus with 17 ships and 1200 men When arrived discovered the natives killed the small town already created Used this as an excuse to wage war In 1495 Columbus shipped 1500 captives to spain for sale Distributed them between plantations and sex slave places In 1500 they discovered it was its own continent Columbus lost his ego Christianity dominated rather than muslim In 1502 Nicalus established the rst European colony 300000 people to 33000 to 500 over the years Spain then wanted to spread wealth and religion IN 1508 45 ships made trips to Caribbean In 1918 Magellan nally went all the way around the world They began to steal the goods that were being shipped back to spain The Spanish then made large convoys and military trips so they could secure the food This became too expensive Resulted in moving further inland Leaders like Cabeza de Vaca Was able to transform Spanish policy Another explorer that was also religious was Bartolome de las casas By 1600 new spain was the most dominant power in the world Less slaves in new spain that were imported New spain was close to the Catholic church French Sparked by jealousy the French wanted to set up trade towns just to get things back to france They moved far away from spain to Canada They focused on fur and sh France focused on water rivers great lakes and eventually Mississippi river Didn t build structures or towns just used random people to get trade connections Started to change in 1863 when rich people were able to buy land Relied on trade not agriculture Began to make relationships with natives Allowed full citizenship to whoever would convert to their religion Natives then gained access to guns and steel and alcohol Dutch new Netherlands Not the most powerful but was the richest Amsterdam was like a modern day NYC Had center for art Their attempts to colonize were limited Went to around the new yorkjersey area Became the Atlantic slave trade Granted slaves property rights and freedoms No forced religion Never became large Held good relations that other didn t have 9915 Key terms Virginia Company Lead by wealthy people pushing colonization Allowed by royals to have a colony In rst year 38100 survived Searched for buried treasures rather than planting Encounters with native Americans started off with them trying to pro t each other Wanted boundaries between groups Not many attempts to convert na ves Roanoke in 1585 Sir Walter sent 100 colonists on a ship to pirate the Spanish Safe from Spanish but horrible for crops Expected natives to feed them and provide for them Second attempt in 1587 had 17 women and 9 children Left there and when returned only thing to be found was a word on a tree croatin Jamestown rst successful development Fertile land Crops and animals Natives were not happy with new settlers Powhatan In the Jamestown area Leader of 30 tribes They worked to prepare for the winter Didn t have much food storage Lead largest native group Inherited 6 tribes and conquered 24 tribes Over 100 wives Discourse Concerning Western Planting one of several pamphlets written by the British empire to clean out the homeless They would use big exciting words to grab attention Utopia the idea of everyone living above poverty Uprising of 1622 natives are no longer happy of working 347 British were killed Tobacco production surged In 1624 produced 200000 lbs of tobacco 300000010000000 More workers moved to colony forjobs In 1624 took over colony and made it a royal colony Introduced slavery What were the reasons so many British migrated to America in the seventeen century Things were going so poorly at home They were quotpushed outquot A way to get rid of the poor people living on government London tripled in size because homeless ocked towards big town In what ways did British colonization introduce new forms of liberty in the seventeenth century In what ways did it halt liberty Describe the differences between colonization in Virginia and in Massachusetts In what ways were the dealings with natives different in the Chesapeake and new England Chesapeake Bay the land that nobody wanted British wanted it Land was too cold for crops Maryland was a private governed place Meant to be a Catholic haven Very pro table from the start Drew experienced planters Very few Catholics moved there Things to know Puritanism a state of mind Puritans are people that believe that the church of England was on the decline Take religion seriously Believed in individual interpretation of the bible Believed authority was located in local congregations Listened to 700 sermons Wanted new land without neighbors and enemies Choose the new England area Most of natives were wiped out and they took over what they had already built Massachusetts Bay Company rich investors Migrated with their people unlike Virginia company Believe religion and work come together Great Migration When new England settlement is starting to become pro table Takes places over 1630 s quotcity on a hillquot May ower concept First written government in America Roger Williams Coverture Woman s Body is owned by the man after marriage Marriages went arranged as often Pequot War Took place when a local and strong tribe attacked a single Massachusetts resident and state responded by killing hundreds of people by using other tribes Natives were not strong enough Bali dated the puritans that god had given them the land Started treating natives as nobody s Started praying towns where British would gather natives that want to covert Natives would take on an English name as well as a promise to give up their native activities 1600 natives lived there Mostly popular with small tribes Magna Carta Prince Phillip s War Led by Metacom a tribe leader The British promote the confrontation Ceased 3 natives for murdering a town Warriors attacked in response British retaliated to wrong tribe Native s attacked 5290 towns and wiped out 12 British attacked praying towns Colonists realized that they were going to have to use lndian help and got about a third of the tribes in the region The native enemies ran out of supplies and British took towns back over The puritans then started making money again Praying Towns Towns that natives lived in to convert religion Describe the differences between colonization in Virginia and in Massachusetts New England Most settling were coming from middle class Had skills trade and diversi ed New England most migrated at families More men in New England New England people had very few big plantations Most people did not have to work on plantations Not much migration but population increases because of families Most families had 67 children Separate from the other colonies Charters that established new government organizations were granted towns Because of no wealthy plantation owners the classes were not much different In what ways were the dealings with Natives different in the Chesapeake and New England Was religion and economics at odds in Puritan New England Life as a Puritan Firm gender roles Double population every three decades Lower mortality rate Religion was the center Towns had several ministers Established Harvard college to train ministers Would imprison people for religious reasons Being one means that you were going to be a recipient of the governments orders Oath of a freeman was rst document that said people should vote themselves instead of being forced Believed natives weren t using land properly Started building ships and trading Government started to slow their trade Salem Witch Trials Very common Believable People were often found to be innocent Important Terms Barbados Popular because it did not have native wars Also because its lush environment provided places to grow sugar Big plantations that made dominant class 1680 over half of land was owned by rich people 175 rich planters By average they owned 115 slaves 250 acres Slaves thought they would get rich and return home and most of them died Prisoners started taking the place of roles This lead to slave trading in the French war The slaves then became very cheap The number of slaves outnumbered the number of whites Their reproduction rate was way to low to over power Owners were required to give some clothing to men and women Government rewarded owners for punishing slaves A lot of poor white people needed to move They then moved to Jamaica Jamaica Poor white people moved there Started small farms Sugar Changed consumption in England Allowed them to pay off debts Became king Made so much money to pay off itself and debts Led to slaves Caribs Natives of Barbados Slave Codes Forced owners 0 give slaves certain things Port Royale Capital City ofJamaica Known for its wickedness Became big and popular Huge earthquake killed 1000 s of pirates Established new Capital City named King s Town 8x as many slaves as whites Made it difficult to control Maroons Communities of runaway slaves that founded their own communities and fought back against government These were rst independent black community in the western hemisphere Why is the study of British West Indies Important for understanding early America Set the standard of how slavery would work The west indies were the crown jewl of the English empire Central part of the economy and slave population The success of west indies led to settlement of Carolina region Things to Know Lords Proprietors 8 rich political favorites of the King Left in charge of colonizers who left west indies Carolina had swamps but they could still plant crops Founded Charles Town a big settlement Bold de ance of Spanish empire Offered political representation Offered long exemption from taxes Offered 150 acres of land to every family that settles it Goose Creek Men The wealthy new settlers in Carolina Led to splitting of North and South Carolina because they want that as their own power Reversed their promises Every person there including non slave owners believe in a separation of white and blacks Entered into trade with tribes lndians provided a shield from keeping in slaves and keeping French out Rice Great saple for the export market Introduced to rice from slaves because they grew it in the west indies Found that the soil in the Carolinas were just as good for raising rice Rice production surged as a result Made Carolina planters the second wealthiest in the western world Also cause more need for slavery South Carolina became rst colony with black majority Slave mortality rate exceeded births lndigo Second major crop Georgia Trustees Settled Georgia Rich investors in Britain that wanted to try a different model than Carolinas Wanted to get rid of poor white people in Europe and put them there Received royal charter that provided support from British Set up laws that kept the idea different than Carolinas Outlawed production of rice Prohibited drinking and lawyers Restricted slavery This experiment didn t last long Liberty and property without restrictions was a quote help by new people Georgia then became royal colony and people voted for slavery How did slave societies develop differently in the Caribbean and mainland colonies Why did the Georgia Trustees experiment fail What was Carolina much more like the British West Indies than it was like the rest of America Large in ux of black bodies and forced labor of the slaves Things to know Dutch Empire In the 17th centry they were most wealthy in the atlantic world Previously second to the Spanish they became rich through astlantic trade sugar production slave trade dutch ships Through the trade the dutch produced more trade than all other empires combined Because so spread out it made them thin especially in the Americas New Netherlands did not care as long as you brought trade New Amsterdam was most diverse place in North America The dutch were the minority They had slaves but they allowed them to own their own properties and have families Navigation Acts passed 1661 Set of laws meant to govern trade Declared that only english ships could trade with English colonies Did this so best sugar could only be sent to England Covenant Chain Decided to only do business with the most dominate tribes They wanted them to dominate other tribes in region William Penn Was an elite quaker Financed most activities Quakers Did not think church of England was high enough in standards Meetings and theological focuses was on connection Most came from fringe of society which made William Penn an exception Pennsylvania becomes an experiment place where all religions were together Asked for nothing virtually Drew in a lot of money because so many people were welcome Why did the New Netherlands fall in America 1 Primary focus was on commercial so they never developed strong political system 2 Did not discriminate so they got caught up in Indian wars 3 Other Dutch colonizing efforts were more in dicing than others Quicker path to wealth 4 To nice for people to leave What made the middle colonies different than the other colonies of British America The success They changed the trend of people that lived together that are grouped by religion Things to know Slave Trade Economy of Atlantic world was driven by slavery Revolved around Caribbean 17th century 96 of slaves going to west indies Caribbean most pro table and deadly place for slaves 12 slaves died Low birth rate high infant mortality 12 women never gave birth Middle Passage The transportation of African bodies from Africa to the Americas quotslave societyquot and quotsociety with slavesquot Slave Society is all slaves that share common experiences Society with slaves is white people who all have slaves The slave societies usually have tasks for slaves to get done and they can do what they want when they complete the task Stono Rebellion South Carolina in 1739 plantations along the Stono river 20 slaves stole guns killed their owner gathered more slaves and marched the Stono River White men killed about 30 slaves Very common in newspapers described the slave runaway with clothes appearance an name if they had one Higher reproduction rates for slaves in Americas By 1780 576000 in America West Indies had 300000 slaves by 1780 British sent goods to Africa Africa sent bodies to America America sent products to Britain Britain exported guns to Africa Slaves were put into large pins to be examined and sent to America Primary source of income for Britain Destroyed African tribes and land The sick ones got thrown overboard 20 Seling took place on ships and in auction houses Led to families getting separated 14 of slaves died within rst year 1st gen slaves ran away Savery didn t start early in Chesapeake more indentured slaves White free not white not free Savery and Blackness started to connect more If your mother was a slave so were you Free blacks cant live in Virginia and Maryland Manumition How to free slaves Led to people to not wanting them free Biggest slave system in New York Half of population was slaves Slavery in north was easier than the ones in the south Basso slaves mixed children Run away slaves were more popular and they stayed in region they ran away from 18th century was land of Black Slavery and White possibility Things to know Mercantilism Bacon s Rebellion Dispute between the Governor s army and the towns people James 2 King Charles died without an air Thrown went to his brother James 2 He was a catholic Had an interest in the activities in the colonies Took steps to strengthen British control Doubled taxes Glorious Revolution A resent battle that fought where the power should be held In the cabinet or the crown Jacob Leisler Became a leader of a crusade trying to reclaim the local power and repect the British took from him Was eventually killed Lords of Trade Commmitte that over saw activities of colonies Believe they were undermanaged They wantred money from colonies by setting initiatives that let economic trade bring in income Lord Cornbury A man that wore normal clothes Rumors started of him walking around dressed as a women Sent painting back to England which made him get red How did the glorious revolution of 1688 change things in America Things to know Anglicization The great awakening The rights of Englishman Wanted liberty being free Meant a pride in the mixed unwritten and evolving constitution Meant even if not everyone could vote to be a free Englishman meant having an opinion or a voice in British politics Based off of republicanism and liberalism Republican Active participation in public life as independent citizens Does not mean equality Liberalism Politics or political organizations were based on a mutual agreement among principals Society predates government or politics Things to know Stamp Act Any printedpaper that was used had to be authorized through a stamp that would be collected by a stamp collector Virtual vs Actual Representation VirtualIf you don t have people voting for a person you are automatically represented The actual is when the people actually are represented through their choice of representative Nonimportation Townsend Acts passed in 1767 New approach to taxes An indirect tax that taxes things outside of normal day Americans did not like these new taxes either These acts were written up in a letter as unconstitutional Government demanded a revoke of the letter and it did not happen How of reps was then taken away Mobs of pedestrians harassed official people This led to more soldiers getting shipped over Boston Massacre then happens Tea Act different than other Did not raise prices at all Britain owned east india company which shipped goods to America such as tea Slashed prices on tea that they owned and raised import tax on foreign teas Dumped 4 million dollars worth of tea Intolerable Acts effect of the tea act Punishment for Boston The acts would be lifted as soon as they repaid the 4 million 5 laws 1 Closed the Boston port 2 Revoked the Massachusetts people from meeting as governing bodies any more 3 Gave royal governor able to call own assembly of people 4 Declared that members of the military could reside in private homes 5 Those who are charged with capital offenses were no longer allowed to be tried by local peers and had to go to England to get tried Continental Congress meeting in Philly located at a hall Got delegates from most colonies Illegitimate and illegal body Mostly discussed what they should do without any actions Britain wanted to take 5 important people and their ammunition and they ended up having a war The war was the start of the revolutionary war Second continental congress met together and started to take action Passed olive branch petition we are not rebelling we are ghting for the injustices start an American militia Appoint George Washington for 2 reasons 1 He was tall 2 He was dressed in militia clothing Kind declared the Americans as traders Lord Dunmore s governer of Virginia Declared a proclamation that said that all slaves that run away from their masters and join the British militia would be free They would also be armed Thomas Paine s Common Sense Says the king is a tyrant Argued that it is time for America to reach its destiny and break free Declaration of Independence Letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania document that proposed no taxann Non importation a type of resistance that the colonists used to get back at Britain They decided not to import as many import goods Local committees called committees of safety enforced organized protests This led the to stamp act being repealed Things to know Seven Years War French indian war several wars between England and france modern day ohio Britain sent geroge Washington to negotiate and led to war Washinton was captive Albany Plan of Union Pontiac s Rebellion Proclamation of 1763


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