Western Civilization to 1500
Western Civilization to 1500 HIST 110
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Geovanni Bartoletti II
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovanni Bartoletti II on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 110 at Harding University taught by Janet Fortner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/222121/hist-110-harding-university in History at Harding University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
NON7EUROPEAN WORLD SURROUNDING EUROPE DURING MIDDLE AGES Lecture Outline 19 ISLAM A MUHAMMAD c 570 7 632 1 Personal b Mecca to merchant family orphaned at 5 Caravan manager for Khadija a rich widow then married her child a daughter Fatima outlived him c 1 2 Tr veled for I iadija to Israel amp contacted amp was influenced by Judeo7Christian Monotheism there B ARAB NATIONALISM MONOTHEISM 1 Developed Monotheistic religion for polytheistic Arabs Pre7Islamic Arabic Semitic Bedouins ANIMISTIC amp Polytheistic b Kaaba holy shrine at Mecca around black meteorite 2 CHIEF deity of Pantheon of gods Allah creator of universe 3 Supreme Virtue Manliness Bgt Loyalty courage generosity b Basis of Islam Created by Muhammad A5 Pillars of Islam 1 Faith B Prayer B Alms7giving B Fasting B Pilgrima e 2 Faith Shahada AThere is no god but Allah amp Muhammad is His Prophet c ISLAM based on 3 consonantal radicals S 7 L 7 M 1 Means AWay of Submission 2 S 7 L 7 M radicals also basis of Semitic words like Shalom Hebrew APeace 3 Hence There is APeaceG if you Asubmitlil to Allah amp Islam 2 Aggressive Religion In Mohammeds Life conquered Arabian Peninsula a Mohammed did not rule out need for Violence b Allah wants converts by conviction if possible but by violence if necessary 3 SACRED BOOKS a 2 Essential works of Islam Koran teachings of Mohammed amp Sunna Traditions re Muhammad b Hence 2 major sects of Islam 1 Sunni or Sunnis Aliberals B accept both Koran and Sunna B tend to be Arabs Shia or Shiites Aconservatives B accept only Koran E tend to be non7Arab Muslims c Muhammed wrote Koran in Arabic 1 hus it is inspired verbally word7for7word ONLY in the Arabic 2 Hence Koran cannot be translated into any other languages 3 To ecome Muslim means to learn Arabic in order to read sacred books C ISLAM IS AN AGGRESSIVE RELIGION MOUNTED ATTACK ON ANE amp MEDITERRANEAN 1 Mohammeds Lifetime United Arabs b JIHAD ATo Strive in the Way of Allah 1 Muhammad especially Striving within oneself with Sin 2 BUT he did not rule out Violence 3 Muhammad Took most of Arabian Peninsula 4 Leading ALL to notion that Jihad was ANY Holy War to Convert Inlidels 5 REWARDS MATERIAL REWARDS HEAVEN houn39s B lovely virgin girls fulfill every wish c Took Mecca and Made it the Holy City B off limits to any but Muslims 2 AFTER MOHAMMED ISLAM MOUNTED ATTACK ON MEDITERRANEAN a e Across Pyrenees into Frankia 730s defeated by Charles Martel at Tour 732 D East controlled by Arabs til 900s then Asiatic TURKS Moved in and Converted to sl m 1 Seljuks 900S 7 11005 2 OTTOMAN Turks 1100s 7 Took Constantinople in 1453 Turkish Empire til 1923 then Republic of Turkey E ISLAMIC CULTURE Transmitters Paper Zero Numerals Decimals eservers Classical Greek Culture Innovators Medicine Algebra Synthesizers Aristotle Faith Intellectual quotTaskquot Of Middle Ages A Greek Reason Islam Avicenna Averroes B Greek Reason Judaism Maimonides 5 Architecture Arch Mosque Arabes u BYZANTINE EMPIRE EAST ROMAN EM A FP Plquot q e PIRE AD 330 7 1453 CONSTANTINE May 330 AD FOUNDED CONSTANTINOPLE as Capitol of ARoman Empire 1 hristian City On 7 Hills quotGolden Hornquot 2 Called Themselves quotRomans But Constantinople Was Greek City Greek In Culture amp Language B HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 11 centuries 33071453 1 Reconquests In West 2 765 2 300 Yrs Outreach amp Peril 5657867 A Arabs Huns Bulgars B Methodius 77gtCyrillic Alphabet 3 LastDays Of Greatness 86771057 Macedonians 4 400 Yrs Decline 105771453 Janet M Farmer Use by express permission only A Ottoman Turks 1453 Istanbul B Fall Of 2nd Rome Power Struggles Feudalism West Power Succession Law Turks C CULTURAL OVERVIEW 1 Blended Culture Greece Orient Rome Christian 2 Court Life Rel39lected Heavenly Court A 39tual Life Of Emperor B De Ceremoniis Concerning Ceremonies 3 Contribution Preserved A R man Law State Organization B Hellenistic Culture Added 3rd Christianity C EARLY RUSSIA ICON amp AX A GEOGRAPHY 1 Few Geographic Boundaries A als Only North7South Barrier 9k Feet High Not Enough B No EastiWest Mounts C Rivers Big Enough For Barriers 2 Close To Arctic Circle Bgt Terrible Winters 3 Geography Means A Few True Ethnic Borders B Russians Can Stand Anything B SLAVIC SWORDSMEN 7Wgt SETTLERS Seemingly Russian People Organized By Rurik The Rus Northman Oldest Records 1100s Still Medieval Til Last 200 Yrs Converted By St Methodius amp St Cyril In 9quot1 C A reated Cyrillic Alphabet To Translate Bible ari B rillic Alphabet Russian Alphabet Today C KIEVAN RUSSIA Kiev 98071206 1 Vladimir Grand Prince Of Kiev Christian 980 39 cil 2 De oc Veche Town Coun D MONGOL INVASION 120671562 1 1223 Defeated Russians 2 Terrorize Russia 350 Yrs 3 quotEastern Optionquot 124 E MUSCOVITE RUSSIA Moscow 146271653 1 IVAN III GREAT M Byzantine Heiress 2 MOSCOW 3RD ROME CZAR 3 CAESAROPAPISM CZAR Head 0139 Church amp Gov39t F RESULTS OF MONGOL INVASIONS Despotism 2 Feudalism 3 Personality Fatalistic Suspicious Cruel And Brave Patient Kind Janet M Farmer Use by express permission only III VIII ROME SOCIETY AND CULTURE AT ca 133 BC Lecture Outline 10 INTRODUCTION TO ROMAN SOCIETY Hierarchical AGRA IAN Agriculture but also VALUES associated with Landiholding Traditional Traditio Ahanding on over Bgt US ATraditions handed down and BeiTRAYial as Ahanding over Legalistic Law amp Government F Some Flexibility they BEND rather than break but slowly ROMAN RELIGION Cicero quotRome rules the world because she knows that the gods control everythingquot A CHARACTERISTICS Polytheistic contractual ritualistic eclectic 1 3 Chief early gods Jupiter 39 39mus uno amp Minerva worshiped on Capitolium in 37part temple DOZENS of others amp added foreign gods D ut les Contractual Ritualistic 13 Do the rituals be sure you meet the contract the gods will reward you Eclectic Syncretistic a rrowed amp blended B Also Characteristic of Hellenistic World Generally 2 3 4 b allowed almost any religion that did not compete with true religion Roma herself B TRUEST RELIGION OF ROME RollIA herself whatever was good for Rome was right ROMAN LAW A Twelve Tables 451750 BC reduced law to B No Other Codifications til 6th C AD under Justinian the Great Corpusiuris civilis Body of Civil Law C ROMA A sed on Precedent NOT Theor D ROMAN SOCIETY a Legal Society B GOOD at Law and Government 1 IRST Professional LAWYERS eg Cicero Concept of ARIGHTSfl B which a people or a man may have 3 Roman JURISTS left many Political amp Legal Essays DEVELOPMENT OF LITERATURE RT A EPIC esp VirgilsAeneid Poetry Essays on practical topics like Agriculture Architecture C ART largely copied or stole Greek Art EDUCATION A Early Private 1 Boys Political amp Military E 1 a fathers knee then under tutelage of fathers friends Girls by mothers B Later Hellenistic Influences 1 Horace ACaptive Greece took captive her rude crude uneducated oonquerorlB 2 Boys amp Girls Latin letters amp some literature 3 then Separate Girls by their mothers or fathers farm boys by fathers B Elite Boys a Early Education in Political amp military by fathers amp fathers friends as mentors Greek Rhetoric literature etc c Often spent time in Eastern Mediterranean soaking up Greek culture THE GROWTH OF SLAVERY A ome Equal Opportunity Enslaver C Slave Population Grew After Conquests with Empire B WHOLE Society Became Dependent upon Slavery 1 esp atgfumlia or great Sheep ranches in Italian peninsula But even in Citeis THE ROMAN HOUSEHOLD amp FAMILY A P e PATERNALISTIC Society Originally Father had power of life amp death over whole family including married sons daughters passed under hand of husbands father 2 Father39s Power Lessens w Time Women Became somewhat Freer in Late Republic but NEVER Equal Augustus reduced their role B WHOLE ROMAN SOCIETY a Paternalistic Famil VALUES amp ATTITUDES this is very important in understanding Romans A THEY ARE CONSERVATIVE amp TRADITIONALIST B SOME ROMAN VALUES 1 Mares singular mos maiorum Ways of Ancients Pietas gives US Pity amp Piety Duty Religious piety closely related to Duty to Father Fathers Rome Gravitas Seriousness Gravity Dignitas ADignity but more like Pride amp pretty prickly Pride at that Aucton39tas Authority Influence based on Birth macaw Money Holding Office higher the better Military Commands more important amp lucrative the better Hannaa ge Dignity amp Pride C Greek Individualism Enters When Romans Move into Eastern Mediterranean 200 7 150 BC 1 Greek INDIVlDUALISM emphases Individuals need for right to Glory 2 In time destroys Roman GROUP VALUES amp sense of duty 3 Contributes to AWar Lords Caesar Pompey etc and to Fall of Republic Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only RENAISSANCE HUMANISM Lecture Outline 31 ATIS Study of Humanity Humanities Humane Studies Emphasized TRIVIUM TheA3quot Grammar Rhetoric Dialectic Logic a more humanicentered Bgt humane Bgt humanism 13gt Ahumanities b Human communication valuable to Life of Business amp Politics in City 2 DEiEmphasized Quadrivium The A4quot Arithmetic Geometry Music Astronomy m 39 ed in HMA amp Taught in Universities by Scholastics Churchmen b Associated w Aristotle amp AScienceB physical world vs Human world of communication c amp with University curriculum leading to Medicine Theology Law 3 Humanism comes into Universities by ca 1550 after Jesuits B INTEREST amp FOCUS OF LITERARY PETRARCH 1 e rarch AFirst Humanist 2 What did that mean a Searching out amp restoring MS copies of Classic Works Impliesfmding MSS other libraries crypts where hidden etc Implies aitiquing MSS to achieve correct copies 1 HUMANISM Educational approach NOT a philosophy A STUDLA HUAMN 1 b Learning to read classical Latin amp compose in it Poetry Sonnets History etc c Living a life of ALetters Arsgratia artis W not churchilife 13gt Linerati d Sought Glory like Greeks of old W to be Famous 3 PETRARCH39S LITERARY CRAFT STYLE Ignored Medieval Conventions general amp noniindividual and favored quotTruequot individual emotions b Perfected the SONNET form Petrarchan Sonnet c LATIN amp ITALIAN WORKS 4 SELFrCONSCIOUS PURSUIT OF GLORY a Dante amp Boccaccio had received LAURAL CROWN of Poet Laureate of Italy b Petrarch Crowned 8 April 1341 Rome 37 yrs old c HOW DID HE DO IT 7 1 Seeking for LA URO Laurel Wreath 2 DE ICE to achieve it Sonnets to LAURA 3 PLAY ON WORDS laura laurel wreath or laurel tree l aura gold Laura name of The Beloved l aura the breeze 4 W S LAURA INVENTED77 His contemporaries thought so d 1 CREATION OF LITERARY PERSONA 1 Laura OBJECT of poetry TOOL 2 Poet himself Petrarch SUBJECT of poetry 5 NEW RENAISSANCE NOT 7 Medieval SELFilnterest SELFiPromotion SELFiGlorification II HUMANISM EVOLVED INTO ACIVIC HU39MANISMIB just after 1400 Ad A ASSOCIATED W CIVIC LIFE OF FLORENCE c 1400 Florentine Republic Little Boy David at war w Duchy of Milan Goliath 2 Attack on Florentine Way of Lfe B BACKGROUND TO DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIC HUMANISM New Class of People dominate cities amp city life 13gt New Institutions society Cities hire ACivil Servants Abureaucrats from MC Civic Humanism Learning as AScience of the State New Scholar Bgt ARenaissance 5 THO LATE Renaissance Ideal The Caum39er B Castiglione III FOCUS OF CIVIC HUMANISM A CLASSICAL LEARN 1 TRIV scan 2 amp Subjects related to useful in Political Diplomatic Commercial life of Cityistate a Poetry sonnets etc expression of what it means to be HUMAN b Classical architecture c History philosophy teaching us by historical examples d Moral Philosophy eventually EgtMachiavelli e Classical Law amp Politics B STRESSED THE VITAACTIVA B ACTIVE LIFE 1 human pursuits not just life devoted to church as Monk or Priest Living Productively duty to man and 3 vs Vita cantengplativa E Contemplati e Life E of Medieval monastic retreat from world Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only CIVIC A HUMANISTS Coluccio SALUTATI 133171405 1 Notary amp Chancellor of Florence documents amp archives 2 Purpose of Scholarship boost morale during War w Duchy of Milan 3 Significance a Viewed as Beginning of Civic Humanism first Civic Humanist b New Literary learning turned to Civic patriotic purposes Lorenzo VALLA 140771457 1 works as Papal Secretary amp was familiar w Papal documents 2 Used new methods of critiquing 3 Demonstrated Donation ofConstantine was a fraud thru study of words langua e 4 Sig Niccolo Mach Ac macaw Donation purports to be from ca 330 AD Constantine donated western Crown to Pope for him to dispose of b Actually comes from c 800 AD Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of Romans amp was looking for justi cation nificance New Learning used against Holy Mother Church iavelli 1469 7 1527 ve Public Servant of LATE Florentine Republic 1527 exiled to his estates in Tuscany when Medici retook power helped by French wrote many works Discourses on Livy Art of War A History of Florence Discourses his greatest work thoroughly Republican amp ethical The Prince B VERY different from the Discourses a dif ent 1 Sees Seizure of power by 1 individual as Major threat to Republics 2 Addresses how Italy can recover her freedom French HRE Wants to curry favor w Medici hoping to return to govt service b THEMES citizens armies only 39 cas 39 if quot I I su quot 39 g mlers cannot afford luxury of a conscience c Represents thoroughly secular principles of govt not atheistic just no place for God in affairs of men B hence humanism d Never said AThe Ends justify the means Ifini giustjficano imrzzt 1 U the idea of doing the expedient thing IS there 2 Significance New learning used for thoroughly secular purposes 3 Renaissance Ended E MODERN has begun Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only THE ROMAN REPUBLIC 509 to ca 133 BC ecture Outline 9 INSTITUTIONS OF ROMAN REPUBLIC 509 BC A REVIEW OF SOCIETY SO F 1 RARCHICAL amp PATERNALISTIC CI NS Y HIE PATRI AR A AFathers of Republic Control Wealth Offices Priesthoods Military Commands Respect Live from Landediwealth AFamily of the RepubliclB Lockediout Group 13gt Soldiers Small holders also business amp commerce Major Social Function DUTY to Obey AFATHERS small part of this group gets RICH 4 In time 2 Paterfamilias Father of Family w absolute power over it W Pietas Duty of family to obey 3 PATRONAGE important Society Hierarchy of Patrons amp Clients CE very important B Based on Birth Money Offices Military Commands Age Dignity 4 INFLUEN REPUBLICAN POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS 1 RO E Conservative but Practical Institutions changed but slowly Laws passed on an quotAsineeded Basisquot ad hoc basis 2 b 2 c MAGISTRATES 1 2 3 3 3 TYPES OF a 2 3 4 a 3 ASSEMBLIES 1 2 b IMPERIUM APower a Originally ROYAL IS is Power Patricians S ii COLLECTIVE BODIES SENATUS SENATE Really Functions as EXECUTIVE 1 3 MILITARY INSTITUTIONS 1 LEADERSHIP a to Command POWER Power to Scourge amp Power to Execute R elves In thru Of ces of MAGISTRATES RES PUBLICA diffused Imperium among MAGISTRATES a Magistrates exercised Imperium in Republic Magister Teacher Leader Chief Director Commander s Shared thru MAGISTRACIES Res PUBLICA APublic Matter NOT Private Power b AT FlRST ONLY Patricians held Magistracies ANNUAL Magistrates TWO 2 CONSULS a b POWER i a CUTIVE Branch b POWER 1 i ii By COLLEAGUE 2mi Consul with Power of VETO AI Forbid c P a tors and others B but you need not know h 2 important IRREGULAR Magistrates appointed as needed or at long intervals a Dictator Dictator From word AspeakE hence Aword is law 39 ld but rarely invoked office not invoked from ca 250 BC til Sulla became Dictator ca 80 BC Fast forward Caesar gets killed for taking title WHAT 1 man w ALL Imperium enate Meets suspends govt appoints Dictator Limited for period of 6 mos or duration of crisis B whichever is shorter B then Power reverts back to govt magistrates i b Censor Censor i Highest possible position MOST Respected Powerful old men assigned social class amp tax category Council of Elders senilis BgtAsenile which Advise Magistrates amp Assemblies Composition Early maybe just Patrician AFathers E Later Mix of Patricians amp Plebeians Conducts Foreign Policy Advises Controls Magistrates Manages Finances Assigns Provinces Honors MADE N0 LAWS Til Augustus Conservative Deliberative Body of ALL male citizens GHTED toward Wealthy Wealthy amp Patricians had Afatter votes s 2 I 1 COUNCIL Council of the Pleb 1 E arly on ence BUT NEVER becomes a Ademocratic assembly like Ekklesia Consuls Praetors then PRoiConsuls PRoiPraetors Imperiumiholding offices 39 2 b Leadership Mounted Richest Young men EVOLUTION OF FIGHTING UNIT Evolved throughout a Klngdom Clamis Hoplite Army Clipeus Hoplon Shield Republic Legion become Domi t 1 43911 b 2 Cavalry equttes Roman History nan C 300s BC to ca 100 BC Bgt Manipular LEGION flexible organization of Maniples 100 BC jf into Imperial Rome COHORTAL Legion more Flexible organization of Cohorts Janet M Farmer Spring 2005 1 Use by express permission only 3 EVOLUTION OF SOLDIER a CITIZEN Army of Kingdom amp Early Republic Volunteer Farmerisoldier 1 Property Quali cation 2 deployed according to AgeiExperience b PROFESSIONAL Army of LATE Republic amp Empire Standing Paid Army 1 Main Body of Legions Equipped alike B Gladius Short stabbing sword 2 Auxiliaries often of allied nations provided specialized units 4 NUMBERS a Kingdom amp Early Republic Few Hundreds to Thousands b Late Republic Several Tens of Thousands to several 100sK 70 Legions ca 400K at 31 BC c Empire Estimates range up to 700K in Late Empire CHANGE IN THE ROMAN REPUBLIC c 450 B 287 BC A 3 Main Political Tendencies of Early Republic 1 Struggle for Political Equalization 2 Devolution of Power among Increasing Number of Magistrates 3 Extension of Real Power of Senate B SOCIOrECONOMICrPOLITICAL CHANGE ASTRUGGLE OF THE ORDERS c 470287 BC 1 Struggle by PLEBS to participate in Government 2 Struggle 490 BCf a Signs of Struggle Secessions Council of Plebs Tribunes Powersl 12 Tables of Roman Laws Plebeian TRIBUNES notmilitary tribunes represent Plebs Protect Plebs via Intercession amp VET 0 AI Forbid 3 Plebs want RIGHTS intermarriage with Patricians access to Magistracies Right of Commerce 4 COUNCIL of PLEBS established a Power to pass LAWS Plebiscites nally in 287 BC b 287 BC Plebiscites binding on ALL ROMANS c Patronage still controlled Plebs 5 Rome NEVER became a practicing Democracy a Romans assumed hierarchy b some rule others ARE ruled C GEOGRAPHIC CHANGES CONQUEST OF EMPIRE AEMPRE De ned Conquered Peoples liMan Rule liMan Who Calls Himself AEmperor 2 CONQEUST IN 3 STAGES Italy West then East 3 ITALY Conquered or absorbed between by c 275 BC 4 WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN Conquered via PUNIC WARS 264 7 146 BC Rome vs Carthage a Carthage NOT Phoenicia by niw Phoenicia gone But name Punici lingered in Latin for the Carthaginians b 3 Wars w Carthage 264 E 146 BC when Carthage razed to ground amp salt sowed C 2 1 PUNIC WAR HANNABALIC War 218 7 202 BC 13gt ECONOMIC Change in Rome 1 Hannibal Aravaged Italy 15 yrs B farms vineyards olive groves destroyed 2 Soldiers under arms 15years MANY killed enslaved never returne 3 Destroyed Smalliholder farmers w with them the Roman Ideal of FARMERisOLDIER a Traditional Army citizenisoldiers from f armericlass w proper qualification b After 200 BC too few meet Property Quali cation to be Soldiers 1 c Become AM in Cities want Bread7amp7Circuses amp become ASwing Vote for bribeds 4 Growth of LATIFUNDIA Great Estates a Rich bought up land of ruined farmers Bgt SHEEP Ranches b Rome increasingly becomes dependent on others from Basic GRAIN supplies d OUTCOME of PUNIC WARS R e held Wes ern Mediterranean 5 EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN Many wars amp invasions 1 ca 200 to 31 BC a ome Destroyed Corinth 146 BC razing Corinth to the ground To make example of her b By 60s BC Pompey the Great 1 Rid Mediterranean of pirates making seas safe 2 Took SYRIA Palestine incorporated it D NATURE OF ROMAN IMPERIALISM 2 Natures 1 DEFENSIVE Rome always claimed imperialism was DEFENSIVE defensible position til 146 BC 2 OFFENSIVE After 146 BC became quotOFFENSIVEB a Romans discovered RICHES of East Goods slaves b Roman Commanders entrapped in Circle Of ce 13gt Commands 13gt Wealth amp Respect 13gt Of ces Bgt 3 Significance of 146 BC Changed Roman attitudes toward Conquests amp Conquered peoples a Razed to ground 2 great cities Carthage No Africa and Corinth b Changed spirit of Roman Military 1 Fro mer Soldiers who return home to formar 2 To Riches from booty Slave trade amp need for slaves Roman pride amp superiority amp Aright to rule the world GENERAL TRENDS IN THIS PERIOD A POLITICAL Rights Bgt Plebs AStruggle of the Orders Power of Senate Grows B TERRITORIAL Conquest Bgt Empire C ECONOMIC Rich get richer D SOCIAL amp MILITARY Decline of SoldieriFarmer loss of land to rich 1 a mer Egtci 39es 2 become The MOB in Rome amp Other cities B wanting Abread amp circusesG Janet M Farmer Spring 2005 Use by express permission only 31 BC 7 III FOUND A EARLIEST ROME amp A GEOG EARLY ROME FOUNDING KINGDOM REPUBLIC C 753 B 509 bc Lecture Outline 8 IMPORTANT DATES for ROMAN HISTORY Know those that are Underlined 753 BC 509731 BC FOUNDING OF ROME Traditional Date ROMAN REPUBLIC EARLY Republic LATE Republic 5097133 BC 133731 BC AD 476 ROMAN EMPIRE 31 BC 7 AD 180 PAXROIKANA 31 BC 7 AD 68 Julio7Claudians 7 Principate 31 BC 7 AD 14 AUGUSTUS AD 14 7 68 Tiberius Gaius Claudius Nero AD 69796 Flavians Vespasian Titus Domitian AD 96 7180 ADECLINE AND FALLE AD 284 B 337 AD 330 Five Good Emperors Antonines AD 180 7 476 Diocletian amp Constantine Constantinople Inaugurated AD 330 7 476 Rome Ruled from Constantinople Ca AD 400 410 452 476 Uncontrolled Barbarian Invasions Visigoths sack Rome Attila the Hun in Italy Germans take Rome Odoacer Theodoric ITS INFLUENCES RAPHY OF ITALIAN PENINSULA Mountainous Peninsula Alps make it easy to defend but Central location makes it easy to conquer amp control o er 2 Hills on Tiber River Capitoline amp Palatine very important PEOPLES OF WESTERN MED RRANEAN 1 ITALIAN PENINSULA G EEKS TO SOUTH Colonized area ca 7907550 BC Brilliant Culture some of Earliest Greek Stone Temples Alphabet 13gt Etruscans amp Romans 13gt OUR CAPITAL LETTERS ROMAN ALPHABET ANS TO NORTH 77 Origins Maybe from Lydia in Asia Minor Non7Indo7European Language F1 650 7 400 BC Height 5005 BC when Rome likely had Etruscan kings CARTHAGE in NORTH AFRICA a Originally founded by Phoenicians Phoenicia gone now amp CARTHAGE remains in West CUS enough plains for grain olives amp vines 2 s 2 3 ETRUSC 1 2 3 b Latin for APhoenician PUNI memory trace of Old Phoenicia hence PUNIC Wars c Carthaginian Empire Navy amp trade Threat to Rome ING OF ROME BY ROMANS ROMANS 1 Indo7European Speakers B of LATIN 2 Likely Moving Into Italy in 2mi Millenium BC 2000 to 1200 BC FOUNDING 1 SETTLEMENTS ON HILLS 1000 139 a rds b Separated NOT UniI39i then Some Settlements UNIFY 8007750 BC 2 TRADITIONDate of Founding 12 April 753 BC a NO 39 ht But CLOSE Learn IT Tr nal Founder ROMULUS who Plowed Out SACRED BOUNDARY 3 ROM CITY SACRED SITE With Sacred Boundary a INSID AUs Romans NO les allowed b OUTSIDE AThem Enemies Where Armies were recruited amp used against AThem c Army Commander may NOT bring an army inside the Pomerium Sacred Boundar d 5 Forward henoe Julius Caesars Asinlil in Crossing Rubicon River boundary then KINGDOM Roman dates 753 to 509 BC Modem Dates ca 650 to 509 BC 1 truscans Very In uential on Earl Ro me cilics Toga Fasces Alphabet Etruscan round Arch City b 7 Etruscan 7 Kings of Early Rome 7 750 to 509 7 BC Janet M Farmer Spring 2007 Use by express permission only 2 King Servus SERVIAN REFORMS of Society but Still Hierarchical a Took CENSUS of People as to PROPERTY amp INCOME Bgt CLASS b Hierarchy of Classes organized into 193 CENTURIES 13gt Basis of Voting Majority 98 centuries of the Rich b Centuries 13gt Basis of ARMY c Centuries Basis of Voting in CENTURATE Assembly B elected Imperiumholding Magistrates III THE ROMAN REPUBLIC 509264 BC A ROMAN REPUBLIC ESTABLISHED 509 BC LAS ETRUSCAN KING Tarquinius SUPERBUS Tarquin the PROUD a King REX b killed by a RUTUS several other 2 RES PUBLICA established Public Matter Thing Affair a T is Power is NOT private but Public b We know 5 TYPES OF GOVERNMENT Greeks give us 4 of 5 Types of Govt Monarchy AristocracyOligarchy Tyranny Democracy R MANS give us the 5391 REPU BUT this Res publicais an OLIGARCHIC Govt like Greek AristocracyOligarch c 3 SPQR Senatus Populusque Romanus Senate and People of Rome a Theoretically the People source of sovereignty b But mediated through the influence and power of Senate SPQR maintained the Pax Deomm AThe Peace of the gods OR APeace with the gods B ROMAN RES PUBLICA WAS NOT NOR EVER BECAME A DEMOCRACY I 1 Brutus amp his class become Founding Pmes Fathers of Republic 2 hence Word Pmilcian 3 Hierarchical World B THIS much never changes C EARLIEST ROMAN SOCIETY 1 SOCIETY ALWAYS HIERARCHICAL amp PATERNALISTIC 2 EARLIEST REPUBLIC HAD 2 POLITICALrECONOMIC7SOCIAL CLASSES a PATRICIANS Patricians are AFathers of Republic 2 As POLITICAL Class Control Of ceiholding amp Priestshoods a Share offices amp Priesthoods among selves 2 Hence Sha wer wn Group but Group MONOPOLY 3 As ECONOMIC Class Control Most of Land 1 Richest group 2 Political Participation is based on Wealth 3 B T ealth must be in LAND not business Stigma attached to Acommerce 4 As a SOCIAL Class Control most of RESPECT in the society the Best Men a After ca 450 BC a CLOSED ORDER No new Patrician Families added to it b This Class provides COMMANDERS of Fighting Units of Roman Army b PLEBS 1 Plebs are AFamily of the Republic 2 As POLITICAL Class Members of Republic but NOT SharersiiniPower 1 PIETY pietas DUTY a chief Virtue 2 Duty of ARepublics Family to Obey Romans are BIG on Duty 3 As ECONOMIC Class Likely Own Land but are YEOMAN Farmer Class 1 ASmalliholdersG B Own Less land Less Wealth 2 Early ON Do NOT meet WealthiQualifications for participation 3 BUT this group CAN be in business amp have COM E L Wealth Hence IN TIME a small part of this group becomes RICH RICHER RICHEST 4 As a SOCIAL Class these are ACommoners 1 After ca 450 LOCKEDioUT class no Family rises to become a Patrician Family 2 class provides Common SOLDIER PROPERTYiQualification to be Soldier 3 SOCIETY a Hierarchical Society 13gt Hierarchical Family or vice versa 1 any CLANS GENS words like genus gentile come from this word Patrician CLANS controlled Offices Priesthoods most of wealth Military Commands 3 Plebeian CLANS were locked out of offices priesthoods Patrician clans did not share in wealth or commands functioned as Roman footsoldiers b Paterfamilias Father of Family 1 Absolute power over Family Life amp Death 2 PIETY ietas DUTY Duty of Family Sons to Obey Father 3 More of an EXTENDED family than GREEKS a Household of The Father pater unilias might include all grown sons amp their families b Paterf 39 39as made decisions for family even grown sons obeyes c PATRONAGE important Society Hierarchy of Patrons amp Clients 1 Hierarchy from bottom up of Clients amp Patro s 2 Patrons Clients of those above them 3 Patrons command votes amp loyalty Clients receive help amp access to power structures d INFLUENCE very important AUCTORITAS 1 It is ased on at least 6 elements most of which were restricted to Patrician Clans 2 Birth Money Offices Military Commands Age Dignity Janet M F ortner Spring 2007 Use by express permission only THE RES PUBLICA CHRISTIANA ROOTS OF A CRISIS OF CHURCH AND STATE ca 105071300 Lecture Outline 23 I BACKGROUND amp REVIEW A WHAT IS AT ISSUE ASSUMED 1ST 1000 YRS OF CHRISTIAN HISTORY Divine more important than Secular Highest allegiance to God 2 ASSUMED ACitizenship is in HEAVEN not in earthly kingdom 3 AS ED Pope is Spiritual Father of ALL Christendom the great Christian Republic Respublicon Christiana B REVIEW OF HISTORY OF PAPACY 1 VO UTION BOR BgtAPOPE3 AND AKING By C 7 BOR quotPAPAquot b 5907604 7 Gregory 1 7 de facto ruler of Rome 1 to speakEx Cothedra authoritatively for whole church c ca 755 7 Donation of Pepin to Papacy means Pope is now a Temporal Power ie a Aking in his territories d ca 7507800 a new Document appears ADonation of Constantine 1 Purports to be issued by Emp Constantine c 325 giving Rule of Rome amp West to Pope Sylvester I 2 Demonstrated to be a forgery in Renaissance by a Papal Secretary 3 CONTEXT of appearance c 800 AD Coronation of CM by Leo III 4 PURPOSE Suggests early struggle for Preeminence between Leo amp CM e By 1000 AD POPE has many Titles BOR Heir of St Peter Vicar of Christ Rector of World Father ofKings 2 LOOKS LIKE AChurch BELONGS to Pope B BUT This is Not ALL the Story C CONFLICT OF INTERESTS 7 versus 7 COMPETING COMPETENCIES 1 FRANKISH KINGS have had a long Aalliance of mutual assistance w BORs since Clovis I Pepin Charlemagne 2 NOBLES OFTEN CONTROL LOCAL HUR 3 NOBLES ASSUME RIGHT TO REFORM CHURCH Pepin the Short Charlemagne Otto IHRE II DECLINE OF MEDIEVAL CHURCH A FEUDALIZATION of the LOCAL Church Churchmen filling secular roles secular men filling church offices 1 Conflict of Allegiance Churchmen fill secular office Secular men fill church office motives enrichment defense 2 Church Office quotStatusspecifice meaning that Rich Nobles 13gt Bishop AB Abbot Poor 7gt Parish Priest 3 Power amp control of HRE DEPENDS upon appointing Big Bishops throughout HRE REA 4 1 L Problem SIMONY Purchase of Offices amp Benefices defined below by Secular Men B MORAL DECLINE of CLERGY atALL Levels 1 Closely related to IIA above Secular Men in Clerical Offices Bad Motives etc 2 Simony Acts 8 Simon the Sorcerer tried to buy power to lay on hands from apostles Purchase of Church Offices 3 Marriage concubinage common more in some areas of Euro e than others 13gt Churchmen viewing offices as hereditary 4 Venality Worldliness Graft Greed Venality selling Sacraments Baptism Afor a price C FEUDALIZED CHURCH AT ROME Papacy is NO better 800s amp 900s Terrible time in Papal History B Tiara prize of war among Roman nobles families 2 Venal Churchmen make Venal Popes when they reach the Papal Throne 3 REMEMBER that King Emperor see self asADefender of Faith 4 So in time Roman debauchery invites Royal intervention amp Reform a eg HR a oints BORsPopes after Otto IHRE b When POPES decide to take over Reform Bgt conflict between Royals amp Popes III REFORM UNDERTAKEN BY ASECULAR ARM N OBLES AND LATER BY PAPACY A REFORM of the Church Initiated by Secular Arm 1 Example Otto IHRE began appointing BORs Popes 2 909 William Duke of Aquitaine founded Benedictine Abbey of CLUNY a Wm gave Cluny a Charter of Independence from him amp from Popes b Carla meant that monks had no secular duties amp concentrated on Spiritual matters B CLUNY BROUGHT REFORM TO THE CHURCH 1 le to ACluniac Reform of Benedictine houses all over Europe 2 Clunys Daughter House at Citeaux evolved to created a NEW Order the Cistercian Order 3 In time Reforming Monks from Cluny rose and began moving into Papacy c 1050 4 Refor ing Monk Popes want to Take control of Church amp churchmen Bgt conflict w Royals C LED TO A STRING OF PASSIONATE REFORMERS IN PAPACY amp ITS HIERARCHY 1 1 GRE REFORMING POPE Leo IX 1 pope known to use Donation of Constantine to support papal position 2 Leo IX r 104971054 began Reform commands agoinxtthings tell what people are actually doin 3 Council of Rheims 1049 FORBADE Clerical concubinage Clergymen lending at interest Clergy charging for sacraments C gy under arms Clergy w worldly occupation Laymen holding church office 4 SIGNIFICANCE of Rheims a Papacy trying to REFORM morals practices of Churchmen b Sets Stage for Conflict when Churchmen amp Royals Disobey it 5 Reformers also passionate about Universal Catholic Church 13gt Split w Eastern Church a 1 Mutual Excommunications b Never Healed Again B despite several efforts IV SET FOR CONFLICT I A L A FACES SERIOUS QUESTION Who Is Supreme on Earth Ki E vs BOR POPE 2 BIG Issue Supremacy WHO is Supreme on Earth 3 LITTLE Issue Bishops B Who Will INVEST amp Control the Bishops B BACKGROUND Development of Competitor B The ASTATEG III AGE OF DISCOVERY amp EXPLORATION Lecture Outline 32 DATES ca 14201620 A THE BIG Discovery that the Seas are All one connected Highway round the earth B Associated w RENAISSANCE amp Its Mentality Systematic Technological 2 Colonization C Til Renaissance there was Much Geographical Confusion 1 4 ontinents 2 Mostly Land D A Lot of Mythological Overlay Prester John Monopodes etc CHANGE OF ATTITUDE ca 1400 A General Main Motives Middle Class Economics amp Renaissance Curiosity B SPECIFIC MOTIVES Europe Wanted Alts Share of 1 RICHES Precious Metals needs bullion to expand economy amp Goods 2 SPICES Pepper Cloves Cinnamon 3 FISHING GROUNDS fishing Atake much less 4 GOD AHeathen 5 FAME Individualism C SUMMARIZE AS quotGOD GOLD GLORYquot WHY EUROPE A AGGRESSIVE PURPOSE CURIOSITY B TECHNOLOGY Seaworthy Ships amp Skilled Mariners 1 Northern amp Southern ShipiBldg Traditions 2 DISCOVERY SHIP CARAVEL 3 1 CARGO Information WORLD TAKES SHAPE MAPS CHANGE SIGNIFICANCES A NEW SETTLEMENTS FOR POPULATION GROWTH B VAST ECONOMIC EFFECTS 1 Old 77gt New An mals Protein sources New 77gt Old Bullion Plant resources tomatoes corn beans tobacoo C HEALTH IMPLICATIONS 1 Old 77gt New Smallpox Typhus Measles New 77gt Old VD Syphilis D Exchange of Foods amp Diseases called the COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE E POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS 1 3 GLOBAL POWERS Spain France England 2 1 WORLD SUPERPOWER F WESTERN CIVILIZATION MOVES WEST JanetM Former Spring 2005 Use by express permission only HISTORY amp CIVILIZATION OF THE HELLENIC GREEKS EARLY HELLENIC 0R ARCHAIC PERIOD c 1800 7 323 BC Lecture Outline 3 I INTRODUCTION A DATES ca 800 BC to 323 BC 2 From END of Dark Ages to Death of Alexander 111 the Great B TERMINOLOGY 1 HELLENIC a TRUE Greek b HELLENIC divides into 2 periods 1 c 800 to c 500 BC 2quot c 500 BC to 323 BC 2 NAMES a 1ST PERIOD c 800 to c 500 B 1 EARLY Hellenic Period Age 2 ARCHAIC Age Spielvogel prefers this one so I will use it a 2m PERIOD ca 500 BC to 323 BC 1 CLASSICAL PERIOD AGE 2 AGOLDEN AGE OF GREECE II ARCHAIC AGE 80017quot IRON amp CIVILIZATION A GREECE NOW IRON AGE amp MOVING TOWARD CIVILIZATION 1 Exit Dark Ages in IRON AGE 2 HOMER at ca 800 BC w WRITING 3 Other Characteristics of Civilization reappear rather rapidly B ARCHAIC PERIOD DYNAMIC TIME 1 economic growth expansion social upheaval political change cultural change 2 ARCHAIC PERIOD Formatlve for Classical Period C SIGNIFICANT ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL GREEK CULTURE HAVE ROOTS IN ARCHAIC AGE 1 A Development of the Polix as the Fundamental Political Institution Focus upon Man as Central to Life Emphasis upon the Individual Statement of the Great Questions of Life Creation of Rational Outlook to address those questions Failure of the Greeks to Put aside Local Interests for good of All Greeks D IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS HERE WHICH AFFECT REST OF GREEK HISTORY 6 III SIX 6 llVIPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS OF ARCHAIC GREECE Text says A2quot A ALPHABET amp WRITING AORIENTALIZINGG 1 Trading Colony at AliMina Syria near Ugarit 2 Picked up likely between 900 amp 800 or so 3 Homer is writing between 800 amp 700 w ALPHABET B POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1 By 00 BC the POLIS has replaced Kingdom amp become THE de ning Greek Institution a Polix DESCRIBED geographical area maybe some towns tribal basis political institutions cultural practices b Polix DEFINED AALL that we are AAll that makes us distinct different from barbaroi amp other Greeks c ALL Archaic Greece organized into many poleix 2 OLIGARCHY displaces amp replaces the Chieftain king a Oligos plural oligoi Athe few hence Oligarchy Rule of the Few b Ruling as a group of Aristocrats c Fight amp Squabble among Selves Ignore the Lower Classes BgtAEnter the Tyrant 3 Rise of TYRANNY wrannoi Tyrants DEFINED Rule by one man of Aristocracy in extraiconstitutlonal manner usually backed by armed forces b Rise to Power backed by Groups ignored by the Aristocracy generally c SEEMS to be Part of OVERALL Political Evolution in parts of Greece eg ATHENS B which is 1 onarchy rule by one man as King on own behalf or behalf of warrior aristocracy 2 Oligarchy rule by the few warrioriaristocrats 3 Tyranny rule by one on behalf of the Ademox the people 4 later Bgt democracy Rule by the demos people d IMPORTANCE Indicates Rise of new classes 1 Those lesser classes demand to be heard 2 Trend toward Great Political Participation by more groups mamaawn C COLONIZATION 1 CAUSES Overpopulatlon need for grain or other usually foodstuffs 2 DATES soon after 800 BC 790s down to about 550 BC 3 OUTCOME economically useful to Greek states SPREADS Greek culture including Greek alphabet Janet M F ormer Fall 2007 1 Use by expresspermimion only HOPLITE ARMY 1 Name for HOPLON shield round w hand grip amp elbow strap 2 In place BY 675 BC 3 Fight as PHALANX a about 8 X 8 rows lines of men armed alike b moving amp ghting as a uni 4 Weapons haplon spear sword helmet greaves shin guards 5 THE Way to Fight in Mediterranean til Roman Legions defeat Phalanx in early 2 1 C BC CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Art amp Architecture AORIENTALIZING 1 RT Freeistanding Statuary B In a uenced by ANE amp Egypt b ros kouroi male nudes 2 ARCHITECTURE a Stone Temples by ca 650 BC b DORIC Order of Columns predominate but IONIC also present becomes predominant alter c 450 BC ARISTOCRATIC LIFESTYLE 1 VALUES Arete AExcellence or AVirtue but Only Men have this AVirtue a Ma y Virtue Martial military skill Excellence on Battle eld b Bravery Valor Individualistic Seliiconcern w being Honored amp Famous c 2 GAMES a Competition without making War B AFriendly war 1 Olympics 76 BC 2 Aristocratic Homoieroticism not homosexuality a ear set of rule Young adult male and boy no beard no AcorruptionlB b Seliiiniatuation on part of Class lm39xtoi Gender Individual anet M Farmer Fall 2007 Use by expresspermimion only 4 11 CHALLENGE OF PERSIA A 1ST P D THE HISTORY amp CIVILIZATION OF THE HELLENIC GREEKS CLASSICAL PERIOD ecture Outline 4 HIGH POINT OF GREEK CIVILIZATION CLASSICAL GREECE ca 500 7 323 A D C TES HELLENIC GREECE c 800 to c 500 B 1ST PERIOD c 800 to c 500 BC ARCHAIC Age 2 2m PERIOD ca 500 BC to 323 B CLASSICAL PERIOD AGE a Ca 500 to death of Alexander 111 the Great of Macedon Macedonia b also known s AGOLDEN AGE OF GREECE c INSIDE this Period is GREAT AGE OF ATHENS 1 461 to 429 BC 2 PERICLEAN ATHENS 3 Many AGreats were alive Pericles Socrates the great dramatists Herodotus 3 RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY OF UP7COMING EVENTS a Persian Wars Great Age of Athens Periclean Athens B Great Cultural Events Peloponnesian Wars between Athens amp Sparta Greek States Decline Macedon Invades Philip 11 Alexander 111 the Great takes Greece then Persian dies in 323 BC CHRONOLOGY OF IMPORTANT EVENTS amp CIRCUMSTANCES of ST CENTURY BC RC 1 Greco7Persian Wars 2 Great Age of Athenian Democracy and Empire 3 Great Age of Periclean Athens a Western secular Histories written b Western Classical Standards are set in Art and Architecture Great Age of Greek Drama and Tragedy Hanna d Philosophy Wars of Sparta7vs7Athens Peloponnesian Wars this in later lecture ERSIAN WAR DARIUS I THE GREAT remember him Ionian cities in Asia Minor controlled by Persia E cities revolted 499 BC w aid of Athens Darius I the Great set out to punish Greeks in 490 BC Greeks under Miltiades defeated Persia at Marathon 490 Darius returned to Persian to build Athe mother of all armies 07YEAR INTERVAL BETWEEN PERSIAN INVASIONS Arc on Themistocles 2 built great Athenian Navy of Triremes 3 decks of rowers ca 200 men aboard 2mi PERSIAN WAR 1 XERXES I 7Ahashuerus son ofDarius I B In 480 BC 3 4 5 1 1 2 Thermopylae 480 BC Persians defeated Spartans under King Leonidas 3 Persians sacked amp burned Athens 4 Athenian Navy met amp defeated Persians at Salamis 480 BC 5 Immediate threat from Persia over but P continued to give aid to enemies GREEK VICTORY 7 1 Greeks BELIEVED it a victory Athens particularly was inspired to Great cultural heights by her AVictory 2 III GREAT AGE OF ATHENS AGE OF PERICLES 461 7 429 BC A Ath enian Democracy 1 Athenian Democratic System Institutions a eu39a popular of the people Assembly all males over 18 rs b Archons chosen by lot names drawn at random amp handled routine daily affairs c Board of 10 Strategoi Generals 7 Astrategy 1 F 39 2 Pericles was elected strategos every year from 461 to 429 except 430 BC 2 Athenian Imperialism a e ocracy at home imperialism tyranny abroad b Empire started as Delian L enian defense league against Persia c evolved into a tribute7paying empire to support Athenian building programs d Democratic Athens acting like a Tyrant tyrannos I JanetM Former Fall 2007 1 Use by expresspermim39on only 111 Great Age of Athens continued B Athenian Culture Remarkable intellectual amp cultural owering in Greece esp Periclean Athens Greek Culture demonstrates a ApolarityB between Apollo amp Dionysos llo Harmony perfection music reason b Dionysos Roman Bacchus Disharmony disorder wine chaos emotion 2 The Birth of History a AHistory for West as systematic analysis of past events Greek invention b Herodotus c 4847c 425 BC Histoiy 0fthe Peru39an Wars ca 0 1 AFather of History B Hixtoty querxian Wars 1 real history 2 Some events caused by men some caused by go s c Thucydides c 4607ca 400 BC Hixtoty 0fthe Peloponnesian War c 410 ucy i es Athenian general during Peloponnesian Wars lost battle exiled wrote history 2 better historian than Herodotus maybe greatest of ancient world 3 Rational approach events caused only by men amp their motives 3 Greek Drama a Drama creation of Greeks for entertainment amp propaganda b 3 Great Tragedians of Classical Athens Aeschylus Sophocles Euripedes c ub s amp mythic themes worked out in lives of people 4 The Arts The Classical Ideals amp Standards still dominate Western world a Architecture ampsculpture best place to study painting has disappeared ls of Beauty viewed as eternal 2 Subject matter human 3 Style Characteristics reason balance symmetry mathematical relationships harmony of all parts 4 Purpose harmonize amp civilize the emotions Thr Orders Doric Ionic amp later Corinthian see depiction in Spielvogel b Sculpture Stiff kouroi of Archaic era BgtNaturalixm of Classical era 1 ifeilike but not realistic 2 notrealism how we really look but idealim ideals of beauty 3 search for ideals of beauty dominant feature of classical standard in classical sculpture 5 Religion a Polytheistic Principle d0 ut lies I do for you that you may do for me b Zeus head of Pantheon of 12 gods 1 Zeus AFather of gods and men 2 but Zeus does not know all omniscient cannot do all omnipotent not be everywhere o sent 6 Philosophy Great Chain of Teachers Students Socrates Bgt Plato Bgt Aristotle Bgt Alexander later lecture C Pericles Aforeign policy toward Sparta was very Aggressive Bgt Peloponnesian Wars between Sparta amp Athens 1 S E Fighting from ca 461 til 404 but GREAT PELOPONNESIAN WAR 431 7 404 BC 2 Led to Decline of Greek States 3 later lecture on Sparta amp Athens JanetM Former Fall 2007 Use by expresspermimion only III EARLY EMPIRE AUGUSTUS 31 BC 7 AD 14 amp PRINCIPATE 31 BC 7 AD 68 Lecture Outline 12 INTRODUCTION to PRINCIPATE amp DATES A EMPIRE 31 BC B AD 476 1 Early Empire 31 BC 7 AD 180 death Marcus Aurelius Pax Remand AImmense majesty of the Roman PeaceG Cicero 2 Late Empire AD 180 7 476 AFall Alienation of Rome from Empire B PRINCIPATE 1 Augustus to Nero d 68 AD or Domitian d 96 BC B depending on scholar 2 PRINCIPATE from word Princeps Augustus Princeps senilme First Man of the Senate a 39 e our Speaker of House Speaks first offers Aadvice to be followed 1 Includes Julio7Claudians Augustus Tiberius Gaius Caligula Claudius Nero amp by some accounts The Flavians Vespasian Titus Domitian C MEET THE FAMILY 1 Gaius Octavius Bgt Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus Octavian Bgt Augustus 27 BC 2 Augustus Tiberius Gaius Caligula Claudius Nero Roman Adoptive Principle AUGUSTUS Prince of Peace A AUGUSTUS NAME HE PREFERRED 1 T VIUS Name OC A 2 Adopted by Julius in his will 13gt Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianux 3 27 BC awarded title AAugustus by Senate Means High Revered Partaking of the Divine Deity B SUCCEEDED Where Julius Failed 1 ecause Aug maintained a AFiction othing had changed amp that he had Arestored the Republic 2 BUT he maintained directcontrol of all Roman Legions reduced to 28 AUGUSTAN CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER A SECRET 7 He Acopied amp pasted Imperium from various magistracies 13gt necessary powers to do what he wanted 2 He lived simply amp NEVER made a show of his power Julius failure B POWERS RMY Proconsular Power maintained control of 28 25 Armies created Praetorian Guard as body guard TRIBUNICIAL POWER Tribune of People Could Propose laws Could Veto proposals laws actions PONTIFEXAIAXIMUS originally AChief Bridge7Keeper 13gt Head of ALL Roman Religions CENSOR Determined Social Classes Status taxes etc Could purge Senate amp did PRINCEPS SENATUS presided over Senate a ATelegraphedG desires b Gave Senate power to Make Laws Assemblies now decline C HE CLAIMED HIS ONLY POWER WAS HIS AUCTORITAS Resgextae AMy Deeds published late in life Said he had NO power Ajust Influence 2 Influence Was he justified in saying tha a Birth adopted by Patrician amp dei ed Julius Office he held any he wanted amp powers from all of them Military Command he commanded all legions amp took credit for every victory Money he inherited JCs fortune made his own stole the riches of Egypt Age Sickly but he managed to get even this 10539 e AUGUSTUS amp ROME A TITLE HE USED PRINCEPS SENATUS an o enate had right to speak first 2 Old amp Constitutional Title Oldest amp most respected man in Senate 3 Title gave Augustus a means to Atelegraph his wishes to Senate B TITLE HE ATRADED ON DIVI FILIUS 1 Julius Adopted father deified by Senate 13gt Divux Iulius 2 Therefore Augustus Son o ivux uliux 3 ivi 39ux Aa son of a god AThe son ofa god Athe son of the god or just Ason of god C TITLE HE HAD BUT NEVER USED IMPERATOR 1 Imperator honorific title voted to a successful commander by his troops Meant Conqueror Victor 2 Augustus was voted Imperator and put the title in front of his name w other ti les e was NEVER called AEmperorG Imperator D ROMAN INSTITUTIONS FUNCTIONED GENERALLYAS BEFORE 1 Senate met Assemblies met Magistrates were elected BUT with some subtle amp important changes See above Augustan Constitution E AI FOUND ROME BRICK AND LEFT HER MARBLE Great Builder amp Propagandist EMPIRE UNDER AUGUSTUS A IMPERIAL BORDERS GENERALLY SET BY AUGUSTUS 1 Attempted Conquest of Germania Lost 3 Eagles Legions in Teutoburg Forest 9 AD So Established NORTHERN Borders to WEST of Rhine7Danube Rivers changed very lime after this B PROVINCES BETTER GOVERNED a Governors responsible to him directly or to him thru the Senate b hence Less graft bribery corruption amp abuse of power c axes were actually fairer ASheer the sheep dont ski them Tiberius anet M Farmer Fall 2007 1 Use by expresspermimion only VI 2 Divided into 2 kinds of Provinces a enatorial paci ed and needed NO or few troops Imperial unpacified amp needed many troops Judaea 3 T EGYPT Became essentially an Aimperial possession rest of history PRINCIPATE AFTER AUGUSTUS 4 men traded on Augustus Aucton39tax til it was spent TIBERIUS Jesus ministry occurred under Tiberius B GAIUS CALIGULA Crazy thru selfiindulgence murdered by the Praetorian Guard now Kingimakers C CLAUDIUS made Prince sby Praetorian Guard Fair ruler created bureaucracy which governed ca 200 yr D NERO Troubled teen turned addled adult Aallowed to commit suicide by Guard amp Army 1 Paul likely died in the Neronian persecution of 66 AD 2 Peter probably died just before Nero did in 68 AD TRENDS OF THE PRINCIPATE A POLITICAL TRENDS IN PRINCIPATE Actual Senatorial Authority Declined Made Laws But Princeps Aspoke first 2 Assemblies atrophied 3 Great Official Stress on Respectability amp Stability 4 Crowds more dependent on Bread amp Entertainment B CULTURAL TRENDS 1 AUGUSTUS AGolden Age of Latin Letters ca 25 BC to ca 15 AD a ALITERATUREB Poetry of HORACE 2 LOVE Poetry of OVID exiled for it 3 VIRGIL T heAeneid a EPIC Story of Romes Origins Fleeing Trojan Prince Aeneas Fled West b THE BEST of Roman Literature b HISTORY 1 CLAUDIUS History 0fthe Etruscan now tragically lost 2 LIVY Ab urbe condita AFrom the founding of the city History of Rome 2 ASilver Age of Latin Lettersfl ca 15 AD death of Augustus in 14 to End of Hellenistic Period ca 100 AD a Seneca Stoic Teacher of Nero b Tacitus Latin Historian 3 BUT After Golden Age REAL AF resh Wind in Literature CHRISTIAN Janet M F ormer Fall 2007 Use by expresspermimion only III DEVELOPMENT OF AFEU39DALISM FIEFS AND VASSALS no ISMs actually exist Lecture Outline 20 WORLD OF VIOLENCE INSTABILITY INSECU39RITY ANARCHY amp FAITH A C lMATE of Origins of Feudalism CMs Empire disintegrates New Invasions Anarchy Chaos Need for Protection B DATES HEYDAY OF FEUDALISM ca 900 7 1200 1 Early Feudalism 900 7 1066 2 Mature Feudalism 1066 7 1200 C SOCIAL ORDER by 1000 AD a WORLD of Groups amp GROUP RIGHTS No Aindividual rights 1 Chief Groups 3 Estates Clergy Nobles Peasants Towns Guilds others 2 3 ESTATES assumed to be more or less unchangea e a Clergy 1st Estate Pray b Military menNobles 2nd Estate Fight Peasants 3rd Estate Work c ORIGINS OF FEUDALISM HISTORICAL ROOTS 1 Hierarchy of Patrons amp Clients wn Roman culture 2 Late Roman Economy people were tied to jobs 13gt class of SERFS tied to land 3 man war bands Sworn fidelity to war leader a tax or comes sometimes held land from his leader B CONTEMPORARY SOURCES cf above I A 1 Disintegration of CMs Em ire new invasions 13gt Chaos ampn Destruction 2 H ce arose NEED FOR PROTECTION among High amp Low FEUDALISM Asystem of MUTUAL DEFENSE A 2 Aspects to these PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS FEUDALISM amp MANORIALISM a Superior Offers rotection and Maintenance support b Inferior offers Military Service usually specified amount 2 MANORIALISM personal relationship between Free7man land7holder and Unfree serfs working land a Superior offers Protection and Maintenance support in use of land b Inferiors offer Service as Work and Support usually a specified amount B FEUDALISM FEUDAL RELATIONSHIP 1 Fundamental Purpose Military Protection 2 But has several Aspects Defensive Aspect Primary however Defense can become Offense quickly b Social Aspect This is a hierarc 1 Unfree serf at bottom then Free commoners then nobles barons counts dukes king theoretical top 2 Fighting Knight per se Free Commoner below Nobles Aknight from A7SCniht for Lat Asoldier 3 English PeerageJNobles Dukes Marquis Earl Viscount Baron Commons Knights Other freemen c Economic ct Manor but see below under Manorialism 2 Personal relationship established by Hallmark 37stage Ceremony a Cere on Subordination of Homage becoming someones Aman oath of Fealty loyalty Investiture of Fief b Establishes a Personal Relationship 1 Superior gets Military Man fighter for Defense 2 nferior gets some kin 0fAMaintenanoe c Unstable Asystem of Personal Ties amp loyalties which overlap amp shift 1 Multiple ties to multiple lords get more land that way who may fight each other 2 NO Patriotism amp NO fixed boundaries boundaries shift w ghting dowries etc Hence Bgt Liege Homage determines 1 allegiance in case 2 of my lords fight each other 3 CHARACTERISTICS of Feudalism a Unstable and LOCAL System DECENTRALIZED in every imaginable way Apublic power in private hands 1 Politically Local Control by men Aholding land of a superior all way up to king 2 Militarily Troops are AattachedG by oaths to each man up or down system amp must be Acalled up as eudal Levies to do any serious fighting 3 Economically Local production for all local needs a little local trade almost NO long7distance trade 4 Judicially Local noble has job of Aholding court on behalf of king ie hearing cases among local popu a ion b Va ues of Feudalism WARRIOR Nobility Martial skill Loyalty Bravery Courage Generosity Hospitality C MANORIALISM Economic Aspect of ASystem Baron Noble free Local workers who can be Serfs bound to land but may include local Freemen as well 2 Fundamental Purpose Production of Necessities support fighting class amp entire socie y 3 Man or Manner of Maintenance Fief Manor or any piece of Manor producing income b 7manored Fighter Is maintained at Lords table as Bachelor til landed then marries 4 Values Agricultural Support from land and Agrarian landed7values Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only III MATURE FEUDALISM 10661200 A FRANCE 1 987 New Dynasty Elected Hugh of Capet Duke of Paris king precisely because he was SO weak 2 French king at theoretical top of hierarchy but French nobles enmeshed in web of overlapping allegiances not to him B HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Otto Duke of Saxony elected King of Germans 1 Then 962 became Emperor of Romans amp by 1250 AHoly Roman Empire BUT ELECTED both as King of Germans and as Holy Roman Emperor C ENGLAND 1 Mature Feudalism Feudal MONARCHY by William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy 9271066 took England 1 Feudal MONARCHY in England Feudalism on National Sca e 2 King at ACTUAL head of Hierarchy King Dukes Counts Earls Viscount Baron Knights a Swept away former landiholding replaced w HIS own system w King as every mans 1 allegiance b Most ACentralized Feudalism 1066 7 c 1215 Domesday Book Tax Registers for Kingdom c King John lost much of it at Runnymede amp Magna Carta IV WORLD OF MATURE FEUDALISM A INVASIONS ENDING Northmen in 911 Magyars in 955 Arabs in 100s 1000s by Italian cities B By 1200 Beginnings of Urbanization amp Commercial ization esp Italian cities BgtDecline amp End of Feudalism Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only III WHY DID ROME AFALL 7 Lecture Outline 14 POLITICAL CORRUPTION A ARM Controlled Emperor7Ship 2 I dulged 7 Septimius Severus Ca 2307240 quotEnrich Army Scorn Othersquot 3 Barbarian B SENATE WEAK CITYrGOV39T C OFFICES SOLD D TAXES HIGH E EMPEROR B gt ARBITRARY RULE Tiberius quotLord To Nobody But His Slaves 2 Domitian quotDominusEtDeusquot ALord And God 3 3rd C Diadem Pro cynen39s Getting Down On Your Face Before Emperor Above Law COMPROMISED BORDERS A NE W DANUBE COMPROMISING BALKANS B Nquot RHINE GERMANS In Army 2 GERMANS Moving Into Empire BY 390s 5 MAJOR GROUPS Franks Saxons Vandals Ostrogoths East Goths Visigoths West Goths b 400s SOME EST KINGDOMS with EMPIRE c By 450 Vandals had moved thru and on to Africa come up from South and Sacked Rome our vandalize C E W SYRIA 1 Persia Revived Overran Syria amp Cappadocia 230 Ad 2 Outlying Provinces Vulnerable A eso mia B van Routes D BRITAIN Lost sometime around 410 AD ECONOMIC DISRUPTION A LARG o o x w m a 1 l a gt4 x m 2 B SMALL FREEHOLDERS CONSTANTLY DECLINING 1 Economic Straits Food Surplus Declining Constantly 3 Thes Are Major Taxpayers C MONEY LEAVING EMPIRE 1 Soldiers39 Pay High Other Payments 2 Spending On Borders D MONEY DEVALUED TO INFLATE CURRENCY 1 507299ad Denarius 98 Decrease Silver Wash 2 Coins Clipped amp Reissued E CIVILIANS SUFFERING 1 axes High Extortion By Tax Collectors F BARTER REPLACED COIN EXCHANGE 1 Oxyrhynchus 77gt Ptolemaic Coins 300 Yrs Old Trade Esp LongiDistance Declined SOCIAL DISRUPTIONS A BARBARIANS I Faddish Blond Wigs 2 Destructive Army Leadership MagisterMilitum B PEOPLE ON RUN IN MID7200S 1 invasions almost unimpeded 2 coin stashes C PLAGUE 1 Entered By L Verus39s Army Ca 150 Ad 2 Army Being Decimated By 250 Ad D URBAN LIFE DYING 1 Cities Require Food Surplus amp Trade No Walls Under Pax Romana Now Walls 3 Mobs Demanding Bread amp Circuses E INFRASTRUCTURE NOT BEING MAINTAINED 1 Roads In Disrepair A C B Communications Disrupted N C Aqueducts Fall Down No Water No Ci 39 s No Cities No Empire 3 Cultural Implications Throughout Society Defense Trade Declines Learning Shrivels Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only THE AGE OF CHARLEMAGNE CAROLINGIAN KINGDOM amp EMPIRE Lecture Outline 17 I CHARLEMAGNE39S THVIE A 3 MAJOR INGREDIENTS IN EMPlRE R idea of universality amp order FRANKISH military power 3 CHRISTIAN religion B 4 HISTORICAL FORCES IN TIME OF CHARLEMAGNE 1 Frankish Kingdom Kings 2 Eastern Roman Empire Emperors 3 Medieval Catholic Church Popes 4 Arab Empires Califs Sheiks II THE MAN CHARLEMAGNE r 768814 AD W Umrles le Magne CarolusMagnus Charles the Great RUL D 46 ears Biographers Einhard amp Notker the Stammer b Often called the AFather of Europequot amp Carolingian Era AF irst Europe 1 Warrior King 54 Campaigns against Lombards Spanish Mark Saxons Avars Slavs 2 By his death 2 ideas blended Charlemagne and AEuro e a uropa figure from Greek mythology associated w lands to NW of Greece b Charlemagne united much of western lands which had belonged to Western Roman Empire c Best hope at this point for Revival of AWestern Roman Empire 111 THE EMPlRE OF CHARLEMAGNE A GOVERNING KINGDOM amp EMPIRE Made sons into Subikings in various areas Along Marches w Marcher Barons border Counts Settled Interior Comes Warrior comrades 13gt Counts Some War leaders amp area rulers Dux DucesEgt Duke 5 Checks on Everybody Mimi dominiei Envoys of Lord King B GOVERNING THE CHURCH 1 KINGS OWNED THEIR KINGDOMS KINGS CONTROLLED CHURCHES amp CHURCHIVIEN IN THEM a Pepin the Short Areformed Church in Fran 39 b Christian King Defender of Faith Clovis vs Visigoths Pepin Charlemagne vs Lombards c Rulers are appointing Churchmen in their territories whether duchy county kingdom 1 Parish priests abbots bishops ABs 2 BISHOP of Rome by now Papa Pope is a bishopwithin Charlemagnes Territory 3 Disputes among Churchmen in their territory Rulers Intervene d Dispute Among Churchmen in Rome Charlemagne went to Rome to Intervene C EMPEROR OF ROMANS 1 Charlemagne to Rome to Settle Church Dispute a ristmas Day 800 Charlemagne attended Mass at Old St Peters awn b Pope Leo III suddenly crowned CM AEmperor of Romans 1 ie AugustusRomanomm 2 Title amp Crown belong to amp are disposed of by Eastern Emperor so step is Aillegal 7 2 Did he PLAN to Be Emperor of Romans Western Emperor a C s Selfilmage Western Roman Emperor compare architecture b Re 1 Question is Whose Idea Leo III or CMs biographers say NOT CMs but cannot be true IV OUTCOMES OF NEW EMPEROR OF ROMANS IN WEST A Frankish kings Aownfl their kingdoms amp divided them among their son 1 harlemagne had one son Louis the Pious amp passed kingdom amp empire intact to Louis 2 Louis divided Kingdom Empire among 3 Sons a Oldest Iothair Middle w Capital at Aachen Italy amp Rome Lothairingia Crown of Emperor Second Charles the Bald Western part of Frankia which will become in time AFranceE c Third Louis the German Eastern part of Frankia which will become in time AGermanyB 3 3 Sons of Louisfight a 842 Oaths of Strasbourg 2 Frankish dialects E 1 becoming French other becoming German b 843 Treaty of Verdun Settlement of Lands among the 3 complete amp regularized 4 929 Treaty 1 Formally divided into AFrance and AGermanyG a T eaty of friendship amp independence b Henry the Fowler Duke of Saxony King of Germans amp Charles the Simple King of Franks Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only Ultimate Results down the road 100 years 1 HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 962 1250 B 1806 more later a Lothairingia divides amp subdivides til there is No Emperor of the Romans there b By 950 AD Frankia is weakening But Germania is strengthenin I c 962 Otto Duke of Saxony in Germanic decides to be crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope 1 w A TERN Frankia Germania holds Crown of Em eror 2 By 1250 it is called Holy Roman Empire more later lasts til Napoleon 1806 2 SUPREMACY QUESTION amp INVESTITURE CONTROVERSY c 1050 7 1122 more later a Power Struggle develops between Emperors amp Popes Kings vs Bisho b Because Charlemagnes Coronation as Emperor of Romans raises important question re Supremacy Who makes Whom 1 Do Kings make popes Bishops 2 o es make kings c Investiture Controversy when we get there later is fought over these issues 1 es whom Kings appoint bishops bishops crown Emperors 2 Which is greater Spiritual Pope or Temporal King Power 3 96271806 all Imperial Coronations performed by Pope Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only III BARBARIANS TO EUROPEANS Earliest Middle Ages from AFall of Rome to Clovis 1 King of the Franks Lecture Outline 15 ROMAN EMPIRE A PEAK UNDER 5 GOOD EMPERORS 96 to 180 AD B ACHRISTIAN ROMEB by c AD 350 1 ARome rapidly become AChristian CITIES PRIAIARIL Y 2 Christianity at 500 urban pagam39 dwellers in countryside Christianity 13gt Rural by c 750 C THEN DECLINE amp AFALLIB BUT NO Afall 1 THER ALIENATION of Rome amp West from Empire so that city ARomeG ceases to be part of Empire IxRomelil 2 ABARBARIANSG Chiei but not only Reason B Critical Mass of Devolution Reached ca 450 1 THINGS 1ST 7 TERMS amp DATES A TE RMS 1 3 English Terms 1 Middle Ages 2 AMedieval 3 ADark Ages 2 RENAISSANCE BgtADark Ages between Classical times amp Modern Renaissance 3 LATIN TERM Bgt 2 MediumAevum Middle Age Bgt Medieval amp Middle Ages B DATES for This Class 1 General Agreement AMedieval c 500 to c 1500 Fall of Rome to AsomethingG 2 Can be Divided relative Chronology here a Early Low MA ca 500 7 1000 1200 BC 1 ADark Ages c 500 7 c 750 2 Carolingian Age c 750 7 975 b Late High MA ca 1000 1200 7 1350 No Italy 7 1500 elsewhere THE ABARBARIANS barbari germani A Replacing WESTERN HALF of Roman Empire by AD 500 1 Gr Barbaroi unintelligible speech Lat Barbari loan word from Greeks r Frontier 2 Rhine7Danu e r e Between ABarbarians and the ACivilized 1 Civilized Rome IMPERSONAL Res PUBLI CA 2 Barbarian North All matters are PERSONAL not Public b Between ALatinity and AGermanity B Characteristics of Barbarians Most barbarians Germans germani 2 Foot nomads blonds britches bear grease 2 Lived by farming herding plunder amp war 3 ADemocra 39c ected kings war leaders amp dingthing C 2 VERY Signi cant Characteristics 2 Principal Interests plunder lighting 2 2 Chief Attachments both personal familyclan amp warrior band comitatuy D GERMAN CULTURE IS A PERSONAL CULTURE 1 German Law personal possession goes w the German a Crimes personal b Retribution personal Bgt blood feud c kings solution to blood feud some sort of Man Price Wergeld 2 Even Apublicta Justice is person a Compurgation oath helpers b Battle gods decide c later Ordeal God decides GERMANS MOVE INTO WEST REPLACE WESTERN EMPIRE A No AFall B just ALIENATION of West from Roman Empire B Barbarian kingdoms in West Blend of 3 things 1 something R0 2 something GERMAN 3 something CHRISTIAN C MOST Early Barbarian groups disappear 1 N a ac withdraw Disappear after death of Attilla 2 VANDALS AvandalizeG amp move to on to Africa est kingdom defeated by Justinian amp general Belisarius 3 GOTHS Visigoths in Spain Ostrogoths in Italy absorbed into pre7existing amp later cultur 4 Most Tribes which disappear had converted to ARIAN Christianity heresy Jesus human only D SOME GROUPS especially later ones SETTLE REMAIN DISTINCT 1 FRANKS 2 SAXONS more later E PROBLEM 495 NO ORTHODOX Christian Barbarian tribes in West Bishop of Rome Isolated among HERETICS Janet M Farmer Spring 2005 1 Use by express permission only FRANKS Bgt Christians A MU OVIS 1 King of FRANKS descendant of Merovech Merovingian Dynasty 2 Married Clotilde of Burgundy who in uenced him Burgundians Arian but she had become Orthodox 3 496 Bishop of Rome sent CLERGYiEnvoys to Clovis to convert him from Paganism a Envoys CLERGY SECULAR Clergy 1 39 ies s 2 Bishops Archbishops SECULAR Clergy Work in World among the People Lat memlum time WORLD 496 Clovis I of Franks Baptized 1 RELIGION changed behavior did NOT change immediately 2 00 Frankish Warriors baptized at same time Typical Example of Barbarian Conversion 1 King Warriors 13gt AChristianization without much behavior change 2 Signi cance of Wile as Agent of Change Conversion CLOVIS then moved against Enemies of Rome Defeated Arian Visigoths in So of France amp drove into Spain SIGNIFICANCE ORTHODOX SETTLED Kingdom of of barbarians in West 13gt AEuropeans Signi cance of WIFE as an agent of Christianization 2 3 Role of CLERGY in Conversions 4 Beginning of AallianceG between Frankish Kings amp Bishop of Rome eg Defeated of Heretical Visigoths JanetM Former Spring 2005 Use by express permission only CRUSADES 1096 7 1291 Lecture Outline 25 1 DEFINITION Wars to recover Holy Land 11th 7 13th Cs from TURKS who replaced Arab Califates II MOTIVES CAUSES A RELIGIOUS at First Worldly Aims Loot Land Trade w East Excitement C Cultural Expansionism Cultural quotcounter7offensivequot III BACKGROUND CAUSES TO CRUSADES A Dynamic Cultures in Contact Interact 1 West NOW becoming Stable amp Dynamic 2 Islamic Cultures also Dynamic a Arab Islam broken into competing Califates Arab cultures some of most dynamic at this time b Asich People the Turks appeared amp converted to Islam 2 The Byzantine Empire Last Gaspsl a ntine Eastern Emperor challenged Turks but Turks defeated Byzantines at Manzikert 1071 b Byzantine Emperor appealed to Pope in Rome for help appeal led to 1 Crusades in 1090s to Afree Christian sites from infidel B PILGRIMAGES common in LMA Holy Land cut off by Presence of Turks C INVITATION 1 Battle of Manzikert 1071 Turks defeated forces of Eastern Emperor Emperor appealed to Pope for Help against Turks 3 1095 Pope Urban II preached 1 Crusade at Council of Clermont IV ATHE CRUSADES A EARLY CRUSADES 1 CRUSADE Urban 11 1095 preached 1 Crusade a rban used Arab notions of Jihad Salvation in exchange for death when ghting Aenemies of Allah 2 AInfidellB had been used by Arabs for NON7Muslims b 1 Crusade 1096799 only one to achieve its stated aims c Aims Free Holy Sites from Muslim control 2 2m CRUSADE 114771149 Why include a section on it except to say it failed 3 3m CRUSADE 1189793 Crusade of the 3 Kings Clearly the most romantic Crusade a 3 Kings Richard the Lion7heart of England Philip Augustus of France Frederick Barbarossa HRE Frederick died en route c Philip returned to France to make mayhem against Richard 39 rd was taken prisoner amp held for ransom in Austria B SOME CRUSADES OF THE 13TH CENTURY 1 Innocent III amp 43911 Crusade 1204 a degenerated into sack of Christian city of Constantinople by Western troops who never got to Holy Land b Christian West weakened Constantinople as a barrier between themselves amp Turks ll 1 rks on European soil by c 13 2 Turks took Constantinople in 1453 T rks threatened Vienna by c 1580 c ern Crusaders brought lots of loot from Constantinople 2 Childrens Crusade 1212 tragic loss of 1000s of children died or enslaved D LATER CRUSADES 1 AThe Crusades usually refers to First Period of Crusading 1095 7 1291 1 Crusade to Fall of Jerusalem in 1291 2 But ACrusades were preached amp a few attempted into the 163911 Century a especially after Constantinople fell to now Ottoman Turks in 1453 b then Turks threatened Vienna in late 1500s 3 But after ca 1300 7 1350 as Renaissance started the Old Crusading Spirit was gone a Renaissance 39 39 39 amp Money7 vi ta n nnt H t 439 b ar7making was changing and feudal knight was being displaced Still Warrior7Monk of Crusading Orders was The Christian Ideal of LMA as monk of EMA 4 V EFFECTS OF CRUSADES 1 Broadened perspective of West esp Crusaders 2 Encouraged sense of self as the AChristian West 3 Drained off some of military ardor violence tormenting Europe Normans were invading here and there 1 Sicily 2 the Conqueror to England 1066 b Papal teaching Sin to kill European Christians go light Infidels 4 Trade increased between East amp West Eastern luxury goods introduced 5 Wealth of West grew VI CONCLUSION AEUROPE Emerged from Early Middle Ages 700 7 950 or so B by High Middle Ages Europe had become expansive 1 Reaching out for good or ill 2 NOTE Reversal of Positions a c AD 500 West unstable East stable people flee barbarians to East b NOW West becoming stable East becoming unsta e c By c 1400 West IS stable East is coming apart Janet M F ortner Spring 2005 1 Use by express permission only ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ARECOVERY AND REBIRTH Spielvogel Lecture Outline 28 I RENAISSANCE BEGINS A IN CITIES OF NORTHERN ITALY 1 Economies growing slowly since ca 960 Trading w East Mediterranean amp Asia thru East sites 3 Cleaning out Arab irates in West Mediterranean B WEAKNESS of 3 Great Medieval Institutions in NO Italy ca 1300 Bgt CULTURAL Changes we call ARenaissance Political Changes HRE weakened by Investiture Controversy and cannot control its cities Economic Changes agrarian FEUDALISM always weak in Italy amp cities always more and larger there 3 Cultural Changes absence of HMC means culture grows Aout from under Church patronage a ove to Avignon Babylonian Captivity of Church 1305 7 1377 b Great Schism 1377 71417 c General Weakness 1417 7 c 1490 by then too late C GREAT TRADING CITIES Grow in No Ital 1 5 Renaissance States Develop Florence Milan Venice Papal States Kingdom of Naples 2 3 Great Trade Cities of North Italy Florence Milan Venice D Means REBIRTH OUR Word is French Renaissance Italian is rinascita 11 WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE AREBIRTHG Broad Changes throughout Society based on ARebirthfl of Greco7Roman Classical Culture A CULTURAL beginning in Italy by 1350 ca 1300 7 1350 Art 2 Scholarship Literature 3 Morality amp Ethics B ECONOMIC 1 FROM Agricultural Agrarian Economy 2 TO Urban Commercial monied Economy C SOCIAL 1 move FROM church7dominated intellectual and cultural life 2 TO increasing LAY patronage and participation 3 Makes a society dominated by a different spirit 13gt ASecular 9 D TRANSFORMATION TO A SOCIETY increasingly MODERN amp characterized by 1 CENTRALIZED POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS even in areas of small fractured states centralization was occurring within those states 2 URBAN COMMERCIAL ECONOMY a mercial Class in Burgs Burgers Bgt Bourgeoisie b lass 3 LAY PATRONAGE of Literature Arts Education Music Middle Class has MONEY III DATES RELEVANT TO RENAISSANCE IN ITALY By 1350 TO 1494 1527 A Spielvogel says Begins after 1400 Mrs Fortner DISAGREES Learn MY dates B MRS FORTNERS DATES FOR ITALIAN RENAISSANCE c 1350 to 1494 1527 1 Italian Renaissance c 1350 to 1494 or 1527 see below for justification a thas begun in Italy by 1350 b It is ending by 1494 and is over certainly by 1527 2 North of Alps ca 1450 or 1 475 until Entering France amp Germany between 1450 and 1475 b Ending in France by 00 c Still going on in England when Elizabeth Ithe Great dies in 1603 3 SO Italian Renaissance Began BEFORE and Ended BEFORE the Northern Renaissance a put another way NO Renaissance began AFTER and ended AFTER Italian Renaissance b They Overlap C 1350 14941527 Italian Ren Begins Ends No Ren begins Ends still going on in England 1603 4 CAN in FLORENCE Italy AQueen City of the Renaissance Rome AQueen of High Renaissance 7 C RELEVANT DATES FOR ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1 RENAISSANCE BEGINS in Italy aho no doubt interrupted by Black Death 134748 PET 04774 TRANSITIONAL Figure in LITERARY RENAISSANCE is Called the AFirst Humanist hence IS Renaissance figure 2 Writes Poems new style new motives to AURA Sees her first in 1327 begins writing poetry to her owned Poet Laureate of Italy result of poetry in 1341 3 amp rarch is DEAD by 1374 duh This is before Spielvogel says it begins b GIOTTO 126671337 TRANSITIONAL Figure in ARTISTIC RENAISSANCE 1 39 widely placed among first Renaissance Artists Michelangelo did 2 PAINTING of Madonna a Maesui ca 1300 amp is dead in 1337 duh LONG before Spielvogel lets it begin 2 BLACK DEATH 134748 to 1350 Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only VIII a ca 70 Million dead of c 210 million European population 13 total population dead in 2 years estimates range from high of 2 to low of 14 but 13 is good conservative figure c IMMENSE social economic amp cultural outcomes 3 MASACCIO 140171428 B followed in Giottos footsteps a Here is where Spielvogel wants to start Italian Renaissance b S see it as Arecovery amp rebirth from Black Death amp ATerrible 143911 Century bad argument Admitted 143911 Century was Terrible 2 But NOT terrible Everywhere at same time to same degree 3 Sometimes troubles 13gt dynamism in Culture B case in point 203911 C Had 5 bloodiest wars in human history amp did not prevent dynamic change 4 1453 FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE Bgt Political and Cultural Effects a Political Effects 1 Turks on European Soil constitute Threat to ALL Western States 2 Frightens feuding Italian cities to make Peace Peace of Lodi below b Cultural Effects 1 Constantinople amp East had Black Death from early 1300s 13gt people w MSS West 2 Fall of Constantinople increased flow of people amp MSS to west ca 1450755 5 1454 PEACE OF LODI a 3 great No Italian cityistates Florence Milan Venice made peace in a BALANCE OF POWER b Uneasy peace for 40 Years 145471494 HIGH RENAISSANCE Peak Yrs of work for 1 Leonardo da Vinci 2 Raffael o Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475 7 1546 Said he learned everything from Giotto amp Masaccio 6 1492 Important Year for many reasons u a or nzo Il Magnifico de Medici who controlled Florentine politics died 1 Fear arose in Venice amp Milan that Florence would attack 2 Destabilized Peace of Lodi 3 Leads to French Invasion 7 below and END of ITALIAN Renaissance Pope Alexander VI Borgia mounts throne venal amp corrupt Renaissance popeBgt Reformation Isabella of Castile amp Ferdinand of Aragon married expel Moors Muslims from ASPAING Isabella interested in Exploration 13gt subsidy 3 ships to Columbus S IFT OF BALANCE OF POWER TO ATLANTIC STATES nc39 Beginning of END of Italian Renaissance Balance of Power disturbed when MILAN invited French to help against other cities 1494 1st Invasion of Italy by French intruding on territory technically belonging to HRE who is weak 1499 2 Invasion 1515 3 1 Invasion by Francis I Valois new Dynasty that replaced Capetians 2 important events which mark a change in Ital a 1 HRE Charles V INVADES Italy amp Sacks Rome 1 Charles V is new HRE amp is momentarily the strongest man in Europe 2 Charles Invades Italy to take back from French 3 Charles Troops sacked Rome for 3 mo a by 1527 Reformation has started in Germany 1517 b amp Charles has Lutheran c C s does not stop them from sackin Rome b 2 Niccolo Machiavelli died 146971527 has already published his Pn39nce secular politics MENTALITY OF RENAISSANCE A BOUR OIS Practical hardiheaded realistic confident Afreeithinking individualistic educated literate Rich ART of Renaissance displays their realism con idence indiVI ality MY style MY eye EDUCATION designed to meet needs of U HUMANISM later lecture HQOU NH 39du rban commercial life EMPHASES OF RENAISSANCE Rebirth of GrecoiRoman Classics 1 Classical Learning anything GrecoiRoman but is Pagan will have unexpected influences ns COW 2 Emphasis upon Individuals amp Individualism vs Strictly Groupiinfluences amp concer 3 THIS world vs purely Otheriworldly we would call this the beginning of Asecularism 4 BUT these people are NOT atheistic but are faithful sons of HM RENAISSANCE NORTH OF ALPS no discussion of this in Lecture see Spielvogel A FRAN 39 E tends to be political Jean Bodin or raw amp sensual Rabelals B HRE GERMANY tends to pietistic inwardilooking religion amp will lead to Reformation D Erasmus C ENGLAND tends to be political and AscientificlB 1 Sir Thomas More Utopia 1516 disillusioned w materialism amp greed of English Middle Class 2 Sir Francis Bacon wanted to discard Medieval Aauthorities and do experiments 3 Wm Shakespeares plays D SPAIN El Greco in painting almost more Agothic than Renaissance Miguel Cervantes Don Quixote may be interpreted as a spoof on Medieval feudal values of lighting class RENAISSANCE OUTLOOK Christian Humanism ENDURED IN EUROPE TIL ca 1700 A Humanist teachers filled University positions til ca 1750 B Til Enlightenment amp Scientific Revolution Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only III CONVERGENCE OF THREE GREAT OF THE RENAISSANCE Lecture Outline 29 1348 BLACK DEATH 1347 134871350 A From East to Toe of Ital B Killed ca 70 Million 1 14 to 12 of Population of Western Europe 2 BEST estimate 13 Worst Disaster in terms of percentage killed C Left Behind Lands Titles Money businesses Everything 1 A so it Behind CLOTHES amp LINENS 2 And Eu o e was now raising More Flax Bgt Linen D RAG PAPER Rag7oontent Paper made with Linen high quality very durable Ca 1450 PRINTING PRESS GUTENBERG A u enberg or an Italian was first B Traditionally we say Gutenberg B who actually made 4 INVENTIONS MOLD 7 casting precise type 2 ALLOY 7 for strong type 3 PRESS 7 like olive press 4 OIL7BASED INK 7 variously colored C Date of Printing Press is uncertain 1 a di al MA RINs Gutenberg Bible Printed in 1455 So There is a Press b 1 5 O NEW TECHNOLOGY Until LINOTYPE MACHINE 19TH C SIGNIFICANCE Means ALL kinds oiiniormation are more easily communicated 1 Short Term Renaissance changes spread over Europe 2 Long Term Literacy Increases Middle Class Grows in time dominates West w 1453 FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE A 1348 Black Death Started Flight West B a slow trickle B Ottoman Turks Moving into Europe by 1350 speeded up Process Fall of Constantinople 1453 turned it into a Flood D Bringing Valuables West including Manuscripts MSS we didnt know existed Ca 1450 3 EVENTS amp CIRCUMSTANCES A BLACK DEATH Bgt Abundance of Rag Paper to Print ON B PRINT TECHNOLOG Press to Print WITH Y Bgt C CONSTANTINOPLE FALLS Bgt 2quot INFORMATION REVOLUTION A 539 Writing In Sumer B 3m YOURS e7communication Abundance of Manuscripts TO Print JanetM Former Spring 2005 Use by express permission only REACHING STABILITY AND CIVILIZATION ROYAL ASUCCESS IN LATE MIDDLE AGES CA AD 1000 TO CA 1300 Lecture Outline 21 I SUCCESSFUL KING MUST GAIN CONTROL OF A lst ESTATE CHURCH amp CHURCH INFLU 1 Create quotNational Churchquot by Ending Clerical Exemptions by Taxing Clergy Legal Jurisdiction OVER Clergy 2 Create Loyalty to State Rather than to Universal Church Citizens Not Christians W Not Til after 1500 B ke over Education of Citizens E Not Til after 1500 B 2nd ESTATE NOBLES amp FUNCTIONS IN H INGS 1 KING MUST CREATED MONOPOLY ON a WAR 7 MAKING b TAXATION quotThe power to tax is the power to destroyquot J Marshall c ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE Royal courts not feudal courts 2 King does this by CENTRALIZATION of Power amp Function a US Constitution just takes powers from kings b Kings had done work of centralization for us I C 3RD ESTATE COMMONERS 1 THE AMANY a For Agricultural Amany little change until 1600s and following b Changes in MODERN Period come as Kingiandistate seek to control and employ them 1 CITIZENSHIP IN STATE gt Citizenship in Heaven 2 LOYALTY TO STATE Patriotism 3 quotRIGHTSquot become INDIVIDUAL gt GROUP a No group to hide behind or within last group left is Family amp we are destroying it Person stands alone before the growing power of STA E 2 THE AFEWB Members of Common who live in Cities a ange comes TO this group and BY this group b Much of rest of this course is story of How this Group often in cooperation with King7amp7State change Hx II CENTRALIZATION BY KINGS this is a Anational task hislands only A AD HRE most centralized Monarchy in Europe HOW a Appointed Churchmen esp powerful bishops Mainz Trier Cologne who foughtfor him against Nobles b Created a group of Serfiknights as his personal feudal army to use against nobles 2 However never had control of nobles that the Conqueror had in England 3 BUT Conflict w Pope re Appointment of Churchmen Investiture Controversy By 1175 HRE Weak amp weakening B 106671087 AD Conquerors ENGLAND most centralized monarchy in Europe 1 W a Owned ALL land all land held from him as LIEGE LOrd b Built Castles Keeps of Conquest Occupation c Appointed all important churchmen Great Archbishops Bishops Abbots 2 By 1100 weakening relative to church by 1300 weakened rel to nobles 3 What Happened 2 Examples only a Henry II grson Wm I murder of AB St Thomas a Becket Concessions to Church b John son of H711 war w nobles BgtMagna Carta 1215 Concessions to no c By Edward I c 1300 Parliament functioning Lords Nobles amp High Clergy C 1300 AD FRANCE is most centralized 1 HOW Sssslllllooooooooooowwww Growth a 987 Hugh of Capet elected king Bgt Capetian Dynasty b Task 1 get control of nobles in Duchy of Paris c Task 2 acquire more land around Duchy B VERY important because land wealth amp power d Task 3 get control of nobles in surrounding powerful principalities 2 What happened Uneven progress thru centuries 13gt Bgt By 1500 French King is very powerful a 00 Louis XIV Bourbon calls himself an Absolute Monarch b But rest of story French Revolution sends Louis XVI to guillotine I III SUCCESSFUL POPES have a tougher job Ainternational task amp UST CONTROL A CLERGY Investiture Controversy is about this next lecture B NOBLES Aclean gtem u 1 COOPT VIOLENCE Gods Soldiers Soldiers of Christ milites chn39su39 amp Soldiers of St Peter milites sanctipem a This leads to religious elements of Homage amp knighting ceremonies b Limit WHO the can Aviolence amp WHEN they can Avio ence 1 EACE of God SOME people ALL the time clergy women peasants 2 TRUCE of God ALL people SOME of time Sunday Religious Holidays amp expand c CRUSADES Limit WHO and the WHERE 1 Who NO Christians ANY time excludes Europe just leaves Infidels 2 Where NOT here go over there amp take back Holy Land 2 CHANGE TREATMENT OF WOMEN a L n u h b Christian knight as ADefender of Women c Cult of Mary Christian knight cannot harm or rape the Mother of Christ Bgt Women on pedestal C COMMONS NOT an issue at this point B Docile and easily led BUT Papacy ultimately loses control next course HIST 111 1 Renaissance secular Individualism 2 Reformation religious Individualism 3 Printing Press amp spread of literacy anetM Former Fall 2007 Use by express permission only Revolutions of Afreedum amp equality in 193911 Century anetM Former Fall 2007 Use by express permission only III III BACKGROUNDS TO HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST B BRONZE amp lRON AGE MESOPOTAMIA amp EGYPT ca3200 to Ca 320 BC Lecture Outline 1 FOUNDATIONAL INFORMATION COURSE AND CONTENT A XPLORING AHISTORYG DEFINING TERMS Bronze Iron Archaic Renaissance DEFINING CIVILIZATION B 5 Characteristics IMPORTANCE OF GEOGRAPHY CULTURAL amp HISTORICAL CONTENT THREE IRONrAGE EMPIRES ca 1000 to 323 BC ISTORY amp HISTORICAL TERMS WHAT IS HISTORY Problem of WORD AHISTORY So many uses WHAT GOD KNOWS Eve thing everywhere cosmos amp heaven amp wherever COMPLETE PAST Everything thats happened in here The pomible past Surviving hence Possible Evidenoe DISCOVERED PAST What weve discovered of what survives the weesu39ble past the pomessed Evidence EMPLOYED PAST What weve studied of what is discovered the valued amp used past what somebody has studied SINTERPRETED PAST What we believe about what weve employed studied Historians intapretations vwsions of the ast Wriuen histories AFacts D STILLED PAST Textbooks use Historians interpretations Abn39dged History B FRESHMAN SURVEY COURSES B ORIGINS OF HISTORY gtEHJPJUOW scan 1 SECULAR HX Herodotus Persian Wars ca 450 BC uses AHistory caropm AResearchB a So Ahistory an activity of investigation amp of writing up ones resu s b It is assumed to represent ATruth otherwise why do AResearch 2 SACRED HX Historical Books of Bible usually NOT considered Ahistoryfl due to prejudices against Scriptural judgment C HISTORIOGRAPHY STUDY or WRITING of History 1 SYNCHRONIC Study CONTEMPORARY Events happening in same time period LAYER of a Cake 2 DIA HRONIC Study DEVELOPMENT of Events or Trends evolution change THRU Time SLICE of a Cake D AAGESG IN HISTORY And the ANCIENT NEAR EAST ANE 1 T FORiTIMES a ARCHAEOLOGY AMaterial Remains B Weapons Artefacts like pots etc 13gt Stone Bronze Iron Ages b HISTORY Human or CULTURAL Elements art politics etc Bgt Archaic Age Classical Age Renaissanoe etc 2 WE T with Archaeological Terms END with Historical Terms PREHISTORY HISTORY AND ACIVILIZATIONG A PRErHISTO 39 1 AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION 10000 BC TO 4000 BC Bgt Settlements Bgt Towns Bgt Cities a ALL Cultures are AAGRICULTURALE Need food b Agricultural Revolution DOMESTICATED GRAINS Wheat Barley amp ANlMALS Bovines Sheep Goats 2 Achieved by YOUR SPECIES Homo sapiens sapiens Wise wise man 13gt Ver Wise Man 3 Dependent upon RIVERS 1 Water for drinking washing trading wasteimaterials recreation RIVERINE Cultures B HISTORY BEGINS WITH WRITING AND CIVILIZATION C ACIVILIZATIONB BEGINS WHEN CULTURE ACHIEVES ACRITICAL MASS DEFINED BY CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS 1 CIVILIZATION IN ANE Ca 3200 BC in SUMER in Mesopotamia a RONZE Age Pots amp Weapons Ca 3200 BC to Ca 1200 1000 BC b RON AGE ca 1200 1000 BC to Ca AD 500 2 Universalizable List of CHARACTERISTICS of Civilization contrast to Spielvogels a rban Focus Cities Wri lng Political Differentiation Economic specialization Bgtsocial domination Representational Art Hanna M re GEOGRAPHY amp HISTORY OF BRONZEiAGE ANE Geography is ALWAYS Formative though not Deterministic A TERMINOLOGY 1 ANCIENT NEAR EAST Geographical area we call the ANear East quotFERTILE CRESCENTquot Palestine up thru Syria amp down TiE Valley MESOPOTAMIA mesos gotomo quotLand between Rivers quot Modern Iraq other parts of other NE countries quotThe Cradle of Civilizationquot 7 Earliest KNOWN Civilization in SOUTH TiE Valley SUMER 5 EGYPT EGYPT B GEOGRAPHY Bgt 2 VERY DIFFERENT CULTURAL STYLES 1 E POTAMIA A BITTER LAND TIGRISrEUPHRATES Rivers Great geological Reality Bgt FLOODS DEFAULT MODE for POLITICAL Organization DISiUNITY CONSTANT FIGHTING b EARLY Cityistates w ACityistate culture of PETTYisTATISM small states w Shortilived Empire c CULTURAL AP R ONALITYE of ANE amp Modern NE E Like Rivers gods amp people Competitive amp Vengeful 2 EGYPT LAND OF PLENTY AEGYPT IS THE GIFT OF THE NILE l3 Greek historian Herodotus c 450 BC a GEOGRAPHY Nile Great Geological Reality Floods annual slow predictable amp gentle bringing topsoil b UNIFICATION DEFAULT MODE Egypt AWANTSFUnity Examples Double Crown amp 2 Ladies cobra vulture e TRUSTWORTHINESS OF RIVER rgt Egyptian personality of Confidence amp Presumption C BRONZEiAGE CIVILIZATIONS IN ANE Ca 3200 to Ca 12001000 BC DISUNITY amp CIVILIZATION 1 BRON E AGE CIVILIZATIONS IN MESOPOTAMIA a AHistory Begins at Sumer SUMER Southern TiE Valley Southern part of Modern Iraq First Civilization 1 SUMERIANS OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN Unknown LANGUAGE Grp ABlackiheaded ones 2 Sumer G Wheel Kingship Irrigation Cities AstronomyAstrology Rule of b MOST SUBSEQUENT CIVILIZATIONS SEMITES Linguistic Term at this point NOT Ethnic Group 1 Example OLD BABYLON Old Babylonian Period ca 2000 7 1660 BC 2 OLD BABYLONIAN KING Hammurabi the Great 4TH EXTANT LawiCode span 1 Janet M F ormer Spring 2009 2 BRONZEAGE CIVILIZATION IN EGYPT B UNIFICATION amp CIVILIZATION 3000 BC a 2 G EAT REALITIES NILE River Divine King B Together Acreate Egypt amp Underlie Civilization There b 3000 BC EGYPT Predicts Nile Flooding to day amp minute Mummifies god7king is divine amp immortal UNIFIED c 30 DYNASTIES Bgt 3 KINGDOMS Old Middle New Kingdoms E each with multiple dynasties 1 OLD KINGDOMG OK74 Built Great Pyramids 2 NEW KINGDOM OK718 King Tutankhamum OK 19 Rameses II 7 EXODUS ca 1250 BC By NK720 1200 BC Egypt is Weakening BgtAminor playerlB on Geo7political stage D CULTURE IN BRONZEAGE ANE 1 SOCIETY STRATIFIED amp HIERARCHICAL king nobles priests commoners amp slaves a Mesopotamia King representative of gods b EGYPT KING IS god Horus son of Re etc 2 ECONOMY AGRICULTURAL E MY Barley Wheat Flock Animals sheep goats Herd Animals cattle 3 WRITING SCRIPTS NEITHER 0F THESEAREALPHABETS B THEY ARE SCRIPTS composed of SYLLABLES a Mesopotamian CUNIEFORM Wedge7sha ed b Egyptian HIEROGLYPHS Sacred Priestly Writings 4 RELIGION POLYTHEISTIC in EXTREME a Generally 39 PT 39 amp 7quot r 39 39 b CONTRACTUAL do at ties Iwill do for you for the gods so that you gods will do for me c DOMINANT FEATURE Duty NOT Piety B Duty to gods to Fulfill Contract B ADo the deal d SITY Know will of gods Take AUSPICES ritual to know gods will Bgt ASTRONOMYASTROLOGY E CULTURAL PERSONALITY Develops out of Many Things Geographical ampHistorical Experience 1 ANE MESOPOTAMIA Fearful Suspicious Vengeful Egt Default Mode of DIS7Unity Constant War 2 YPT Confident Presumptuous Self7Satisfied 13gt Default Mode of UNITY V OTHER BRONZEAGE PEOPLES 2 BRONZE7AGE PEOPLES ON FRINGES AT THIS TIME A H TITES in Asia Minor Great Culture7bridge between East and West B Ca 1200 BC SEA PEOPLES Mixed Group of Emigrating Marauders in Eastern Mediterranean 1 Destroyed Hittites Weakened Egypt Destroyed Myoenaeans amp Minoans RE 39n Some Way to Change from BRONZE TO IRON ca 1200 7 1000 BC 7 Created a POWER V in ANE for several centuries VI THREE SMALL IRON7AGE KINGDOMS Ca 1200 7 Ca 800 BC A PHOENICIANS NWPalestinian Coast sea7going Semites l Alphabet ca 170071500 Founded city of Carthage B PHILISTINES Semitic Group on SW Coast B maybe from Sea7peoples Fight David Israel still Bronze at that time C HEBREWS Semites 1 HISTORY OVERVIEW a PATRIARCHS Abraham Isaac Jacob 13gt 12 Sons 13gt 12 Tribes SLAVERY EXODUS CONQUEST Moses amp Exodus ca 1250 BC Joshua amp Conquest ca 1210 Bij PERIOD OF JUDGES e mson UNITED Kingdom under hero7kings Saul DAVlD ca 1000 BC Solomon ca 960 7 940 DIVlDED Kingdom 1 Israel 10 Tribes in North w capital at SAMARIA several dynasties 2 JUD H 2 Tribes Judah amp Benjamin in SOUTH capital at Jerusalem Davidide kings 2 END FOR BOTH North amp South Due to Polytheism amp Rise of LARGE Iron7Age Kingdoms in Mesopotamia 3 HEBREW CONTRIBUTIONS TO WESTERN CIVILIZATION a LINEAR CONCEPT OF TlME Western AProgress based on Hebrew view Time amp History Linear b CLEAR MONOTHEISM There IS ONLY one God amp no other other gtgods do not exist ETHICAL MONOTHEISM Yahwehs Nature amp Behavior Basis of Worshippers Lev 114445 192 207 VII 3 GREAT IRON AGE EMPIRES OF ANE ca 1000ff ACHARIOT KINGDOMS Chariotry introduced by 1500 Bgt Use by Nobility7Archers A Wor NEO7ASSYRIAN EMPIRE Semites BC Destroyed Samaria Capital of Northern Kingdom of Israel translocated Israelites to Assyria 2 CULT E amp Conquest Based on Terror ACalculated Frightfulness Large specialized army B NEW or NEO7BABYLONIAN EMPIRE Semites 1 Nebuchadnezzar II the Great Greatest king mentioned in Bible Built Hanging Gardens 2 86 BC Destroyed Jerusalem amp Solomons Temple 586 BC translocated 2 Southern Tribes to Babylonian Captivity C PERSIAN EMPIRE 5397323 BC INDO7EUROPEANS 1 LE people we have met so far 1 39 INDO7EUROPEAN SPEAKERs Bgt Iranians 2 CYRUS the GREAT a Unified Persians Conquered Neighbors b Allowed Hebrews to Return to Palestine Bgt Zerubbabels Temple or Second Temple Judaism 3 END FOR PERSIA 330s Coming of ALEXANDER III of MACEDON Alexander the Great 2 3 anU39 Janet M F ormer Spring 2009 ALEXANDER III THE GREAT OF MACEDON AND HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION 323 BC til Rome ecture Outline 7 I HELLENISTIC Greekilike Greekibased Blended with Greek A From Death of Alexander in 323 BC until B BACKGROUND PELOPONNESIAN WARS amp DECLINE OF GREEK STATES 4047338 1 Greece in 3970 years of decline leadership passing around between Athens Sparta Thebes NORTHERN DANGER Philip II unifying Macedon Macedonia a 338 BC Philip II of Macedon defeated Greeks at Charonea 334 BC Alexander marched Against Persia died in Babylon in 323 BC amp Hellenistic world begins 2 b II HELLENISTIC WORLD A Alexanders Characteristics Ambitious Mother Olympia taught him he was descended from a god Opportunist Loyal Violent when drinking B THE CONQUESTS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT 1 Alexander 20yo at accession 334 BC B dead 12 years later 2 334 7 327 took Asia Minor Syria Palestine Egypt Persia into India 3 Turned back and began long march home overland amp by sea reached Babylon June 323 BC b died of wounds amp fever at 32 yo 4 Back Home Greek Peninsula a Greeks States Rebelled b Aristotle Alexs teacher had to flee Athens died a year later 322 BC C Alexanders Legacy 1 Decisive Break in the Ancient World for entire ANE 2 Political Legacy Decline of Greek Poleis amp of localism in govt ampculture Successor kingdoms ruled by Macedonian Greeks 3 Cultural Legacy HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION all cultures influenced by Greek III THE WORLD OF HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS A 4 Kingdoms finally emerged 1 Syria amp East Seleucids 2 Egypt Ptolemies Pergamum A talids E invited Rome into East B The Hellenistic Monarchies 1 Urb Culture Based on Cities because Greeks polis dwellers 2 Greekidominated cities in Kingdoms Common Greek koine NT Greek D Economic Growth amp in ation Persian treasuries into circulation standard coin Alexander Drachma IV HELLENISTIC SOCIETY amp CULTURE A Hellenistic kings great patrons of arts amp learning 1 39 rary of Alexandria B Ptolemies Museion Muses of Learning 2 Library of Pergamum B Attalids 3 Tarsus Great center of Learning 1 B ART ARCHITECTURE LEARNING Rational CityiPlanning Hippodamus of Miletus 53911 C BC squares 2 Architecture Greek styles all over Mediterranean Corinthian Order prevailed 3 Sculpture very popular B standardized techniques 4 Golden Age of Science B Important Hellenistic Scholars a Aristarchos of Samos c 310230 BC heliocentric universe 1 E th revolves around sun in circular or i 2 Earth rotates on its axis b Eratosthenes ca 275194 BC earth round circumference 24 675 mi wn 200 miles c Euclid fl 300 BC Estd school at Alexandria Elements systematic plane geometry text d Archimedes 287212 BC of Syracuse geometry of spheres amp cylinders estd value of 7 pi D Philosophy 2 New Schools of Thought B More below 1 Epicureanism Epicurus 341270 BC Stoicism Zeno 335263 BC Stoapoikile painted porch N IN THE HELLENISTIC WORLD SYNCRETISM People blend many religions together Greek gods spread throughout Mediterranean 2 Decline in attachments to gods cults of local poleis 3 New Universalism Interinationalism 13gt view that gods interchangeable blendable a Multiculturalism Multilingualism Tolerance of various reli ion b Mysticism amp Mystery Religions e Eleusian Mysteries Isis Cult Mitraism astrology amp others see below V MRS FORTNERS OBSERVATIONS RE HELLENISTIC WORLD A A T in the West all our Aclassical periods are followed by an AAntiiclassical Hellenistic Romantlc period 1 CHARACTERISTICS OF CLASSICAL ART Harmony balance order symmetry emphasis upon the General amp Ideal hence tending to Calm amp Serenity OR at least a sense of completeness CHARACTERISTICS OF HELLENISTIC ART Dlsiharmony IMibalance Asisymmetry Emphasis upon the Particular amp Individual hence tending toward Twist High Emotion even tension amp agony OR at least a sense of Dlsiease 2 E RELIGIO 1 2 Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 1 Use by express permission only XI C A ONCLU B C D CHARAC 1 2 3 2 NOW WHATS SCARY 1 2 SION TERISTICS OF HELLENISTIC WORLD Large Political Units Hellenistic Kingdoms Urban World Greeks controlling kingdoms amp Greeks Ado cities Commercial Economy a andard currency coinage Alexander Drachma b Bankln c Eastern Mediterranean amp Much of East bound in a great Trading Web minated by ea D World of Learning amp Specialists Generals amp fighting units eg slingers from Rhodes hoplites from Sparta Philosophers Bureaucrats etc Standardized cultural forms a Massiproduced art Statues b Corinthian order see text for examples c Gymmm39a ecame Educational Centers for teaching children boys a similar curriculum d Social Norms AGreekG Hellenized B made in image of Greeks Syncretism Mixing of Elements from various backgrounds a architecture 13gt Roman Composite capital General Urban Style c SYNCRETISM in Religion Mix gods from all areas E Isis in Greece amp Rome Apollo in Egypt amp Rome Individualism a Inversely proportional to degree of LOCAL attachments felt Strong local attachment group values prevail Weak local attachments individualism preval s b In Social Experience AInternalization of Experience B Psychological Values vs Exterior Group Values c in Religious Experience Mystery Religions become important 1 Individual AExperiences the god or gods presence 2 mphasis on Apersonal salvation vs welfare of group Obsession with Health amp Physical Body a mmma b Shrines to Aesclepius abound 7 Hospitals Obsession with Sex Obsession with Personal Happiness B 2 Philosophies develop w concerns for Happiness Stoicism amp Epicureanism a ST ICISM from stoapoikile B Painted Porch where Zeno 335263 BC taught 1 Happiness goal of life achieve it by living consistent w natural law of universe Bgt Virtue 2 Fate rules the universe amp each life unavoidable destiny 3 therefore Achill 4 Harmony of Spirit placidity from behavior consistent w godsnatural lawfate 5 Stand do duty roll w inevitable punches nothing else o o 6 Appealed to already dutyiconscious Romans est Medit b EPICUREAN ISM c named for Epicurus 341270 BC 1 Happiness goal oflife 2 Seek Pleasure Avoiding Pain trouble 3 No need to fear the gods afterlife judgment they dont exist or are not interested in yu lesome world enjoy friends amp garden 13gt Happiness more like selfish self 4 So Withdraw from troub imposed ignorance 5 Ultimately overshadowed by Stoicism c Such Philosophies had appeal around Mediterranean B Indicates that 1 Attachments to local deities cults amp beliefs were breakin down People from various areas were affected by desire for Personal Happiness Compare your world w Hellenistic World 21 C More like the World of Jesus amp Paul than any time between Dynamic Period of Change Bgt Roman Involvement in East Mediterranean Period of AntiiClassicism in Arts 1800s AntiiClassicism is called Romanticism fistic Mixture of Greek Culture w Local indigenous cult Serious Problems however Gulf Developing 2 3 ures len between Rich amp poor Greek rulers amp Indigenous peoples Eastern Mediterranean amp Roman West Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only INTELLECTUAL AND ARTISTIC WORLD OF THE HIGH MlDDLE AGES Lecture Outline 27 I ART amp MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE CHURCHES 1 1 Christian Buildings Baxilicas Late Roman Cruciform crossishaped Buildings relatively late 7 amp 8quot Cs 2 2 Architectural Styles Dominate High Middle Ages Romanesque amp Gothic a Romanesque dark heavy rounded arches small windows ARevival of Old Roman Style Bgt AWhite Mantle of Churches b Gothic light many wi dows pointed arches Critics thought Abarbaric hence AGothic 1 1 Such Church Abbey Church St Denis north of Paris built by Abbe Suger 2 Actually represents Urban efforts to Areach up to God 3 Both forms of Churches Testify to devotion of Towns and their nancial resources 11 BACKGROUND TO REINTRODUCTION OF REASON A BACKGROUND TO EMERGENCE OF SCHOLASTICISM Associated with Rise of Universities 1 Higher Education less dominated by Clergy Towns States Need Administrators 2 STUDENTS in University lower strata of freemen becoming teachers administrators lawyers doctors 3 University Teaching and Learnln a CURRICULUM 7 Liberal ARTS Not new knowledge AGolden past of Auctaritas Authorities b Goals of Learning Understand Past Knowledge amp Manipulate it for Contemporary Uses c Hence Method of University Teacher s Lectia AReading of Authorities 77gt Lecture students make notes 4 BUT EUR PE CHANGING CITIES b Ml39DDLE CLASS Bourgeoisie amp TRADE c STATE Kings in Need to ACivil Servants d Growth of UNIVERSITY Connected to ALL These Trends B SCHOLASTICISM HERMENEUTIC OF HIGH MIDDLE AGES HERMENEUTIC Method by Which any text is Interpreted it is basis set of principles which to understand a text a Examples Paul in Galatians employs Allegory Sarah amp Isaac stand for New Covenant b 12 tribes Bgt 12 apostles Jonah 3 days in fish Bgt Jesus 3 Days in Tomb 2 EARLY MEDIEVAL HERMENEUTICS Based Primarily Upon ST AUGUSTINE a Hermeneutic of Early Middle Ages EMA method of Interpreting Understanding Bible ALLEGORY b Assumptions of this Hermeneutic 1 Historical factual is truth but material amp physical is of less importance than Spiritual 2 Highest Truth Meaning Level is Spiritual Level Allegorical Level facts point to this 3 HMC Interprets Scripture human reason is fallen not trustworthy so HMC Interprets 3 Conclusions of CHURCIMENTHINKERS EMA Employ Allegory to Interpret Bible This is like that b Do not trust reason B According to St Augustine Man BodyisouliMlND is AFallen amp Unable to Areason c SO RELY on HMC She interprets Scripture issues doctrines papal statements etc C CLOSELY RELATED ISSUE 2 Kinds of Knowledge at this Point amp they are INCOMPATTBLE a Theology Thealagia Scripture Teachings of Church SPIRITUAL knowledge AFAITH b Philosophy Philasaphia ALL other knowledge Includes Logic Reason Philosophy Reason Knowledge gathered thru human senses AARISTOTLE b Philasaphia is Inferior because it is Human material Adown here 111 INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTS LAY FOUNDATION OF FUTURE ABAPTISM OF ARISTOTELIAN REASON A SCHOLASTIC METH D ROOTS of Scholasticism lie precisely in Using REASON Logic to solve Theological Questions a Monk Anselm of Canterbury 103371109 used reasan logic to prove Existence of God rationally is defined as the greatest conceivable Being 2 To exist in Reality is greater than to exist in the Understanding only as a conception 3 If AGod existed only in the Understanding but not in reality then He would not be the Greatest Conceivable being because we can conceive of a such a Being existing actually in Reality d 4 ence it follows that AGod must exist in Reality as well as in the Understan lng b Peter Abelard 10791142 Source of NEW Method amp New HERMENEUTIC 1 Origin of Scholastic Method of Interpreting Scripture Scholasticism tho he didnt realize it 2 PAs Problem Inconsistency of Bible Fathers Teachings of HMC 3 PAs ANSWER USE Human Reason to solve Bgt Published Sic etNan Yes amp No B demonstrated method but did not actually apply method to solve the problems 4 Abelard amp Method Popular Bgt Many Teachers followed Method 5 In time Scholasticism is hallmark of University Teacher a Sehalaxtieus c By ca 1160 Translations of ALL Aristotles Works into Latin B from Arabic then from Greek 1 Aristotle s works on LOGIC Arediscovered by West from Arabs amp Byzantines 2 SO much pagan knowledge CAN it be used by Christian West 7 7 B SCHOLASTICS 1 Peter Lombard d 1160 trained in law amp theology taught at Paris Bishop of Paris a Liber Sententiarum Four Books of Sentences ca 1150 1 APPLIED Abelards Method to Inconsistencies Bgt Liber Synthesis of Conflicting Arguents Janet M F ormer Fall 2007 1 Use by express permission only 2 Classic Textbook of Theology for CENTURIES b Lombards Sententiarum is to Theology what Gratian is to Roman Law 2 Scholasticism B Scholasticux teacher in Cathedral School schola 7gt Scholasticism a Method of HIVIA Use of HUMAN Reason to understand Scripture amp Church Fathers b Shared Beliefs 1 2 Kinds of Knowledge are Compatible Faith Bible teachings of HMC b son Philosophy Sensory Knowledge AAristotle 2 God is Source of Both kinds of Knowledge So Both Reason amp Faith contain Truth 3 If there are contradictions they arise from human error 3 Thomas Aquinas 122571275 Greatest Scholastic a Sent by Pope to Paris to investigate Scholasticism Use of Human Reason andArixtotle R s l Thomas wrote Summa theologica Summation of Theology e u Conclusion Scholasticism is acceptable Some knowledge comes only by Reason B Atomic Structure some knowledge comes only by Revelation B Incarnation 3 ome knowledge comes by both B God Created World 4 But Highest Knowledge comes by Revelation B Jesus is the Son of God d Thomas made Aristotle amp Scholasticism acceptable to HMC amp Thomism official Catholic position C REVIVAL OF ROMAN LAW Growing Kingdoms Muxt have more developed Law than the Germani had 1 Justinian the Great Codified Roman Law 527ff CorpusIun39x Civilis Body of Civil Law but lost to OST to West after ca AD 600 b ARediscovered Only surviving Western copy uncovered ca 1070 B probably at Monte Cassino 2 Irnerius d 1130 Taught Roman law at Bologna amp commented on meaning 3 Gratian d ca 1179 great lawyer of HMA trained at Bologna harmonized inconsistencies of Roman Law in Decretum 1139740 AConcordance of Discordant Canons 4 Schools of Law developed at Bologna amp Pavia Italy Paris French Kings hire lawyers to support Roman absolutism 6 England is different English Kings established English COMMON Law a 39 amp American law is based on English Common Law b What Law common to peoples of England when Conqueror took over 1066 English law already codified based on Common Law before rediscovery of Roman Law hence less absolutist IV CONCLUSIONS A 100071300 Dynamic period changes created civilization which lasted til 19 C B Predominantly rural agrarian economy w monied economy in towns B Cu tural revival led to rediscovery of classical heritage eg Aristotle beginning of University as Urban educational institution use of reason to systemize amp harmonize theology amp law guticutting Nobles sslllloooooowwwwllllyyyy evolving into quotdefenders of Christian society amp womanhood D Kings in a ew kingdoms centralized power at expense of no 39 39 Janet M F ormer Fall 2007 2 Use by express permission only III BOURGEOIS REALISM AHOW IT LOOKS TO MY EYE Lecture Outline 30 MENTALITY OF RENAISSANCE A BOURGEOIS B URBAN 1 Practical hardiheaded con dent 2 Individualistic amp freeithinking compared to their time 3 Literate oiten Educated 4 ea is 39c 5 Secular compared to their time NOT compared to ours C Patronage of Arts The RICH w discretionary Income EMPHASES OF ITALIAN RENAISSANCE A CLASSICAL MODELS FROM GREECE amp ROME 1 Art 2 Education 3 Civic Life 4 Politics 5 History B BUT CHRISTIAN NOT Atheists or Agnostics C HUMANISM GrecoiRoman Values applied to Learnin Literary Humanism F rancesco Petrarch 130471374 CIVIC Humanism Coluccio Salutati BOURGEOIS REALISM IN ART A w it Looks to MY Eye Florence amp many Italian states dominated by new rich Middle Class B DEVELOPMENTS IN ART 1 Begins with Giotto d 1337 in Florence 2 ntinues w Masaccio after 1400 in Florence C Republic of FLORENCE vs Duchy of Milan 1 Intermittent Wars EgtPeace of Lodi 1454 Balance of Power 1454 to 1494 2 Florence at War ca 1400 w Milan a Beginning of Civic Humanism Coluccio Salutati Chancellor of Florence talks about Liberty b Beginnings of FREE7STANDING Statues 1 since Rome 1 F orence made biblical comparison a Republic of Florence Little Boy David b Duchy of Milan Fighting giant Goliath 2 avid becomes important theme in Florence art amp sculpture D CHARACTERISTICS of Renaissance GrecoiRomanClassical Art 1 armony Symme y Mathematical Proportion Seren39 y 2 West 15gt Cla39hssical style when we find Ait amp desert classical when we lose Ait a 5 Ce b Italian European Renaissance Bgt Mannerism Baroque c NeoiClassicism F rench Enlightenment Bgt Romanticism 3 Themes in Renaissance Art a 39ns w Religious Themes b By 1475 Secular Themes Pagan F rom Greece amp Rome ci Botticelli PROGRESS OF RENAISSANCE A BEGINNINGS Giotto by 1337 Masaccio 8 1400 S E 145471494 B HIGH RENAIS ANC 1 2 Leonardo Michelangelo Raffaello C FOREIGN INVASIONS 149 71527 1 French Invade 3 times 1494 to 1513 2 Charles V amp HRE troops invade 1527 3 Macchiavelli dies 1527 D END 1528 AMannerism of Michelangelo amp others appearing Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only CREATION OF NEW INSTITUTIONS KING MARRIAGE OF THE SACREDamp THE SECULAR MONK POPE Lecture Outline 16 POLITICAL REVOLUTION BETWEEN EARLY 4005 amp EARLY 7005 A N W Society on basis of Christian Principles CHRISTENDOM B Engineered by Church to 1111 Political Vacuum CHRISTIAN KING MARRIAGE OF SACRED amp SECULAR A REVIEW CHRISTIAN Kingship Created 1 AD 496 BAPTISM OF CLOVIS KING OF FRANKS r 481511 Louis Ludwig IN 496 a In 495 There had been 1m BARBARIAN TRIBE IN COMMUNION W HIVIC b MOST Converted but to ARIANISM 1 Example GOTHS converted to Arianism Like Vandals et alia amp disappeared 2 Conversion Bgt Christianity PLUS Culture languages reduced to writing to translate Bible 3 Bgt No tribe in Communion w BOR Bishop of Rome c Franks become ORTHODOX Christians 1 Ortho correct tax teaching Elike Docitrine HETEROidoxi d amp Clovis attacked Visigoth Heretics drove into Spain and Took their Land Defender of Faith 2 POLITICAL GAINS for Each a IS Legitimacy Recognition of Crown amp Backing for Conquests b BO rthodox Ally Defense against Heretic Groups Visigoths 3 CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCES in addition to those on last handout a 1ST Barbarian King in Communion w Western Church b Christianity grafted onto Barbarian kingship Now AKing by the Grace of God c N W BLEND OF SOMETHING German W kingship Christian B religion Roman B territory of Gaul customs d Frankish Kings become Defenders of Faith Church Defeated Visigoths in So Gaul 13gt Spain B FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS CONTINUED MELDING OF FRANKISH KINGSHIP WITH CHRISTIAN RELIGION 1 MEROVINGIAN DECLINE 13gt Rise of NEW Power rovingians in Decline after ca 600 AD b Real Power gravitated to MAYOR OF THE PALACE under Pepin of Heristal c CHARLES MA TEL the Hammer 688 r 741 MOP 1 def Arabs 732 near Tours omers 2 Charles Carolus in Latin 13gt CAROLINGIAN d Pepin of Heristal 13gt Charles Martel 13gt Pepin the Short 13gt Charlemagne 2 CHANGE OF DYNASTY PEPIN THE SHORT r 741786 a Pepin the Short appeals to Pope Question Who should be king The one w the title or the one ME who does the job 2 wer The guy who does the jo b Pope approved dynasty change 751 13gt CAROLINGIAN Dynasty 1 C e Martel Charles Carolus in La in 2 Hence CAROLiingian Dynasty 3 Mutual Benefits Pepin B Kingship Legitimacy BOR POPE B Ally against LOMBARDS LAND c DONATION OF PEPIN ca 755 1 Pope soon called in markers Defense against Lombards 2 Pepin down to Italy reduced Lombards 3 Pope Crowned Pepin King of Franks in Coronation Ceremony again quotKings by Grace of Godquot 4 amp Pepin Adonated some of Lombard lands to Papacy as Papal Lands a n tion of Pepin c 755 b asis ofPapal States til unification of Italy 1870 amp Lateran Treaty w Mussolini 1929 3 SIGNIFICANCE CHRISTIAN ETHIC grafted onto notion of BARBARIAN KINGSHIP in West a MEDIEVAL RELATIONSHIP 1 KING a U hold law amp do justice in lands Protect faith amp HMC 2 POPE Legitimate Kings power amp conquests b Kingship BLEND Christian Upholds Christianity Church German Maintains law right Roman land c EMA Kings has 3 Responsibilities 1 Fight foreign foes Keep internal peace B War brings loot amp land keeps down internal fighting 3 Defend faith amp represent people before God d However PROBLEM 2 authorities in West King amp Bishop B BIG 7 which will emerge dominant Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only III MONASTICISM IN THE WEST Greek moms One alone only Monk lives alone for spiritual purposes A SO B C St BENE 1 2 3 4 5 6 FROM BISH A E EAST MONASTICISM HEREMITICAL late 1st C w St Anthony et al in Egypt WEST MONASTICISM CENOBITIC communal c a 525 DICT of NURSIA monastery at MONTE CASSINO Italy A Liule RuleforBeginners a RULE Poverty Chastity Obedience To Achieve it WITHDRAW from Evils of World CONTEMPLATE God c 77gt Benedictine Order Now 2 1 Type of Clergy SECULAR Lat saeculum World Clergy Pope Bgt ABs Egt Bishops Bgt Priests Ordained AFatherG Give Sacramen s b RE LAR Monastic Clergy Live Cloistered iollow ARule Brothers Abbot Not ordained SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RULE a Positive 1st great practical creation of postiRoman West b Negative Some detractors say is was a destructive withdrawal from life 580 Lombards invade Egt dissemination of Benedictines amp chant north over Europe into Britain by late 8th C nearly universal throughout Europe Monasteries in RURAL areas withdrawn Bgt CONVERSION of Pagani Rural Pagans OP TO POPE Dont Memorize all the steps just KNOW that the evolution is taking place in this period y c 350 5 Great Fraternal Bishoprics Jerusalem Rome Antioch Alexandria Constantinople all Brothers B BOR DAMASUS 3667384 Authority from Christ to Peter Mt 1618 1 to speak of AApostolic See B BOR SIRICIUS 3847389 1 Decretal authoritative document re doctrine c BOR St LEO 14407461 AD Greatest BOR of 5 c 1 etrine Doctrine Mt 16 18 unbroken succession from Peter uperior Primate To BishopPatriarch of Constantinople amp AF ather to all other bishops Council of Chalcedon 451 OR 2 D BOR GELASIUS I Saint 4927496 Gelasian Doctrine Political theory of Power of B 1 2 E POPE GRE macaw 2238 2 swords 2 Powers Saeerdos etRex Priest amp King Authority Power of BOR Superior to Kings GORY I the Great 5907604 called AFather of the Medieval Papacy Fou Rome undeiended ungoverned unied used own resources gained land Egt Patrimony of St Peter Book quastoml Care for bisho s Missionary activities 13gt legitimated his leadership in West 1 to Spea Cathedral OFFICIALLY w regard to Doctrine amp Practice Mrs F considers Gregory the First Pope of cial word Papa pronounced PAHipa not paiPAH hence PAPAicy Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only AEGEAN CIVILIZATION BEGINNING OF THE GREEKS Lecture Outline 2 I INTRODUCTION A AWe are All Greeks Percy Bysshe Shelley Art Architecture Philosophy Drama History Alphabet B AEverything that movesis Greek Everything that standsis Roman unknown author C HELLEN AGreek from 91111 hellas Greece Greeks AHellenes II INTRODUCING GREECE amp THE AEGEAN SEA amp GEOG A GEOGRAPHY WAS FORMATIVE mountains few rivers mountain valleys few plains for grain Aegean Sea was focus amp center of cu ure a Sea7faring communities Acoasting not deep water B Aegean can be treacherous b Socrates said Greeks sat around Aegean Alike frogs around a pond 2 Geography amp Topography divided Greece into cultural units B EARLY CULTURE 1 SIGNIFICANCE OF GEOGRAPHY AGRICULTURE MEDITERRANEAN Climate Cold damp rainy Winters Hot dry summers b MEDITERRANEAN Agriculture Mediterranean Trio of Grain Olive oil Wine 1 Grain Barley ea 2 Viticulture Grapes amp Wine 3 live Groves Olives amp oil 4 but also Flock Animals Sheep amp Goats 2 SIGNIFICANCE OF GEOGRAPHY CULTURE a Divided Greek7speakers into Isolated groups of Greeks 1 encouraged competition for resourc s 2 discouraged any sense of Aunified Greekmam b COMMONALITIES Shared by Groups of Greek7speakers 1 Same pantheon of 12 gods w Zeus aspater Father of gods amp men 2 Same hulaEuropean language Greek Similar Institutions Polis became THE Greek socio7polito7cultural institution PRIDE they ALL had it c DIFFERENCES between Groups of Greek7speakers 1 Different dialects but could understand eg Apeople in Athens demosin SpartanDorian llamas 2 Preferred patron gods Athens B Athena Sparta B Zeus amp Apollo 3 Localized personalities Athens B open liberal sea7going Sparta B closed conservative army III DATES Know RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY of CIVILIZATIONS Underlined plus underlined dates A AEGEAN CIVILIZATIONS c2000 BC B ca 1200 BC Theres that date again Beginning Peak dates End 1 MINOAN Civilization c2000 B 160071450 E ca 1200 BC E NON7Greeks 2 MYCENAEAN Civilization c 1600 E 145071200 E ca 1200 BC B PROTOGREEKS Troy may belong to Mycenaean Civilization ca 1184 BC 3 AAegeanG means it centers on Aegean Sea Sea Trade or PIRACY B GREEK ADARKAGESE ca 1200 7 7 7 7 ca 800 BC C HELLENIC CIVILIZATION ca 800 323 BC 1 Early Hellenic ARCHAIC ca 800 E 500 BC 2 Hellenic CLASSICAL ca 500 E 323 BC a This AGolden Age of Greece Periclean Athens 461 7 429 BC c Alexander 111 Great M 323 BC 3 AHellenicfl True Greek centered on Mainland D HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION 323 until 7 1 DATES a FROM Death of Alexander 111 Great 323 b UNTIL oman Conquest of Egypt 31 BC c or End of 1 Century AD AD 100 d or Time of Constantine AD 334 2 AHellenistic Greek7like Greek7influenced a Some underlying culture mixed w Greek which has been imposed or borrowed b Differs everywhere in Mediterranean Hellenistic Egypt Hellenistic Rome Hellenistic Judea IV AEGEAN CIVILIZATION MYCENAEAN Greeks Named for Site ofMYCENAE A IMPO RTANT INFLUENCE ON GREEKS MINOAN CIVILIZATION ca 1700 7 1200 BC CENTERED ON ISLAND OF CRETE KNOWN OR GINS LANGUAGE INOAN77 semi7legendary King MINOS Minosmay mean Aking or Aking7priest MINO7Taur BULIrman of myths MINOAN CIVILIZATION Yes have all characteristics PALACE CULTURE UNWALLED Palaces Center of Economy amp Culture REDISTRIBUTIVE ECONOMY a Palaces collected Tribute7in7Kind b REDISTRIBUTED it in Trade amp Support macaw JanetM Former Fall 2007 Use by express permission only III MYCENAE MYCENAEANS 1gr TRUE PROTOi GREEK CIVILIZATION ALL Characteristics of Civilization 1 AMY d CENAE on Peloponnese Peloponnesian Peninsula 1 Site Excavate a Name from 1 Site Excavated B MYCE E B b By German Heinrich SCHLIEMANN earlier found Troy TROY STORY IMPORTANT ho we previously thought it was mythical a HOMER Iliad amp Odyssey Tells of Last Weeks of TROJAN Wars b 1 ar somewhere in time period ca 1210 7 1190 between AAchaeans 7Mycenaeans amp Trojans 2 Issue HELEN of Spmaran off to Troy w Paris of Troy a Helen married to Menelaos of Sparta b Menelaos wanax war chieftain of Sparta brother of Agamemnon wanax Mycenae 3 MANY War Chieftains of Mycenaean states went on expedition of 1000 black ships 1 2 War chieftains include Odysseus of Ithaca Nestor of Pylos Achilles of Myrmidons b However SCHLIEMANN Proved Historicity of Troy amp excavated in late 19quot early 20th Cs c Schliemann went on to Uncover MYCENAE DATES Mycenaean civilization rising by c 1650 peak c 145071300 BC controlling Minoan Crete after 1300 BC a Swept away by ASea People thing ca 1200 b Traditional date of fall of Troy 1184 BC And by 1000 BC what is left of Minoans are hiding in hill caves CITADEL FORTRESS CULTURE Palaces set on Hills in CITADELS Townisites Surrounded by HUGE Walls a wanax war chieftain nobles court inside 7 farmers outside 7 b BEST Known site M NAE but dozens of others Mycenaean ruins even at ATHENS c WARRIOR culture ASacker of Cities E engage in war go on raiding expeditions amp generally make mayhem 1 Homer ABronzeiArmored Achaeanslil B Chariots as transpor ation 2 CHIEF VALUE Arete ahirayitay a Defined AExcellence Aristoi sing vistas Abestfsl Bgt aristocracy rule of the best b Martial military Aexcellence Valor Manliness c Prickly Honor defensive of ones property amp reputation d Achilles gets peeved when Agamemnon takes his booty a girl e Individualism amp Honor amp Heroism B expressed by victory in battle amp taking plunder 3 OT RVALUES Hospitality Landiholdin REDISTRIBUTIVE ECONOMY similar in structure amp function Minoans CULTURE ART seems a crude copy of Minoan motifs warriors NOT artists 2 ARCHITECTURE Largely WariRelated B Citadel Sites 3 RELIGION Polytheistic with largely male deities Worship Altars located in Chieftains House 4 I G Writing System is STILL SYLLABIC Influenced by Minoan Linear A 1 NO LITERATURE Survives 2 LINEAR B Tablets Lists records of chariots wheels arrows swords sheep cattle goats etc 3 Deciphered by Michael Ventris in 1950s Definitely PR0T07Greek Early form of Greek HENCE Mycenaeans IndoiEuropean Greek spea ers VIOLENT END related to Sea Peoplesl Bgt ADARK AGEB C 7 EKS INA DARK AGE c 1200 7 c 800 B WHY ADARK 7 Little archaeological evidence no characteristics of civilization no writing no texts BRONZE TO IRON in This Per 0 iod 7 ca 110 WRITING AGAIN ca 900 BC HOMER DATES TO c 800 BC cusp between late Dark Ages amp Early Archaic Period B 2 3 4 5 6 THE GRE B C D 1 Depicts Greek AaristocracyE Homer becomes the Abible of later Greeks JanetM Former Fall 2007 Use by express permission only III THE AGE OF CHARLEMAGNE CULTURE IN CHARLEMAGNE39S DAY Lecture Outline 18 INTRODUCTION Carolingian Civilization 7 NO Which characteristic does Carolingian Europe LACK REVIVAL OF LEARNING ACAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCEG A FEWSCHOOLS ALREADY EXISTED Or remained after Rome Cathedral Schools at Cathedrals bishops churches in cities 2 Monastic Schools at Monasteries in countrysi e rural 3 But schools amp schooling declined schooling is a leisure activity B CM WANTED TO ESTABLISH A SCHOOL needed literate administrators amp better cler So CM sent for Alcuin of York Britain site of great monasteries amp learning at this point Alcuin estd Palace School amp was its chief teacher for some years C Curriculum 7 Liberal Arts 1 Trivium Literary Grammar Rhetoric Dialectic Logic a rivium Scientific Music Ari me ic Geometry Astronom 2 Qu y D CMs Palace School became source of many Great Teachers amp AgeneaologiesG of teachers 1 Example Hrabanus Maurus who wrote that the Earth is Round 2 Many of Students fanned out to other schools amp brought learning to many monastic centers of Kingdom E CONTRIBUTIONS 1 eachers of Europe came from his school 13gt Monasteries all over Europe 2 Scriptoria Writing rooms founded at Monasteries a uscripts MSS were copied at these Scriptoria b bout 90 of our earliest MSS come from Carolingian Scriptoria 3 Carolingian Caroline Minuscule a ROMAN LETTERS are all Capitals amp WEREWRITTENJAMMEDUPAGAINSTEACHOTHER b CMs Scholars invented perfected a minuscule or Set of Little Letters F CAROLINGIAN MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE 1 Palace Chapel Church at Aachen octagonal like many EASTERN churches of EASTERN Emperor 2 CMGs aspirations to Emperor7shi G What does He lack to have ACivilization 2 Characteristics AGRICULTURE amp Agricultural Changes MAY be most important A Important Agricultural Changes in Period c 800 7 1000 BC 1 o ing Technology Iron horseshow Horsecollar Iron7shod Plow Wheeled 2 37Field System 2 planted 1 fallow B SIGNIFICANCE economic foundations for changes leading to Renaissance c 1350 in Italy 1 ore food better food Bgt Growing populations 2 Growing ade WARFARE amp WEAPON39RY A FRANKS INFANTRY B BUT CAVALRY BEING ADOPTED BY by 755 for Nobles Pepin Short delays March to May C No stirrups til after c 800 D RMOR Ms armor looks more ROMAN than AMedieval 1 Using Ponies small horses NO Larger horses bred til ca 950 7 1050 2 C EAVY MAIL amp ARMOR NORMANS a Mail amp Armor of 8th C ca 750ff light b During 11th C ca 1000ff Normans make it somewhat heavier c BUT no full tin7can armor til 135071450 when feudalism is already declining E NORMANS 7 1 NEW WAVES OF INVASIONS a Arab Muslims Mediterranean amp North Africa invading from South 1 These will be stopped in 900s by Italian trading cities w navies like Genoa Pisa etc 2 Settle into North Africa amp SPAIN til defeated finally by Ferdinand amp Isabella b MAGYARS invading from East 1 These will be stopped by Otto 1 Duke of Saxony amp Roman Emperor at Battle of LECHFIELD 955 2 They will settle down become Christianized in 103911 amp 1139h Cs amp become modern Hungarians c NORTHMEN Vikings invading from Scandinavia 1 hese are worst of all B Prayer AOh God deliver us from the Fury of the Northmen 2 French king hit upon a plan to Alight fire with Fire OR Northmans with Northmans 2 NORMANDY a Rolf Gangr Rollo the Viking c 862 7 932 B 911 treaty w Charles 111 of Frankia b Charles gave Rolf a Duchy at mouth of Seine so Rolf is buffer against further invasions by his countrymen c Duchy of Northman7dy or Normandy amp Rolf became Robert Duke of Normandy d Viking Normans here assimilated much French Culture but remained Europes BEST Fighters e Developed Desm39er or Charger Horse large enough to carry heavy chain Mail Spur amp Stirrup END OF CAROLINGIAN WORLD A Primarily 2 Factors 1 Disintegration amp Decline of Carolingian Empire 2 ew Waves of Invasions B Solution to Chaos will be AFeudalism Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 Use by express permission only DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC LATE REPUBLIC 133 to 31 BC Lecture Outline 11 I INTRODUCTION A IMPORTANT DATES for ROMAN HISTORY Know those that are Underlined 753 BC FOUNDING OF ROME Traditional Date 50 7 1 BC ROMAN REPUBLIC 5097133 BC EARLY Republic 13 7 LATE Republic B UNRESOLVED PROBLEMS FROM 3RD CENTURY 2005 1 ECONOMIC PROBLEMS land amp poor 2 SOCIAL PROBLEMS rich vs or 3 POLITICAL PROBLEMS destructive party spirit 4 MILITARY PROBLEMS citizen farmer7soldier ruined rise of ambitious generals II MILITARY PROBLEMS Growing Empire Needs More Soldiers Bgt Issue of WHERE to Get Them A Citizen7Farmer ruined Need for Soldiers Rise of Ambitious Generals Warlords B WHERE TO GET SOLDIERS 1 Farmer7soldier class declining see AECONOMIC PROBLEMS Below But empire amp wars growing rapid y B SOLUTION a Bad one 1 Solution Credited to GAIUS MARIUS pleb amp consul 7 times a Answer Allow generals to Recruit from landless urban mobs b Pay them w booty and land which General provides by campaigning 2 PROBLEMS a New Soldier Loyal to General NOT to Rome b Professional Class of Soldiers 1 er arms for 20725 years no land to return to anywa 3 FORMULA FOR DISASTER Ambitious General Soldiers loyal to generals not to Rome Civil Wars III ECONOMIC PROBLEMS Land and Poor A ACKGROUND 2mi Punic War 218 7 202 BC Hannibalic War Hannibal Aravaging Italy 15 yrs B farms vineyards olive groves destroyed Soldiers under arms 15years MANY killed enslaved never returned Soldier7Farmers sold land Bgt cities Rich bought up land converting it to Sheep ranches B PROBLEMS 1 Small Farms in Peninsula gobbled up a So ier7Farmers 13gt sell land to rich few IIBWNDIw b ms Bgt Sheep ranches latgfundia worked by slave labor 2 Where to get Soldiers a Citizen7Soldier Destroyed as a class Traditional Army citizen7soldiers from farmer7class w property quali cation Not enough men meet property quali cations 3 Urban AMobs Soldier7Farmers wo land move to cities become Urban Poor AMobs b Cities of Italy lill w AMobs of day7laborer voters c Constitutes a ASwing Vote Votes for sale bribery common essential B read7amp7Circuses food amp entertainment B sound familiar 4 Hence closely related to next set of problems IV SOCIAL PROBLEMS Related to Above Problems A RICH7versus7POOR 1 MANY URBAN POOR So poor that they produce only offspring proles Bgt Urban Proletariat b But Citizens so become Mobs of swing7voters demanding favors food entertainment 2 FEW RICH a Commanders of Armies get rich from foreign conquests amp booty Eg Crassus who owned many Roman tenements rented to poor B NEW CLASSES BECOMING POLITICALLY HVIPORTANT 1 EQUITES AHorseman B Non7governing part of OLD Officer Class In practice Equites COMMERCIAL Class of Rome atricians amp Those of Senatorial Rank forbidden to engage in commerce 2 Senatorial Class Governing Class Lived from Land ONLY Did they Acheat Absolutely b Thus Many Equites became VERY Rich 1 G business B hauling trade etc 2 Took PUBLIC Contracts a Bought slaves amp worked public mines Public Works amp Construction Projects b Providing Goods to Armies Cities etc c Collecting Taxes Atax farming 3 Thus functioned as AbureaucracyG or Acivil service which Republican Rome never developed Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 1 Use by express permission only c Rising Class w economic Power demand political participation a These Richer Plebs being admitted to Consulshi 1 NEW MAN N0 amo 1 Consul from his family 2 After Consulship enter Senate 3 Examples Marcus Tullius CICERO Gaius MARIUS father of Augustus Caesar b Thus new Aruling class developing New Senatorial Class Nobiles Known Notable Ones NOBLES c WHY a Anew class 1 Up7amp7ooming elements cannot join Patricians Patrician class closed order 2 All societies must allow for Aupward mobility or break B Equites Plebs fighting Aglass oeiling 3 thus d a new class including Old Patricians amp New Plebs Nobiles Nobles 2 URBAN PLEBS Why APolitically Important a man Citizens no matter how poor COULD Vote b Also RIOTED to get what they wanted Cheap or FREE Grain Entertainments Games 3 ARMY VETERANS a Growing Empire 7gt Growing numbers of Legions dependent upon generals for Pay amp Land to farm b AHung Around Rome Formed a pool of discontent for private armies V POLITICAL PROBLEMS Destructive Party Spirit regarding How to Deal with Problems amp Achieve Goals A STRUGGLE TO CONTROL POWER via 1 o es 2 Of ce Magistracies 3 Military Commands amp riches these bring B POLITICAL INTEREST GROUPS PIGS 1 TRADITIONALISTS ABEST MenlB who do it like AHow weve always done it NON7TRADITIONALISTS APEOPLEs Men Who say AWell its Legall C Examples 1 Traditionalist Best Men Cicero a New Man amp Pleb 2 Non7Traditionalist Peoples Men Julius Caesar a patrician poor but in a hurry VI END OF REPUBLIC 133 BC to 31 BC A SIGNIFICANCE OF 133 BC 1 2 Brothers became Tribunes Tiberius in 133 BC amp brother Gaius in 123 BC 2 Fix Land7Farmer problem Give them public lands to farm but Rich are exploiting public lands 3 Rich 7 Senate Group Murdered both Brothers Tiberius in 133 BC 4 Signi cance Conservatives introduced Violence into Internal Roman Politics 13gt War Lords B 133 7 31 BC APERIOD OF THE WAR LORDSG 1 mbitious Generals Loyal troops ght other Ambitious Generals Loyal troops 2 PIG vs PIG violence 3 Military Coalitions ATRIUMVIRATESG A37Man Military Coalitions 4 3 CIVIL WARS 100 yrs of violence 13gt Desperate longing for PEACE on Earth C JULIUS CAESAR Peace Bringer 1 Ambitious Career a ased on POPULARES Agenda Bene ts for Populus Consul Proconsul 13gt GAUL WON Gaul turning Roman orientation NORTH to Gaul Britain 2 Triumvirate with Crassus amp Pompey m Julia Caesars Daughter a Julia died 54 BC Crassus killed 53in Par 39a b TriumvirateLa fell apart Bgt Conflict between Caesar amp Pompey 13gt Pompey changed to Optimates side 3 2m CIVIL WAR 49 7 45 BC Pompey murdered in Egyp 4 Julius CAESAR Bgt Rome Dictator then Perpetual Dictator a attempted some Reforms b Most lasting Reform JULIAN Calendar til 1580s 3 then Diaator Perpetuus Spring 44 BC a Perpetual Dictator smells like Aking b Brutus colleagues assassinated JC D OCTAVIAN Peace Bringer I 1 3 1 Ci 39 War B with Antony amp Cleopatra Defeated them at Actium 31 BC 2 PEACE 17Man Rule AndEMPIREJ Janet M Farmer Spring 2 005 2 Use by express permission only
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