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Western Civ Since 1500

by: Geovanni Bartoletti II

Western Civ Since 1500 HIST 111

Marketplace > Harding University > History > HIST 111 > Western Civ Since 1500
Geovanni Bartoletti II
Harding University
GPA 3.95

Janet Fortner

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Janet Fortner
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovanni Bartoletti II on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 111 at Harding University taught by Janet Fortner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/222122/hist-111-harding-university in History at Harding University.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
III COLD WAR AND CONTAINMENT IN A POSTiCOLONIAL WORLD 1945 to Present Lecture Guide 31 INTRODUCTION 1945 USA Exploded AiBomb thought to totally control world for 100 years B Did NOT Work out that way END OF COLONIAL EMPIRES A OLD IMPERIAL COLONIAL AREAS BREAK UP AFTER WWI AND WWII 7gt Third World Countries MONWEALTH Generally Successful RENCH Tightened Hold of Colonies FRENCH UNION Generally Failed 7gt Vietnam War C Colonialism replaced wi NATIONALISM often in form of National Liberation Movements 2 And some type of COLLECTIVISM Most notably in Asia where it was Communism D USA USUALLY HOSTILE to Nat l Liberation Movements 1 Assumed they were Communist 2 Devel d consistent Policy of INTERVENTION often based on CONTAINMENT a o China to Communism in 1949 b Korea in 1950s Testing Ground 7gt Division of Korea c Vietnam in 1970s represents failure of Policy 7gt unified Communism Vietnam NEW POSTiCOLONIAL NATIONS amp MATERIAL EXPECTATIONS A MOST DID NOT BECOME HVIMEDIATELY PROSPEROUS amp HAPPY Blame quotNEOCOLONIALISMquot 2 Rising Expectations a Economic Development Technology amp Education b quotNational Liberation Movementsquot B GOALS AMBIVALENT Maybe Mutually Exclusive 1 Economic Independence by extension Modernization Maintenance of Traditional Culture C TERRORISM of Osama bin Ladin Related to this problem Leave us as traditional Muslim societies but we want oil money COLD WAR Post71945 struggle between USA allies vermnations led by USSR A DEFINED Cold War 1 No Direct military conflict between 2 combatants 1 BRITISH Loosened Hold on Colonies 77gt COM 2 Rat er economic dip omatic amp ideological struggle 3 And Occasional hot wars on other soil eg Korea Vietnam B BEGINNING OF COLD WAR 7 7 1 Russian Revolution 1917ff USA USSR in Ideological War between Social Systems b USA sent troops to light on Russian soil against Communists for Whites 2 USA WW2 Military Strategy 1941 a o en 239 I Front in Euro e P b Stalin tho t USA intended to let AH amp Stalin destroy each other 3 Postdam JulyiAugust 1945 a Truman Allow free elections in East Europe Stalin NO Buffer states b Truman very powerful weapon C DECLARING COLD WAR 1 314 1946 Churchill s Iron Curtain Speech Fulton MO Stalin speech ideological warquot on West 2 317 1946 Stalin s Response in va a Mr Churchill begins to set war loose b Suggests Ideological Struggle growth of the influence of communism cannot be considered accidental It is a normal function 3 1947 Bernard Baruch used term Cold War then Walter Lippman wrote book Cold War 1947 contra HT s policies D USA COLD WAR POLICY 1 NITED NATIONS History of Name Alliance of United Nations of 1942 against Axis Power a Founded June 26 1945 w 50 Charter Members b Official Beginning 24 October 1945 c Intended 1 Place to solve International problems amp disputes 2 amp by FDR Place for USA amp USSR to negotiate the future 2 TRUMAN DOCTRINE 1947 Principle of aid to anticommunist forces Greece amp Turkey 3 CONTAINMENT a July 1947 George F Kennan The Sources of Soviet Conduct ForeignA airsjournal USSR responds only to force therefore CONTAIN her b Beginning of CONTAINMENT POLICY 4 MARSHALL PLAN Rebuild Waritorn countries amp Prevent Communist Takeiovers a Gen Geor e C Marshall Sec State give aid to Europe wo requiring repayment W NO reparations triangle b 13 billion Marshall Plan to rebuild Western amp Central Europe c NO Marshall PlaniA Country went Communist d Evaluation Containment in Europe SUCCESS 1 E FIGHTING THE COLD WAR 1948 7 1949 1 Reconstitution of Berlin a 4 tors 3 united French British US USSR held hers amp built Berlin Wall b USSR responded to Reconstitution of Berlin w GROUND BLOCKADE of Western Portions of city 2 c H Truman responded w BERLIN AIR LIFT 13K tons a day to 25 West Berliners for 11 months til 51949 when Stalin relented 2 Harry Truman est d NATO a Military Alliance Built NATO forces as Rapid Strike forces Blitdm39eg model c talin responded with WARSAW PACT Nations Eastern Europe Eastern Block Nations COLD WAR WIDENED 194971950 USSR s 15 Aibomb 1949 Chinese Communist Revolution then Chinese Aibomb New Doctrine MUTUALLY ASSURED DESTRUCTION MAD Japan economic development accelerated to balance East Germany Reconstituted quotWestquot Germany Stalin didn39t like this Communist North Korea invaded South Korea d to 1ST CONTAINMENT WAR KOREAN WAR 1950753 OLD WAR AFTER DEATH OF STALIN 1953 7 ca 1985 USSR built Berlin Wall in 1961 Superpowers trying to attract emerging POSTiColonial nations Asia Africa Middle East Latin America Cuba 1962 Missiles of October 1962 JFK meantime USA got involved in French IndoiChina as French Colonies broke up a National Liberation Movement in French IndoiChina b 2ND CONTAINMENT WAR VIETNAM WAR 1960s719705 1 w loss of 57000 American lives 2 Mid 1970s all Vietnam lost when unified by Communist No Vietnam Evaluation Containment in Asia FAILURE I at least shortiterm 5 Economic superiority of USA challenged development of Japan and West Germany a ostiwar they were rebuilt w U one I FP PBOU V39BVPIquot b By 1960s amp 70s were becoming USA s greatest economic competitors 6 By 1973 Cold War inching toward a policy of l teme a quotcoolingquot of arms race amp warming of relations b Primarily Work of Richard Nixon amp Henry Kissinger 7 Detente ended 1980s a w USSR invasion of Afghanistan b Ronald Reagan 7gt massive arms build up Mr Gorbachev tear down this wall END OF THE COLD WAR 1985ff 1 In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev amp new generation of Glamoxt openness June 1987 Reagan Mr Gorbachev tear down this wall June 1990 official deconstruction of Wa Tensions eased 1990 7 2001 USSR aids American foreign policy in Middle East What defeated USSR Long Term View a USSR Communist STATIC econom b Became too costly to USSR to pay price of arms race ideological race AND grow large economy c Containment Wars Ideological warfare Space Race Arms Race Supporting Allies providing own needs 7gt broke the USSR d Did we quotlosequot the Containment Wars In the long run N0 Part of cost USSR could not bear manage AGE OF MODERNITY amp ANXIETY POSTrMODERNISM IN THE 20TH amp 21gr CENTURIES ecture Guide 32 I RELATED EVENTS FAILURE OF SCIENCE amp TECHNOLOGY 7gt POSTiModern Turn A EUROPE TITANIC 1912 WWI 1914718 Spanish Flu 1920 PHILOSOPHY IN 20 TH C WW2 amp Holocaust B USA Later Loss of Vietnam 1974 Challenger AIDS failures of our technology II PHILOSOPHY amp LINGUISTICS LINGUISTICS It s a matter of semantics 1 LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN 188971951 TractatusLogicophilosophims 1921 Nonvisible Nonsense words 2 STRUCTURALISM IN PHILOSOPHY a NO necessary connection between the Word and the Thing b therefore Language cann tcommumcate any real U c Literary or Historical Texts Politicized System of such Words7amp7Things ie propaganda d SO Texts just mean whatever I WANT Interpret them to mean try this on a Postimoernist w a signed contract B EXISTENTIALISM 1 SOREN KIERKEGAARD 1813755 Danish Theologian orerunner of Nietzsc e b EXISTENCE HUMAN Freedom Responsibility Choice Contemplation of DEATH Anxiety ACT responsibly amp bravely sure anything Face UNCERTAINTY of Modern World 2 Tho c Attacked Rationalism dependence on reason Determinism science Hegel Marx 2 INFLUENCE with Nietzsche 7gt MODERN EXISTENTIALISM a CHRISTIAN EXISTENTIALISM 1 Christianity is Faithibased and hence IIrlogical No place for use of Reason b So just make a quotLeapioiiFaith into the darkness and hope 2 b SECULAR PHILOSOPHICAL 1 JEANiPAUL SARTRE Wrote Nausea No Exit The Plague a MAN Possesses EXISTENCE which is Liberty b SARTRE s Liberty is TRAGIC 39 iberty to say NO I can oppose anything Liberalism s Liberty was I can do anything c RECALL Factor God out and you destroy your own values 2 ALBERT CAMUS another similarly pessimistic French Existentialism III RELIGION IN A POSTiMODERN WORLD A KARL BARTH 188671968 ORTHODOXY without BELIEF 1 MAKE LEAP OF FAITH without COMPELLING REASONS 2 IMPOSSIBLE TO KNOW He is thinking of Chicken Little Knowledge B PAUL TILLICH Shaking the Foundations 1948 1 ANCIENT l1VIAGE OF GOD IS DEAD PASSE SUP E BEING ULTHVIATE REALITY No God in any traditional sense c Need to Give New Content to words like GOD 2 STRUGGLE TO MAKE A PLACE FOR GOD IN GODrISiDEAD WORLD C GENERAL LOOSENING OF ABSOLUTES IN RELIGIOUS WORLD 1 For GOOD at least Christian world takes to each other now a WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES 1948 PROTESTANT ECUMENISM b VATICAN II of Pope JOHN XXIII attempted AGGIORNAIMENTO UPiTOrDATEiment 1 ace in terrain 1 2 CATHOLIC ECUMENISM 2 For EVIL NO ABSOLUTES MORAL Personal or ETHICAL Social IV LOSS OF SCIENTIFIC ABSOLUTES IN POSTiMODERN SECULAR WORL A SCIENCE amp SCIENTIFIC ABSOLUTISM UNDER ATTACK FROM WITHIN 1 KARL POPPER 1950s a Philosophy of Science amp Epixtemology 1935 1959 Engl ed b Attack Principle of VERIFIBILITY 1 Cannot say hypothesis is VERIFIED All swans are white til you find one black one 2 Only say quotNOT FALSIFIEDquot 2 THOMAS KUHN The Smuture of Scientgfic Revolutions 1962 a Science amp Scientists are NOT OBJECTIVE b Sciences changes because of PARADIGM SHIFTS NOT due to FACTS B WESTERN ABSOLUTES 1 ANCIENT WORLD a ANCIENT RELIGIONS JEWISH ETHICAL MONOTHEISM b ROME c CHRIST 2 MIDDLE AGES HOLY MOTHER CHURCH 3 SCIENCE a EMPIRICAL KNOWLEDGE YIELDS FACT b ONLY SCIENTIFIC FACTS TRUTH c Auguste Comte POSITIVISM C POSTiMODERNISM NO RELIGIOUS TRUTH NO SCIENTIFIC TRUTH HENCE NO TRUTH D RELATIVISM 1 RADICAL EPISTEMOLOGICAL TRUTH a 1 CA ANYTHING b 2 NOTHING TO KNOWIFYou Could Know anything 1 GOD IS DEAD 2 ALL gODs ARE DEAD 3 FACT IS DEAD 2 RADICAL ETHICAL RELATIVISM a EXTR ME SUBJECTIVISM 1 MY FEELINGS ARE SUPREME 2 I AM GOD SHEILArISM b ONE rISM IS AS GOOD AS ANOTHER c RETURN OF BELIEF IN MAGIC amp DEMONS 1 MAGIC DEMONOLOGY FOCUSES ONE 2 MAGIC EXALTS MAN EVEN MORE THAN SCIENCE DOES 3 MAGIC IS HOMOiCENTRIC amp EGOiCENTRIC OUR RESPONSE 7 A INSIST ON FACT KNOWLEDGE EQUATION MODERNISM 1 ELL LOUDER AT POSTiMODERNS 2 LOSSES a MYSTERY OF RELIGION SOVEREIGNTY OF TOTALLY KNOWABLE PREDICTABLE GOD B INSIST ON THEREilSiNOiTRUTH RELATIVISM POSTiMODERNISM 1 SCREAM AT DEAF MODERNS 2 LOSSES a LOSE THE HISTORICAL FACTUAL BASIS OF CHRISTIANITY b END UP WITH SUBJECTIVE RELIGION NEW AGE C ALTERNATIVE 1 ADMIT THERE THE MYSTERIOUS a Because I don t possess know ALL truth does not mean that 1 There is NO truth 2 I cannot know SOME Enough Truth This is Epistemological Humilit b y 2 ACCEPT THE HISTORICITY OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION a BECAUSE FACTS cannot Subsume ALL Knowledge does NOT Exclude that Factual Information MAY contain truth b Facts which Contain Factual TRUTH are lMPORTANT c Christianity is a Historyibased Religion Ii Jesus was NOT raised from the dead in fact in space and me then Christianity is a fraud and we are fools REALISM IN LATE 19TH CENTURY SCIENCES POLITICS ART Lecture Guide 21 I REALISM IN SCIENCE amp THO T SCIENCE BECOMES THE STANDARD OF KNOWLEDGE amp TRUTH A REALISM DEFINED see Spielvogel 874 Art emphasis upon the everyday ordinary common 2 Science concentration up the visible factual quanti able 3 Politics whatever works 7 utilitarian 4 Life like it really is B Middle Ages had viewed THEOLOGY as THE QUEEN OF THE SCIENCES 1 Theology set standard for ALL fields 2 Theology had linal SAY in what was acceptable as knowledge C NOW PHYSICS after Newton more so after Einstein BECOMES QUEEN OF THE SCIENCES 1 PHYSICS Sets standard for ALL fields ALL lields want to be SCIENTIFIC Exclusion of anything But Henny7Penny Knowledge b ALL lields try to Develo 1 Theories Formation of Hypotheses Methodologies Testing of Hypotheses c PHYSICS has final SAY in what is admitted to category of Knowledge 2 Physics is followed closely by BIOLOGY Darwin different lecture 3 NOW SCIENCE Knowledge becomes Determined by Experimen OBJECTIVE Scientists do not intrude their values into practice of Science 7 like religion does the UNIQUE means way to TRUT Now human knowledge truth e jmf this is Chicken Little knowledge and the same thing will happen to US C SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOP IN THIS CLHVIATE amp WANT TO BE quotSCIENCESquot 1 ICAL amp BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BECOME THE DRIVER 2 3 MAJOR SOCIAL SCIENCES IN LATE 19TH C a SOCIOLOGY Auguste COMTE d 1857 1 Theory of POSI M a bservable quantifiable DATA bits b Objective amp Value7free amp NO Interpretations Subjective c just the facts ma am Joe Friday 2 NEW DEFINITION OF TRUTH TRUTH FACT and ONLY Fact b ANTHROPOLOGY 1 Physical Anthropology Man is an animal Cultural Anthropology All cultural elements including all religions are man7made amp evolve c PSYCHOLOGY 1 EXPERlMENTAL 7 Man animal behavior can be studied in laboratory amp manipulated 2 CLINICAL 7 Freud Man 7 IRRATIONAL Animal 3 OTHER FIELDS TRYING TO BECOME SCIENCES quotSOCIAL SCIENCESquot a ECONOMICS Smith Wealth quationx Ricardo amp ot b HISTORY amp HISTORIOGRAPHY7 German Historian Leopold Von Ranke 179571886 1 Accumulate amp write up all the data f acts 2 Collections of facts History 3 NO REPEAT NOI INTERPRETATION of Facts is allowed D SIGNIFICANCE 1 The OBVIOUS The University system amp Our current view of learning maca 2 C PLETE Secularization of Western MAN E MY PROBLEMS with NOTION of SOCIAL SCIENCES 1 THEOLOGICALLY No place for invisible NON7Sensory NON7quantifiable truth 2 SCIENTIFIC METHOD REQUIRES REPEATABILITY a HUMA BEHAVIOR DEFIES REPEATABILITY b HUMANS RESEN T amp DEFY MANIPULATION when we discover it 11 REALISM IN POLITICS IN LATE 19TH CENTURY The Cases of NATIONAL UNIFICATION 7 GERMANY amp ITALY A GERM NY BISMARCK OF PRUSSIA URCE OF GERMAN UNIFICATION Unification thru Liberal Revolutions had failed in German states a NOT going to be on basis of LIBERALISM freedom amp equality doctrines b New Ideas Basis will be German NATIONALISM 1 REALPOLITIK of Otto von BISMARCK a Realistic Politics b Machiavellian politics whatever gets the job done 2 BLOOD amp IRON Bismarck a Unification possible only thru Blood amp Iron b German Nation Industrial amp Military might 2 ENGINEERED 2 STUNNING WARS OF EXPANSION REALPOLITIK The fundamental rule of gov ts is the principle of extending their territories 7 Frederick the Great Text p 503 a AUSTRI 1866 Acquired some of German States b FRANCE 1870 Acquired French borderlands 1 Napoleon 111 had Troops protecting Pope in Rome from Uni cation efforts there 2 Recalled those troops to defend France 3 Recall encouraged unification of Italia peninsula B ITALY 1870 1 Several typical revolution attempts had failed 7 therefore NOT thru typical Liberal revolutions 2 New Ideas Basis will be Blend of Italian Nationalism Revolutionary efforts of Garibaldi a REALPOLITIK of Count Camillo Benso di Cavour in North take it when Garibaldi offers it b Revolution by Garibaldi in South 1859 7 7 1870 c Formed Kingdom of Italy 3 French recalled Troops from Rome 1870 7gt Kingdom of Italy took ROME as capital 4 Italy unified completely first time since AD 476 C 187071 GERMANY amp ITALY unified amp playing catch7up to Imperial powers of Europe 1 Central Fact of International Relations 187071945 2 Italo7German Nationalism Prelude to WWI amp WWII 1850ff THVIE OF REALISM IN ART amp LITERATURE A CHARACTERISTICS 1 Reality What the Eye SEES photographic w photography just after mid7century 2 Details 3 The Commonplace common people common tasks everyday things 4 ritty 7 we wou d call this raunchy 5 Solemn 7 even depressing B REACTIONS CRITICISMS Ugly crude humdrum PLAUDITS Honest exact has grandeur C EXAMPLES 1 PAINTERS Courbet Millet Bonheur France Winslow Homer Thomas Eakins USA 2 PHOTOGRAPHY USA Matthew Brady 7 Civil War 1 photographed war III BOURGEOIS REALISM AHOW IT LOOKS TO MY EYE Lecture Guide 3 MENTALITY OF RENAISSANCE A BOURGEOIS B URBAN 1 Practical hardiheaded confident 2 Individualich amp freeithinking compared to their time 3 Literate often Educated 4 ea is 39c 5 Secular compared to their time NOT compared to ours C Patronage of Arts The RICH w discretionary Income EMPHASES OF ITALIAN RENAISSANCE A CLASSICAL MODELS FROM GREECE amp ROME 1 Art 2 Education 3 Civic Life 4 Politics 5 History B BUT CHRISTIAN NOT Atheists or Agnostics C HUMANISM GrecoiRoman Values applied to Learnin Literary Humanism F rancesco Petrarch 13047137 4 IVIC Humanism Coluccio Saluta 39 BOURGEOIS REALISM IN ART A w it Looks to MY Eye Florence amp many Italian states dominated by new rich Middle Class B DEVELOPMENTS IN ART 1 Begins with Giotto d 1337 in Florence 2 ntinues w Masaccio after 1400 in Florence C Republic of FLORENCE vs Duchy of Milan 1 Intermittent Wars EgtPeace of Lodi 1454 Balance of Power 1454 to 1494 2 Florence at War ca 1400 w Milan a Beginning of Civic Humanism Coluccio Salutati Chancellor of Florence talks about Liberty b Beginnings of F39REE7STANDING Statues 1 since Rome 1 F orence made biblical compar39 a Republic of Florence Little Boy David b Duchy of Milan Fighting giant Golia h 2 David becomes important theme in Florence art amp sculpture D CHARACTERISTICS of Renaissance GrecoiRomanClassical Art 1 armony Symme y Mathematical Proportion Seren39 y 2 West 15gt Cla39hssical style when we find Ait amp desert classical when we lose Ait a 5 Ce E b Italian European Renaissance Bgt Mannerism Baroque c NeoiClassicism F rench Enlightenment Bgt Romanticism 3 Themes in Renaissance Art a 39ns w Religious Themes b By 1475ff Secular Themes Pagan F rom Greece amp Rome cf Botticelli PROGRESS OF RENAISSANCE A BEGINNINGS Giotto by 1337 Masaccio 8 1400 71 494 B HIGH RENAISSANCE 1454 1 2 Leonardo Michelangelo Raffaello 3 HI REN RELIGIOUS THEMES E MICHELANGELO a NSITIONAL FIGURE in Art Michelangelo b Renaissance harmony amp calm quot77gt MANNERISM Twist Tension C FOREIGN INVASIONS 149471527 1 French Invade 3 times 1494 to 1513 2 Charles V amp HRE troops invade 1527 3 Macchiavelli dies 1527 D END 1528 AMannerismB of Michelangelo amp others appearing III WORLD WAR I amp THE DECLINE OF EUROPE ecture Guide 25 WWI amp WWII CLOSELY LINKED A WWI tu ning oint WWI amp WWII 30 Years War of 20th C 1914745 B War amp International Anarchy Built7In to System Nationalism Militarism Alliances C MAP France Britain Germany A7H Russia Ottoman Empire Balkans partly A7H partly Ottoman Empire 1 AUSTRIA7HUN GARY 7 Habsburgs 7 against Serbia 2 GERMANY 7 Hohenzollerns 3 RUSSIAN EMPIRE 7 Romanovs 4 ITAIN 7 Hanovers 5 FRAN E 7 3quotI Republic D Hence 1914 Turning Point to 20 l Century 7 OR was it 1912 Titanic ROAD TO WAR The Oily Rags A ar quot nthinkable expensive irrational uncivilizedquot A BACKGROUND Old Suspicions amp fears 7 NO Single Aggressor rather war was built into Pre7War World amp Alliance System GermansFrench 7 Mutual Fear amp hatred Westphalia 1648 Franco7Prussian War 1860s a German amp Austria amp Italy 77gt TRIPLE ALLIANCE 1882 b r ch 77gt DUAL ALLIANCE wRussia 1894 2 British hold out in Splendid Isolation a then 1907 British join French in ENTENTE CORDIALE Cordial Understanding then evolves into TRIPLE ENTENTE Britain France Russia quotTHE BALKAN QUESTIONquot The Tinder Box A Ottoman Empire 145371923 Strategic on path to Eastern oil H B Nationalism among Slavic Balkans w European quotmeddlin C Balkans growing Nationalism 7gt Movements of Independence from A7H amp Ottoman Empire 1 ia wants Unity for quotSouth Slavsquot Russian Slavs sympathetic 2 AH fearing loss of Balkans if ethnic groups achieve nationhood All Europeans salivating WAR COMES quotThe Spark A Gavrilo Principe Serbian extremist from Bosnia in Sarajevo Bosnia 28 June 1914 B 28 July 1914 Austria decl war on Serbia C Midnight 4 August 1914 5 EUROPEAN EMPIRES AT WAR AUSTRIA7HUN GARY 7 Habsburgs 7 against Serbia GERMANY 7 Hohenzollerns 7 against France Britain Russia RUSSIAN EMPIRE 7 Romanovs 7 against Germany amp A7H BRITAIN 7 Hanovers 7gt Mountbattens 7 against Germany FRANCE 7 3quotI Republic 7 against Germany NE UP Triple Alliance 7gt CENTRAL POWERS Germany A7H Ottoman Empire 6th Empire Bulgaria et al Triple Entente 77gt quotTHE ALLIESquot Britain France Russia Serbia Japan et al amp USA LANNED STRATEGIES ALLIES Superior Position amp Forces We surround them so tire em out wear em down CENTRAL POWERS Schlieffen Plan Quick Decisive Conquest of France Turn back ag Russia before mobilizes PROBLEMS entral Bad Roads amp Weather French Resistance Belgium neutral Russian speed bad generaling Allied Central Strength Russian Weakness no industry poor arms little training poor generaling Hr UIFP Pquot M run 239 b THE WAR The BLAZE A ACTUAL COURSE Ground War of Fixed Positions TRENCH Warfare 1 2 FRONTS a WEST Franco7German Border French British amp later Americans b EAST Russo7German Border 2 EAST a Russia alone brave but futile efforts due to little industry amp few armaments b Russia 7 Communist Revolution Nov 1917 7gt Treaty of Brest7Litovsk Mar 1918 separate peace 3 WEST miles of Trenches a 4year of gains in yards amp losses in 10s of thousands of Europe s children 12 a generation b Little change UNTIL USA decl war April 1917 1 Woodrow Wilson an IDEALIST in a world of Realists Realpolitik a sheep among wolves 2 odrow Wilson A War to end all wars A war to make the World safe for Democracy c Black Jack Pershing amp AEF American Expeditionary Force 7gt France in early 1918 11 November 1918 Hostilities ceased on Western Front All Quiet on the Western Front B What was Determinative in This War 7 New Technologies employed but NOT important til WWII dreadnought tank airplane flamethrowers What renches barbed wire Lewis machine gun gas heavy ar 39 ery MAIN PROBLEM Old7World Generals w New7Technologies amp NO Strategies to Match CHANGED USA Got In And Changed the Stasis awn VI C Wilson convinced Germany amp Central Powers to surrender Guaranteeing them a air Peace a mild peace eace without Victors AND without Losers WW Could NOT deliver on Promises for a Fair Peace OUTCOMES OF WWI The Dead Fire A Wilsonian Idealism to End War forever by a mild amp fair peace 7 Unable to Deliver the Goods 1 C emenceau and French were intent on Revenge Punish Germany 2 Italy joined in 1915 intending to carry away lot of Austrian land 3 Lloyd George refused to stand up to the French between Attila the Hun Clemenceau amp Jesus Christ Wilson B PEACE CONFERENCE AT VERSAILLES FRANCE 7 1918720 7gt Many Treaties many declarations 1 Major Representatives The BIG Four USA Britain France Italy USA Woodrow Wilson hoped to remake an Ideal world failed and died of Stroke Britain David Lloyd George unable to stand up to either W or Clemenceau France Georges Clemenceau quotLe Tigrequot Intent on Destroying German Power to Make War Italy Vittorio Orlando wanted Land for Italy from Austria didn t get it and left MAD Germany amp A7H Note that they are not represented as THEY had allowed France to be represented in 181415 7 note also that the 1815 treaty secured peace for 99 years this one Barely 15 2 WILSON intended to Guide Peace Settlement but could not contain French Revenge a Wilson39s GUIDING PRINCIPLE for Balkans National Self7Determination 1 BUT the Big Four FIXED Destinies of the Small Nations 2 amp France Fixed destinies of the Bi 4 b WW had 14 Points for Peace but could not bring them about c 14 l Point League of Nations 1 a place to solve problems w this treaty amp other international conflicts 2 Princi le Collective Securi C MAJOR OUTCOMES of Versailles Conference amp VERSAILLES TREATIES 7 A BAD TREATY ALL ROUND 1 Germany demilitarize lost navy lost most of merchant fleet how trade 2 WAR GUILT CLAUSE Germany had to accept entire amp sole guilt for beginning war 3 WAR REPARATIONS CLAUSE Germany had to pay bill for the war 4 MAP OF EUROPE REMADE a 7 New Nations none happy w situation 7gt Balkan problems of today b 4 Empires Collapsed A7H Germany Russia Ottomans Britain France LOSERS Germany Italy A7H Bulgaria Ottoman Empire France Russia Winners Japan amp USA 6 Wilson39s Dreams for LEAGUE OF NATIONS 14th point were never Actualized 7 Stillborn a end International Anarchy moderate the quotdraconianquot peace b USA never joined Henry Cabot Lodge Rep vs Wilson Demo D BUT 7 USA abdicated its new position of World Leadershi 1 Never a signatory to this Treaty 2 years later Joint Session of Congress declared hostilities ended 2 Never joined League of Nations 3 Returned to pre7war Isolationism amp did NOTHING as Mussolini amp Hitler remade map of Europe E INTER7WAR PERIOD OR T of All Possible Worlds 1 Germany Hurt amp Humiliated a Too Hurt not to be Angr b Not Hurt enough Not to be Able to Recover amp Retaliate 7gt Hitler Economically Ruined an Equot c 2 Italy Hurt a Economically Suffering b Disillusioned w Former Allies 7 Next time sticks with Germany I DEEPER CONSEQUENCES OF WWI The Ashes 7 END OF EUROPEAN DOMINANCE A Loss of Money trillions of dollars B Loss of Men 60 million mobilized 10 M military deaths 307M civilian deaths C Spirit of Europe Broken 7 Loss of faith in future in rational solutions to problems D Liberal Economic Order free enterprise system Crippled Japan amp USA picked up European markets abroad E Liberal Political Order Discredited Esp German Weimar Republic which took blame in German for the humiliation FUTURE The Embers Wilson Said quotSafe for Democracyquot 7 It Wasn tl It was the Peace to End All Peace SOCIALISMS Lecture Guide 19 I SOCIALISM S Plural RESPONSE TO MACHINE amp CAPITALISM A SOCIALISM ATTACK ON CAPITALISM AS A SYSTEM RADICALS amp REFORMISTS 2 NOT just Attack on Ills of Capitalism Wages Conditions etc B TYPES OF SOCIALISM S 1 Socialism Gov t or collective ownership of Means of Production MOPS amp Distribution of Goods DOGS 2 UTOPIAN Socialism socialism achieved within an Ideal Community 3 Anarchism aniarchy wo rule ditto on socialism but first destroy ALL institutions gov ts churches families because destructive to freedom amp happiness b spontaneously a VOLUNTEERISTIC Society will spring up to meet all needs 4 Marxism Scientific Socialism Common ownership of MOPS amp DOGS b Classless society c Eac produces acc to his ability and receives acc to his need Gov t atrophies withers amp all performed on Volunteer basis 11 UTOPIANISM Utopian Socialism and Anarchism A UTOPIAN SOCIALISM E INED FLEE EVIL SOCIETY TO ACHIEVE SOCIALISM wn IDEAL COMMUNITIES 2 Beginnings in ENGLAND Sir Thomas MORE UTOPLA 1516 3 SCOTLAND Robert OWEN England s 1 Socialist amp Owenites Reformed His OWN Factories in Scotland b a LOT of Influence in America 4 FRANCE a Saintisimon NEWCHRISTIANITY 1825 Organize entire NATIONAL economy TOP down b Charles Fourier 1841751 1 anize LOCAL economies phalansteries BOTTOM up 2 quotFrom each acc to his ability to each acc to his needquot B ANARCHISM Lacking or having NO Rules D Opposition to ANY imposed Authority Overturn Gov ts violence or activism 7gt VOLUNTERISTIC Society 2 3 VERY optimistic 4 2 GENERAL TRADITIONS KINDS OF ANARCHISTS a Philosophical Anarchists Change thru Evolution Reform Proudhon L Tolstoy b Radical Anarchists Change thru Revolution amp Violent Overthrow M Bakunin 1 Violent Anarchists assassinate many leaders c 1900 Carnot of France McKinley in USA 2 This dichotomy of ReformEvolution VS Radical Revolution is present thruiout Socialism 3 Assassinated Sadi Carnot France King Umberto Italy Tsar of Russia Pres McKinley USA III COMMUNISM MARXISM SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM A quotSCIENTIFICquot SOCIALISM KARL MARX39s SYNTHESIS 1 MARX 181871883 a German Jewish roots b Shows both ENLIGHTENMENT amp ROMANTIC Influences c Met amp collaborated w Friedrich Engels d 1848 COMMUNISTJKANIFESTO 1 Begins There is a specter ghost spirit stalking Europe it is the specter of Communism 2 Ends Workers of the world Uni e You have nothing to lose but your chains NB internationalism e ca 1883 DAS KAPITAL w Engels pub d after IGVI s death 2 MARXIST SYNTHESIS a SCIENTIFIC because HX Method amp provides evidence politics Purpose b quotI TURNED HEGEL ON HIS HEADquot 1 EGEL quotHXL DIALECTICquot 7 IDEAS Forces moving HX 2 MARX Forces movin Hx Materialism amp Means of Production c Hence MARXISM COMMUNISM MATERIALISTICAND DETERMNED foreordained can t be stopped 1 DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM 2 HISTORICAL MATERIALISM 3 CONOMIC DETERMINISM d MARX39S HXL DIALECTIC Ile Struggle Exploitation of Means of Production 1 Ancient world Slavery exploited by as ers 2 Medieval World Serfs exploited by Lords Feudalism 3 Modern world Workers exploited by capitalism 4 39 a Workers Revolution b Will establish Communism Dictatorship of PROLETARIAT Propertyless from Latin e ABSOL UTELYNECESSARY CONDITIONS OF WIGISV REVOLUTION 1 rs in Mature Capitalist Societies 2 Workers Take over means of production Bottomiup Revolution 3 Establish Classless Society ALL will be just workers 4 Liquidate Dead capitalist order 5 Then Establish Pure Communism f ESTABLISHMENT OF PURE COMMUNISM 7 WHAT IS PURE COMMUNISM Co on ownership of All Proper 2 State withers awa 7gt Workers Soviets which make decisions re Production 3 True Liberty established in Workers Paradise w No coercive state 4 All governing functions 7gt Voluntary Associations amp Voluntary Production 5 Borr hrase quotFrom ea acc to ability to ea acc to Needquot from Fourier 3 SCIENTIFIC MATERIALISTIC DETERMINISM a o dained by Economic Histor Mark Said HIS socialism was NOT idealistic but scientific because he got data from History 1 NB Marxism is NOT the same as later theories Lenin Stalin Mao et alia 5 CRITIQUE OF MARX amp MARXISM a UNREALISTIC ROMANTIC UTOPIAN PERFECTIONISTIC ie Liberal b A FAITH w Marx as god LeninTrotsky et al as Prophets amp heaven of Workers Paradise c WHY SUCCESS THEORY replaced religious faith amp PRAXIS told how to achieve paradise d DID NOT DELIVER ON ITS SOCIAL OR ECONOMIC PROMISES 7 NEOiMarxism coming INTERPRETERS OF MARX 1 REVOLUTIONARY INTERPRETERS Violence is Necessary to bring about Revolution Lenin Trotsky Stalin Mao 2 EVOLUTIONARY INTERPRETERS in REFORMIST TRADI ION Bernstein Germany Gramsci Italy a w evolution thru Reform 7gt Communist State quotParliamentary Communismquot 7 Communism by statute MARX amp DARWIN 1 Marx viewed Darwin s theory as proof of his own struggle theory amp sent copy of some of his work to Darwin 2 No evidence Darwin read it CD thought Liberalism amp Free Enterprise fit better w Evolutionary theory III AGE OF DISCOVERY amp EXPLORATION Lecture Guide 5 DATES ca 14201620 A THE BIG Discovery that the Seas are All one connected Highway round the earth B Associated w RENAISSANCE amp Its Mentality 1 Systematic Technological 2 Colonization C Til Renaissance there was Much Geographical Confusion 1 4 Continents 2 Mostly Land D A Lot of Mythological Overlay Prester John Monopodes etc CHANGE OF ATTITUDE ca 1400 A General Main Motives Middle Class Economics amp Renaissance Curiosity B SPECIFIC MOTIVES Europe Wanted Alts Share of 1 RICHES Precious Metals needs bullion to expand economy amp Goods 2 SPICES Pepper Cloves Cinnamon 3 FISHING GROUNDS fishing Atake much less 4 GOD AHeathen 5 FAME Individualism C SUMMARIZE AS quotGOD GOLD GLORYquot WHY EUROPE A AGGRESSIVE PURPOSE CURIOSITY B TECHNOLOGY Seaworthy Ships amp Skilled Mariners 1 Northern amp Southern ShipiBldg Traditions 2 DISCOVERY SHIP CARAVEL 3 1 CARGO Information WORLD TAKES SHAPE MAPS CHANGE SIGNIFICANCES A NEW SETTLEMENTS FOR POPULATION GROWTH B VAST ECONOMIC EFFECTS 1 Old 77gt New Animals Protein sources 2 New 77gt Old Bullion Plant resources tomatoes corn beans tobacco C HEALTH IMPLICATIONS 1 Old 77gt New Smallpox Typhus Measles 2 New 77gt Old VD Syphilis D Exchange of Foods amp Diseases called the COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE E POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS 1 3 GLOBAL POWERS Spain France England 2 1 WORLD SUPERPOWER III THE DEPRESSION 1929 7 1940 ecture Guide 27 DESPAIR AFTER WWI A Even in USA which was helped amp little hurt men returned physically injured amp mentally harmed shell shock B ROARING 20s Roared more w Despair than Happiness 7 It was a desperate Roar C ECONOMIC TROUBLES 1 US Economy SOARED had SERIOUS but unrecognized problems Europe NEVER recovered from WWI 2 USA String of Republic Presidents Warren G Harding Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover 1921 7 1931 a return to normalcy CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION A PHONEY PARTIAL PAPER PROSPERITY luxury Goods w Limited Markets Older Basic Industries suffering RR Mining Housing B PAPER SPECULATION Everybody investing in stocks Buy Now Pay Later 7gt Leveraged buying Shoe shine boy investment Kennedy said he knew to get out the market when he heard his shoeshine boy talking about buying stocks FARM EC NOMY NOT PROSPERING High Import Tariffs 7 meant Cost of consumer goods high Could not sell our farm products abroad Dust Bowl on Great amp South Plains result of plowing west of 90 parallel no rain D POOR DISTRIBUTION OF MONEY INCOME 1 Market for Luxury goods small 2 Republican Economics of Andrew Mellon Sec Treasury since 19207c 1930 3 successive Republican presidents Believed money belongs in pockets of rich Corporate Profit up by 62 Wages NOT going up w profi s 3 STATS 1929 in USA 21 of families earned less than 1000year 7 Earning of the top 1 110 of 1 e rnings bottom 42 E BAD CORPORATE STRUCTURE unregulated unchecked 7 Corporate Larceny had Big Impact on American Attitudes 1867 7 1929 Business Man American Ideal college grads into business 1930 7 ca 1980 Professions American Ideal college grads into professions BAD BAN STRUCTURE unregulated unchecked Low Interest Rates didn t curb in ation Banks lending to speculators 1928 Interest rate went up on ederal Reserve Notes Sept 1929 Tightened again rates up again 777gt BUST STATE OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY BAD 1 No REAL recovery from WWI in Europe REPARATION S TRIANGLE USA 7gt Germany 7gt BritFrance 7gt USA same money 2 High USA Tariffs against European goods Europe could not sell goods here Europe could not afford our exports Eg farm goods 3 USA Insisted Europe pay WWIDebts Before WWI USA DEBTOR NATION After WWI USA CREDITOR N C 4 EUROPE DEFAULTED ON DEBTS USA exports to Europe dropped US farmers dependent upon export suffered 5 D pression began in USA and spread to smaller economies H POOR STATE OF ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE 1 oover s Advisors amp to less extent FDR s were Bad Principally Andrew Mellon money belongs in pockets of 2 Republican Gov t failed to do anything after Crash a well7meaning but trapped by his politics old7style Liberal Republican ideology no gov t help to people just business b then came Bonus Army 1932 when Gen Douglas MacArthur Yes The Hero amp US army fired on US army Veterans I OVERPRODUCTION OVERPRODUCTION OVERPRODUCTION 1 Not nough Consumers in the Market USA Workers paid low wages USA Tariffs impede sale Overseas high tariffs on their products means their products don t sell here then they cannot afford to buy our products 2 JA Hobson British Imperialim 1902 Pay your own workers well enough to buy your own products so they can buy your products THE GREAT CRASH A OCTOBER 7 NOVEMBER 1929 1 ACK THURSDAY Oct 24 1929 stock prices began falling 2 By BLACK TUESDAY Oct 29 1929 banks were calling in loans 3 By Mid7Nov 30 billion in today s value lost in stock values 4 Herbert Hoover still in Denial any lack of confidence in the economic future of the United States is a foohs B REAL DEPRESSION March 1930 32 million unemployed up from 15 before Crash 2 HH still optimistic the country would right itself during the next 60 days HH 3 Popular Discontent 7gt Rebellion 7 Revolution a Feb 1931 food riots in parts of USA b Mar 1931 Strike at Ford Plant in Michigan police amp Ford s guards killed 4 workers 4 Dec 1931 NY s Bank of the United States collapsed 200 million in deposits largest single bank failure in US History a more than 750K New Yorkers dependent on city relief 160K more waiting list city s ending average of 820 person month for relief 5 By 1932 50 of American Wage7 r quot 39 quot C ABROAD NO BETTER Began in USA spread to Britain Germany Portugal Spai Austria Italy France 1 USSR NO Depression Fixed Wages Fixed Prices 2 Dictators amp Fascism rapidly arose in all Western Europe except France amp Britain IV FAILURE OF CLASSICAL LIBERALISM A HOOVER o man but hands tied by his 19 l C Classical Liberal ideology that Gov t should help business 1 But Govt should NOT help individuals 7 makes them dependent 2 Hoover gave Feed to farmers for their cows but not food for children then Doug MacArthur attacked Bonus rmy B BONUS ARMY 1932 1 Gov t promised Bonuses in future to WWI Vets 7 they need it now May Vets left Oregon marching to Washington to demonstrate for payment arrived June set up camp near White House b Bill failed in Senate Millionaires Club HH provided money to get them home amp dismissed them 2 Vets decided NOT to leave a July HH ordered troops to clear out Anaconda Flats b USA Army troops under Douglas MacArthur moved in c amp shot and killed American Veterans 4 Nation was outraged amp HH was a deadman at next elections C Beginning of The American WELFARE State or American DEMOCRATIC COLLECTIVISM 1 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Democrat elected by landslide Nov 1932 228 million to 15750 million Largest growing Political Party that fall in USA Communist Party FDR ook flice b March 1933 2 In 100 Days American Way of Government chan ed a rom NON7interventionist Classical Liberalism b to PRO7ACTIVE Gov t which aims to promote the general welfare as American Ideal 3 NOW we can use the words Conservative and Liberal in the sense you are familiar wit a Democratic Party was Party of Jefferson Classical Liberal SMALL gov t Party 7 until FDR New Deal move to Left b Republic Party was Party of Hamilton STRONG Gov t helping Business 7 til FDR Demos left them on the political Right ITALIAN RENAISSANCE B ARECOVERY AND REBIRTH Spielvogel ITALY amp THE RENAISSANCE Ca 1350 to 1494 1500 Lecture Guide 1 I RENAISSANCE BEGINS A IN CITIES OF NORTHERN ITALY Economies growing slowly since ca 960 Trading w ast Mediterranean amp Asia thru East sites 3 Cleaning out Arab pirates in West Mediterranean B WEAKNESS of 3 Great Medieval Institutions in NO Italy ca 1300 13gt CULTURAL Changes we call ARenaissance 1 Political Changes HRE weakened by Investiture Controversy and cannot control its cities 2 Economic Changes agrarian FEUDALISM always weak in Italy amp cities always more and larger there 3 Cultural Changes absence of HMC means culture grows Aout from under Church patronage a Move to Avignon Babylonian Captivity of Church 1305 7 1377 b Great Schism 1377 7 1417 c Ge eral Weakness 1417 7 c 1490 by then too late C GREAT TRADING CITIES Grow in No Italy 5 Renaissance States Develop Florence Milan Venice Papal States Kingdom of Naples 3 Great Trade Cities of North Italy Florence Milan Venice D Means REBIRTH OUR Word is French Renaimance Italian is nnascita 11 WHAT WAS THE RENAISSANCE AREBlRTHf Broad Changes throughout Society based on ARebirth of Greco7Roman Classical Culture A CULTURAL beginning in Italy by 1350 ca 1300 7 1350 1 Art 2 Scholarship Literature Morality amp Ethics B ECONOMIC 1 FROM Agricultural Agrarian Econom 2 TO Urban Commercial monied Economy C SOCIAL 1 move FROM church7dominated intellectual and cultural life 2 TO increasing LAY patronage and partici ation 3 Makes a society dominated by a different spirit BgtASecular D TRANSFORMATION TO A SOCIETY increasingly MODERN amp characterized by 1 CENTRALIZED POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS even in areas of small fractured states centralization was occurring within those states 2 URBAN COMMERCIAL ECONOMY a Commercial Class in Burgs Burgers 13gt Bourgeoisie b E LAY PATRONAGE of Literature Arts Education Music Middle Class has MONEY 3 III DATES RELEVANT TO RENAISSANCE IN ITALY By 1350 TO 1494 1527 A Spielvogel says Begins after 1400 Mrs Fortner DISAGREES Learn MY dates B MRS FORTNERS DATES FOR ITALIANRENAISSANCE c 1350 to 1494 1527 1 Italian Renaissance c 1350 to 1494 or 1527 see below for justi cation It has begun in Italy by 1350 b is ending by 1494 and is over certainly by 1527 2 North of Alps ca 1450 or 1 475 until a ntering France amp Germany between 1450 and 1475 Ending in France by 1600 c Still going on in England when Elizabeth Ithe Great dies in 1603 3 SO Italian Renaissance Began BEFORE and Ended BEFORE the Northern Renaissance a OR put another way NO Renaissance began AFTER and ended AFTER Italian Renaissance b They Overlap C 1350 14941527 Ends Italian Ren Begins No Ren begins Ends still going on in England 1603 4 BEGAN in FLORENCE Italy AQueen City of the Renaissance Rome AQueen of High Renaissance 7 C RELEVANT DATES FOR ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1 RENAISSANCE BEGINS in Italy ho no doubt interrupted by Black Death 134748 PETRARCH 1304774 TRANSITIONAL Figure in LITERARY RENAISSANCE is Called the AFirst Humanist hence IS Renaissance gure 2 Writes Poems new style new motives to LAURA a Sees her first in 1327 begins writing poetry to her Crowned Poet Laureate of Italy result of poetry in 1341 3 etrarch is DEAD by 1374 duh This is before Spielvogel says it begins b GIOTTO 126671337 TRANSITIONAL Figure in ARTISTIC RENAISSANCE 1 is widely placed among rst Renaissance Artists Michelangelo did 2 PAINTING of Madonna a Mama ca 1300 3 amp is dead in 1337 duh LONG before Spielvogel lets it begin 2 BLACK DEATH 134748 to 1350 a ca 70 Million dead of c 210 million European population 13 total population dead in 2 years b estimates range from high of 2 to low of 14 but 13 is good conservative ligure c IMMENSE social economic amp cultural outcomes VIII 3 MASACCIO 140171428 B followed in Giottos footsteps a is where Spielvogel wants to start Italian Renaissance b S see it as Arecovery amp rebirth from Black Death amp ATerrible 143911 Century bad argument 1 Admitted 143911 Century was Terrible 1 2 But NOT terrible Everywhere at same time to same degree 3 Sometimes troubles Bgt dynamism in Culture B case in point 203911 C Had 5 bloodiest wars in human history amp did not prevent dynamic chan e 4 1453 FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE 13gt Political and Cultural Effects Political Effects Turks on European Soil constitute Threat to ALL Western States 2 Frightens feuding Italian cities to make Peace Peace of Lodi below b Cultural Effects Constantinople amp East had Black Death from early 1300s Bgt people w MSS West 2 Fall of Constantinople increased flow of people amp MSS to west ca 14507 5 1454 PEACE OF LODI a 3 great No Italian cityistates Florence Milan Venice made peace in a BALANCE OF POWER b Uneasy peace for 40 Years 145471494 HIGH RENAISSANCE Peak Yrs of work for 1 Leonardo da Vinci 2 ffael o Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475 7 1546 Said he learned everything from Giotto amp Masaccio 6 1492 Important Year for many reasons but a Lorenzo II M quot39 quot Me ici quot 39 Fear arose in Venice amp Mi 2 Destabilized Peace of Lod 3 heads to French Invasion 7 below and END of ITALIAN Renaissance b Pope Alexander VI Borgia mounts throne venal amp corrupt Renaissance popeEgt Reformation c Isabella of Castile amp Ferdinand of Aragon married expel Moors Muslims from ASPAINB 1 Isabella interested in Exploration Bgt subsidy 3 ships to Columbus 39 39 39 died lan that Florence would attack i 2 Bgt SHIFT OF BALANCE OF POWER TO ATLANTIC STATES 7 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ENDS a M Beginning of END of Italian Renaissance 1 Balance of Power disturb when MILAN invited French to help against other cities 2 1494 1st Invasion of Italy by French intruding on territory technically belonging to HRE who is weak 3 1499 2 1 Invasion 4 1515 3quot1 Invasion by Francis I Valois new Dynasty that replaced Capetians b M 2 important events which mark a change in I al 1 1 HR Charles V INVADES Italy amp Sacks Rome a Charles V is new HRE amp is momentarily the strongest man in Europe b Charles Invades Italy to take back from French c Charles Troops sacked Rome for 3 months I i b 527 Reformation has started in Germany 1517 ii amp Charles has Lutheran troops who hate Papacy iii Charles does not stop them from sacking Rome 2 2 Niccolo Machiavelli died 146971527 has already published his Prince secular politics c TRANSITIONAL FIGURES see later lectures 1 MICHELANGELO 1475 7 1546 TRANSITIONAL FIGURE in ART to MANNERISM 2 MACHIAVELLI 146971527 TRANSITIONAL FIGURE in LITERATURE to SECULAR Politics MENTALITY OF RENAISSANCE A BOUR EOIS 1 Practical hardiheaded realistic confident Afreeithinking individualistic educated literate Rich ART of Renaissance displays their realism con idence individuality MY style MY eye EDUCATION designed to meet needs of Urban commercial life H39U39MANISM later lecture EMPHASES OF RENAISSANCE Rebirth of GrecoiRoman Classics 1 Classical Learning anything GrecoiRoman but is Pagan will have unexpected influences 2 Emphasis upon Individuals amp Individualism vs Strictly Groupiinfluences amp concerns 3 THIS world vs purely Otheriworldly we would call this the beginning of Asecularism 4 BUT these people are NOT atheistic but are faithful sons of HMC RENAISSANCE NORTH OF ALPS no discussion of this in Lecture see Spielvogel A FRANCE tends to be political Jean Bodin or raw amp sensual Rabelais NY tends to pietich inwardilooking religion amp will lead to Reformation D Erasmus COW B HRE GERMA C ENGLAND tends to be political and Ascientif1c 1 39 Thomas More Utopia 1516 disillusioned w materialism amp greed of English Middle Class 2 Sir Francis Bacon wanted to discard Medieval Aauthorities and do experiments 3 Wm Shakespeares plays D SPAIN El Greco in painting almost more Agothic than Renaissance Miguel Cervantes Don Quixote may be interpreted as a spoof on Medieval feudal values of lightin class RENAISSANCE OUTLOOK Christian Humanism ENDURED IN EUROPE TIL ca 1700 A Humanist teachers filled University positions til ca 17 0 B Til Enlightenment amp Scientific Revolution OCIALISMS Lecture Guide 19 I SOCIALISMS Plural RESPONSE TO MACHINE amp CAPITALISM A SOCI ALISM ATTACK ON CAPITALISM AS A SYSTEM RADICALS amp REFORMISTS 2 NOTjust Attack on Ills of Capitalism Wages Conditions etc B TYPES OF SOCIALISMS 1 Socialism Govt or collective ownership of Means of Production MOPS amp Distribution of Goods DOGS 2 UTOPIAN Socialism socialism achieved within an Ideal Community 3 Anarchism aniarc y wo rule itto on socialism but first destroy ALL institutions govts churches families because destructive to Afreedom amp Ahappiness b spontaneously a VOLUNTEERISTIC Society will Aspring up to meet all needs 4 Marxism AScientific Socialism a Common ownership of MOPS amp DOGS b Classless society c Each produces acc to his ability and receives acc to his need d Govt Aatrophies withers amp all performed on Volunteer basis 11 UTOPIANISM Utopian Socialism and Anarchism A UTOPIAN SOCIALISM 1 DEFINED FLEE EVIL SOCIETY TO ACHIEVE SOCIALISM wn IDEAL COMMUNITIES 2 Beginnings in ENGLAND Sir Thomas MORE UTOPLA 1516 3 SCOTLAND Robert OWEN AEnglands 1 SocialistlB amp Owenites rmed His OWN Factories in Scotland b a LOT of Influence in America 4 FRANCE a Saint7Simon NEWCHRISTIANITY 1825 Organize entire NATIONAL economy TOP down b Charles Fourier 1841751 1 ganize LOCAL economies phalansteries BOTTOM up 2 quotFrom each acc to his ability to each acc to his needquot B ANARCHISM ALacking or having NO Rules D ED Opposition to ANY imposed Authority 2 Overturn Govts violence or activism 13gt VOLUNTERISTIC Society 3 VERY optimistic 4 2 GENERAL TRADITIONS KINDS OF ANARCHISTS a Philosophical Anarchists Change thru Evolution Reform Proudhon L olstoy b adical Anarchists Change thru Revolution amp Violent Overthrow M Bakunin 1 V39olent Anarchists assassinate many leaders c 1900 Carnot of France McKinley in USA 2 This dichotomy of ReformEvolution VS Radical Revolution is present thruiout Socialism 3 Assassinated Sadi Carnot France King Umberto Italy Tsar of Russia Pres McKinley USA III COMMUNISM MARXISM SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM A quotSCIENTIFICquot SOCIALISM KARL MARX39s SYNTHESIS 1 MARX 181871883 a German Jewish roots b Shows both ENLIGHTENMENT amp ROMANTIC Influences c Met amp collaborated w Friedrich Engels d 1848 COMMUNISTIKANIFESTO 1 Begins AThere is a specter ghost spirit stalking Europe it is the specter of Communism Ends AWorkers of the world Unite You have nothing to lose but your chains NB internationalism e ca 1883 DAS KAPITAL w Engels pubd after IGVIs death 2 MARXIST SYNTHESIS a ASCIENTIFIC because HX Method amp provides evidence politics Purpose b quotI TURNED HEGEL ON HIS HEA quot 1 HEGEL quotHXL DIALECTICquot 7 IDEAS Forces moving HX 2 MARX Forces moving Hx Materialism amp Means of Production c Hence MARXISM COMMUNISM MATERIALISTIC AND DETERMINED foreordained cant be stopped 1 DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM 2 HISTORICAL MATERIALISM 3 ECONOMIC DETERMINISM d MARX39S HXL DIALECTIC Ile Struggle Exploitation of Means of Production 1 Ancient world Slavery exploited by as ers 2 Medieval World Serfs exploited by Lords Feudalism 3 Modern world Workers exploited by capitalism 4 FINAL Stage a Worker s Revolution b Will establish Communism Dictatorship of PROLETARIAT APropertyless from Latin e ABSOLUTELYNECESSARYCONDITIONS OF WIGISV REVOLUTION 1 urs in Mature Capitalist Societies 1 Workers Take over means of production Bottomiup Revolution 2 Establish Classless Society ALL will be just workers 3 Liquidate Dead capitalist order 4 Then Establish Pure Communism f ESTABLISHNIENT OF PURE COMMUNISM B WHATIS PURE COMMUNISM Common ownership of All Propert 2 State Awithers away Bgt Workers Soviets which make decisions re Production 3 ATrue Libertle established in Workers Paradise w No coercive state 4 All Agoverning iunctions Bgt Voluntary Associations amp Voluntary Production se 5 Borrowed Phra From ea acc to ability to ea acc to Needquot from Fourier 3 SCIENTIFIC MATERIALISTIC DETERMINISM a eordained by Economic History b Mark Said HIS socialism was NOT AidealisticB but Ascientiiic because he got data from History I 4 NB AMarxismlB is NOT the same as later theories Lenin Stalin Mao et alia 5 CRITIQUE OF MARX amp MARXISM a UNREALISTIC ROMANTIC UTOPIAN PERFECTIONISTIC ie ALiberal b A FAITH w Marx as Agod LeninTrotsky et al as Prophets amp Aheaven of Workers Paradise c WHY SUCCESS THEORY replaced religious faith amp PRAXIS told how to achieve paradise d DID NOT DELIVER ON ITS SOCIAL OR ECONOMIC PROMISES B NEOiMarxism coming INTERPRETERS OF MARX 1 REVOLUTIONARY INTERPRETERS Violence is Necessary to bring about Revolution Lenin Trotsky Stalin Mao 2 EVOLUTIONARY INTERPRETERS in REFORMIST TRADITION Bernstein Germany Gramsci Italy a Slow evolution thru Reform Egt Communist State b quotParliamentary Communismquot 7 Communism by statute MARX amp DARWIN 1 Marx viewed Darwins theory as Aprooi of his own Astruggle theory amp sent copy of some of his work to Darwin 2 No evidence Darwin read it CD thought Liberalism amp Free Enterprise lit better w Evolutionary theory III LUTHER amp THE REFORMATION 1517 7 1555 ecture Guide 6 RENAISSANCE ECONOMIC CHANGES Bgt REFORMATION NE ERCHANT CLASS GROWING Profit Individualism Literacy ASecularism B CHANGING Questioning Status quo Americas discovered 1492ff WORLD AT BIRTH OF MARTIN LUTHER 1483 148371546 A GERMANY CHANGING Towns growing Mines humming Printing Universities like Wittenberg B REST OF EUROPE Italy Habsburg7Valois Wars High enaissanoe in in Germany Renaissance fades into Reformation b because Germany Renaissance was always more pietistic look it up C LUTHERS FAMILY TYPICAL OF CHANGES 1 F er Hans peasant mining entrepreneur who became comfortable 2 Hans wanted Luther to become a lawyer all business families need a lawyer D LUTHER NON7compliant w fathers plans amp Troubled by guilt I AConverted to monastic life in thunder7lightening storm 2 Entered Augustinian Monastery at Erfurt Saxony against f athers wishes E AGERMAN POLITICAL SITUATION VERY HVIPORTANT 1 NO Germany just fractured states of HRE owing nominal fealty to HR Emperor 2 7 Electors of Holy Roman Emperor grave of Brandenburg King of Bohemia Count Palatine of the Rhine ELECTOR OF SAXONY Luthers prince Prince7Bishop of Mainz Prince7Bishop of Trier Prince7Bishop of Cologne 3 Principalities of HRE area of Europe most inclined to Afeud w Papacy a long HX History of disputes going back to Investiture Controversy tired of Aultramontane meddling from beyond mountains CHANGES BETWEEN BIRTH AT 1483 AND BEG OF REFORMATION IN 1517 A COLUMBUS Bgt AMERICA 1 Material world becomes more defined wannaan 2 B awns many questions regarding monopoly on truth b HMC B NATIONALITIES FORMING More defined esp England France Spain Portugal C CHURCHS FAILURES APPARENT 1 Avignonese Papacy ABabylonian Captivity of the Church 1350 71377 near amp dominated by France 2 Great Schism 1377 7 1415 2 and sometimes 3 popes excommunicating each other 3 IMMENSE WEALTH while poor starved 4 Venal worldly Churchmen marrying or having concubines interested in riches charging for Sacraments Sacrament a sacrosanct sign which produces or gives grace b 7 Baptism Marriage Con rmation Eucharist Lords Supper Extreme Unction Last Rites Holy Orders LUTHER THE REFORMER A TROUBLED BY GUILT B Much penance much anguish 1 Order Sent him to University Bgt Master of Arts then Doctor ecclesiae Doctor of the Church 2 Study of Book of Romans led Luther to discovery wants Penitence change of heart not Penance works to Amake up b Man is saved sola tle by faith only c ultimately decided that the religious authority is sola scn39ptura scripture only NOT popes oouncils or dogmas B BEGINNING OF REFORMATION 1 ISSUE INDULGENCES John Tetzel Dominican Monk selling indulgences in Germany Apr 1517 Albrecht AB of Brandenburg buys AB of Mainz Bgt House of Brandenburg controls 2 votes for HRE Luther incensed by statements like AThe minute the coin in the ooffer rings the soul from purgatory springs c KNOW DATE 1517 Oct 31 Luthers 95 Theses castle church door Wittenberg Saxony 1 95 Propositions to debate 2 Primarily re financial policies of church Souls cannot be Abought out of purgatory If Pope CAN forgive sins do it and free souls from purgatory out of Christian love not money 2 LUTHER WENT TO ATTACK OTHER CATHOLIC DOCTRINES a Amounts to attack on Power amp Authority of Po e b 95 Thesespicked up and translated from Latin to German amppn39ntedB amp Clamor arose in Germany I SUBSEQUENT EVENTS 1519 7 1520 LUTHER MOVED ON TO ATTACK 1 hurch Councils amp Catholic doctrines of various kinds Sacraments disallowed 5 left 2 B Lords Supper amp Baptism 3 Ability of Church to reform herself Address to the German Nobility says that Laymen should reform the church B 1520 SPIRITUAL BREAK amp UTHER BECOMES A HERETIC 1 Pope Leo X Giovanni de Medici gave ML 60 days to recant or face excommunication 2 Luther Againstthe Execrable Bull of Antichrist 3 Leo X Excommunicated Luther amp ordered his trial by secular authority HRE C 1521 POLITICAL BREAK amp LUTHER BECOMES AN OUTLAW 1 TRIAL Diet of Worms April 1521 Charles V HRE presiding Luther AHere I stand God help me Amen 2 VERDICT Edict of Worms May 1521 Luther outlaw amp condemned to stake a BUT Political Situation intervened because Luthers Prince Elector Frederick of Saxony a Lutheran 1 Willing to disobey his Prince the HRE amp accept breach w HMC b Frederick spirited Luther away to fortress of Wartburg til storm blew over c Hence Luther lived to direct Reformation amp avoided stake LUTHER AS LEADER OF REFORMATION C 25 YRS A WHY DID REFORMATION COME WITH LUTHER 7 amp not earlier reformers Renaissance Individualism spreading to Germany 13gt Religious Individualism 2 rmany tired of Aultramontanism control from beyond mountains amp sought freedom from HMC 3 Luther appealed to a NEW CLASS of people a arlier Areforms kept wn HMC because everything written in Latin 2 only urchmen concerned themselves w such matters only Churchmen were literate b Everything Luther wrote was translated or written in VERNACULAR common German B FIRST LEGALIZATION OF LUTHERANISM 1 RELIGIOUS WAR BEGINS IN GERM theraniGerman Princes rebelled against HRE 13gt War in Germany b Diet of SPEYER 1529 to Settle Problems among princes 1 dominated by CatholiciGerman Princes 2 motion to ban practice of Lutheranism carried 3 Luther Princes amp Cities Protested Diets statements Bgt Protestants c Protestants formed Schmalkaldic League 1531 defensive league of Protestant Princes amp Cities d Then War off amp on til 1555 2 PEACE OF AUGSBUR 5 a eace between LutheraniPrinces amp CatholiciPrinces of HRE b PRINCIPLE cuius regio eius regio W Religion of Prince Religion of his territory c 2 LEGAL Religions in Germany Catholicism amp Lutheranism d NOT AReligious Freedom or ATolerance B That is 100 years in future 3 IMPORTANCE IRREPARABLE BREAK in a Medieval AChristian Republic to which all Europeans belonged regardless of nationality or language b UNIVERSAL Character of Medieval Christianity c Christian Unity FASCIST COLLECTIVISM Worldiwide phenomenon A B C D Differ FASCISM IN ITALY BENITO MUSSOLINI 18831945 A ITA Y1 GERMA A COLLECTIVISM IN THE 20TH CENTURY FASCIST COLLECTIVISM ITALY amp GERMANY Lecture Guide 8 urope Austria Portugal Spain ITALY GERMANY Americas Argentina Peron Collectivism defined Range of ideologies amp systems which intends to promote the general welfare 1 vors active social planning amp varying degrees of government centralized planning US presidential candidates MUST have an economic plan which gov t will execute or they are not elected 2 restricts some freedoms of individuals amp institutions smoking in public vaccinating children inspecting meat 3 leaves many areas of decisionimaking to large organizations above all the gov t or gov t bureaucracy Collectivism ranges from the Democratic to the Totalitarian s MOST from Liberalism on Issue of Freedom of Individual in Society MAN 7 United Kingdom of Italy since 1870 L 8 RIPE FOR A STRONG 1 Unhappiness w Versailles Trea 2 Failure of Liberal Gov t Representative Gov t a ower struggle bet parties 7gt leadership vacuum b Fears of violence c Fear of Communism d Various segments fearful amp seeking reassurance Workers Middle Class Elite IndustrialistiCapitalists A m l r y Economic Ruin Since WW1 Depression amp Inflation Many out of work 3 MUSSOLINI TOOK POWER r 192122 7 194345 1 Mussolini unemployed teacher edited socialist newspaper a In u nced by Nietzsche Mazzini b BN formed Fascist Movement in Milan 1919 took Roman fasces Ital Fasci as symbol ax wrapped in whips symbol of strength power right to command c Nov 1921 Fascists formed legal par d Oct 1922 BN 60K supporters 7gt Fascist Party Congress s rose to 250K e March on Rome 1922 7gt fear of violence amp civil war 7gt Prime Minister resigned f King Victor Emmanuel invited BM to become Prime Minister g BM asked for dictatorial powers for 1 year to meet the emergency voted by gov t 2 DICTATOR 1 YEAR DISASSEMBLED GOV T 7gtIIDUCE The Leader a Ruled Italy 192271943 1945 puppet gov t in north supported by Nazis 194345 b Killed by Italian crowds 1945 along w lover Clara Petacci amp strung up in Milan piazza 3 WHY SUCCEEDED Versailles Treaty Failures of LiberaliRepresentative Gov t Support of Army amp Industrialists Treaty amp Concordat w Papacy 1929 4 POLICIES a DOMESTIC Private Ownership continued but with state control 1 Industrialists amp Capitalists not ous e 2 But Industries esp Heavy industries run aoc To gov t plans amp purposes b FOREIGN Policy of imperialism amp expansion 1 24 incorporated Adriatic port of Fiume 2 1927 est d protectorate over Albania 3 1935736 took Absyinnia Ethiopia League of Nations Halfihearted sanctions 4 Then shifted German Policy to Sup ort BM pushed for Axis Alliance 1939 5 1939 when AH dismembered Czechoslovakia BM signed Pact of Steel w Germany NNAZISM FASCISM39S GREAT TRIUMPH Fascism Malignant Racism WHY IN GERMANY VERY Similar to Italy 1 ATIONAL HUMILIATION Versailles 2 ECONOMIC DEVASTATION Depression 3 FAILURE OF LIBERAL DEMOCRATIC GOV T Weimar Rep 1919 could not solve problems economy civil discontent strikes riots etc b blamed f 4 WIDESPREAD DISCONTENT ALL Segments of Society Poor no jobs inflation rich economy dislocations civil discontent threatened way of life n b MC business bad depression Industrialists business in ation and depressio c ARMY no respect A HITLER 188971945 Nat l Soc German Wkrs PartyiNAZI 1 Led a coup Putxche 1929 failed AH went jail and there wrote Mein Kampf outlined his plans including the Jews 1933 Pres von Hindenberg made AH CHANCELLOR THIRD REICH MARCH 1933 Enabling Act 7 APRIL 1945 1 HITLER DOMESTIC POLICIES a ANSCHLUSS take back the German speaking areas alienated by Versailles Treaties b NOMY TAKE BACK Ruhr Coal amp Iron Rhineland Manufacturing 2 HUGE ARMY Puts many back to work 3 PUT EVERYBODY IN UNIFORM builds camaraderie sense of importance conformity 4 GEAR INDUSTRY UP w Military Production 5 LABOR Use labor from Concentration Camps amp Neighboring Nations Slavs Poles inferior c NAL SOLUTION to the Jewish Problem underway by Mid71941 2 HITLER S FOREIGN POLICIES a TAKE WHAT GERMANY NEEDS Ruhr Rhineland Austria Czechoslovakia Poland the warm E III FASCISM A C D IV FASCISM FORCED OUT aft b EUROPEAN WORLD DOMINATION Demonstrates Aryan Superiority c MEANS Bullying Outright Conquest 1938 7 RESPONSE OF NATIONS 1 EUROPE France amp Britain a ILT for Versailles Treaty and Treatment of Germans b OLICY OF APPEASEMENT Well just ONE more 2 USA Not MY problem It sjust Europe Ignore it and it will go away Abdication of New Position of World 1938 7 LIKE Napoleon 7 WHAT IF AH HAD STOPPED HERE HERO ANYWHERE NATION7STATE AT EXPENSE OF INDIVIDUAL FASCES BUNDLE FOR POWER Think Nietzsche Mazzini von Treitschke 1 FASCIST IDEOLOGY MAJOR ELEMENTS OF FASCISM a ORGANIC STATE gets always larger 1 DEFINED BY WHAT IT OPPOSES what it is ANTI 7 2 Liberalism Democracy Rationalism Intellectualism Socialism amp Communism Pacil39ism 3 Any Idea System which talks about freedom equality or questions authorit I RACIST Italy racist but relatively less so Germany malignant Nationalism Aryan7Racism STRUGGLE of THE GERMAN WILL Against all her enemies MILITARISM demonstrates superiority AUTHORITY DISCIPLINE ELITE RULE COMPLETE UNQUESTIONING FAITH IN SYMBOLIC MYSTICAL LEADER who knows what people need g RIDES TO POWER ONDISCONTENTS Fears of Workers no jobs Middle Class protect savings amp property Industrial Capitalists protect private ownership of MOP amp profits 2 NAZISM ADDED Violent Racism from 19 l C Neo7Romanticism 19quot C and Nihilism WWI Take7All7or7 nothing7at7all attitude SOCIAL ORDER Rides the back of Discontent gives something to Everybody in exchange for silence amp conformity 1 RETAINS CLASSES 2 PROTECTS CAPITALISM amp LAND OWNERSHIP 3 STATE CONTROL OF ALL LEVELS OF SOCIETY STATE POLICE FORCES WHY FASCIST GOV TS DEVELOP Social amp Economic Collapse Crisis Failure of Liberal7Democracy to meet challenge Nationalism ASCISTS Italy Austria Portugal Spain Argentina German er WWII 7 DID NOT DIE I Arises wherever there is economic social political chaos grows in soil of nmmnnc39 discontent amp blame7placing B Fascism develops wherever there is social economic and political chaos Fascism grows in the soil of fear discontent and blame7p acing RENAISSANCE HUMANISM Lecture Guide 4 HUMANISM Educational approach NOT a philosophy A STUDLA HUAMNITATIS Study of Humanity Humanities Humane Studies 1 Based on 7 LIBERALARTS Lat Libw AFree man so Aliberal knowledge which keeps a man free a TRIVIUM or THE THREE Human World of Communication 1 Grammar Latin Grammar which gives Language 39 2 Logic Dialectic Gives Thinking Reasoning Skill 3 Rhetoric Gives Speaking Communication Skill b ADRI VIUM or THE FOUR Physical World Arithmetic Geometry Music Astronomy 2 Humanism Emphasized TRIVIUM The A3quot Grammar Rhetoric Dialectic Logic a more human7centered Bgt humane Bgthumanism Bgt Ahumanities b uma ommunication valuable to Life of Business amp Politics in City 3 DE7Emphasized Quadrivium The A4quot Arithmetic Geometry Music Astronomy asized in HMA amp Taught in Universities by Scholastics Churchmen b Associated w Aristotle amp AScience physical world vs Human world of communication c amp with University curriculum leading to Medicine Theology Law 4 anism comes into Universities by ca 1550 after Jesuits B INTEREST amp FOCUS OF LITERARY PETRARCH CHIEF Example 1 P trarch AFirst Humanist B which meant Searching out amp restoring MS copies of Classic Works 1 Implies nding MSS other libraries crypts where hidden etc 2 Implies cn39tiquing M S to achieve correct copies Learning to read classical Latin amp compose in it Poetry Sonnets History etc Living a life of ALetters Arsgratia artix 77 not church7life Bgt Limerati Sought Glory like Greeks of old 77 to be Famous ETRARCH39S LITERARY CRAFT STYLE Ignored Medieval Conventions general amp non7individual and favored quotTruequot individual emotions Perfected the SON39N39ET form Petrarchan Sonnet Wrote both LATIN amp ITALIAN WORKS ELF7CONSCIOUS PURSUIT OF GLORY Dante amp Boccaccio had received LAURAL CROWN of Poet Laureate of Italy Petrarch Crowned 8 April 1341 Rome 37 yrs old HOWDl39D HE DO IT DEVICE to achieve it Sonnets to LAURA 1 e king for LAURO Laurel Wreath 2PLAY ONWORDS lanra laurel wreath or laurel tree l anra gold Laura name of The Beloved l anra the breez 1an a avataan AS LAURA INVENTED His contemporaries thought so d 15 CREATION OF LITERARY PERSONA 1 Laura OBJECT of poetry TOOL 2 Poet himself Petrarch SUBJECT of poetr 5 NEW RENAISSANCE NOT 7 Medieval SELF7Interest SELF7Promotion SELF7Glorification LF7as7AUTHORITY C CRITICISM OF PAPACY IN EARLY HUMANISM CON CILIARISM 1 0 INS LONG Conflict Between Popes amp Royals for SUPREMACY and SUBSEQUENT OUTCOMES a INVESTITURE CONTROVERSY ca 1050 to ca 1150 AD HRE amp INVESTING Bishops b ROYALREBOUND ca 1295 to ca 1315 AD FRANCE FRENCH KING CONTROL OF FRENCH CLERGY 1 ISSUES Can King TAX Clergy Can King TRY Clergy in Royal Courts Competing Competencies 2 OUTCOMES a Papacy MOVED from Rome to AVIGNON AD 1305 7 1377 b AVIGNONESE PAPACY ABABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY OF CHURCH French Control c Bgt GREAT SCHISM d Bgt GROWTH OF HERESY c GREAT SCHISM 1377 7 1415 1 77 Avignonese Pope Attempted Return to Rome Bgt Multiple Popes 2 then 3 Popes 2 Inability to Solve Multiple Papacies Bgt COUNCILS of PISA amp CONSTANCE to Settle on ONE POPE d HERESIES in AUTHORITY7VACUUM Emphasis upon Scriptural AUTHORITY 1 John VVyclif Born England 1324 died 1384 later bones burned 2 Jan Hus 39 mia 1369 Burned at Council of Constance 1415 2 CONCILIARIST POSITION COUNCILS of Bishops are Superior to Popes in Religious Matters 3 CHURCH TROUBLES Bgt New Political Theory which revives the quotSTATEquot a MARSIGLIO OFPADUA ca 1275 c 1342 in trouble in Italy Bgt Bavaria in HRE b qumsarpacix 1324 Defender of the Peace 1 Power of Church AND State comes from People 2 Papacy amp Kingship Human institutions Pope u reme in Administration only 4 quotCoercionquot belongs to the STATE 5 Emperor who opposes Pope Defender of Peace 6 Hence STATE is Supreme but king is Servant of State amp People c SIGNIFICANCE New Humanist interest in Civic matters Bgt CIVIC Humanism amp Re7emergence of AState HUMANISM EVOLVED INTO ACIVIC HUMANISM just after 1400 Ad A T VIC H UAMNISM Learning Used for CIVIC Purposes vs Religious B ASSOCIATED W CIVIC LIFE OF FLORENCE c 1400 Florentine Republic Little Boy David at war w Duchy of Milan Goliath 2 Attack on Florentine Way of Lfe C BACKGROUND TO DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIC HUMANISM 1 New Class of People dominate cities amp city life Bgt New Institutions society Cities hire ACivil Servants Abureaucrats from MC Civic Humanism Learning as AScience of the State New Scholar Bgt ARenaissance Man awn 5 THO LATE Renaissance Ideal The Coum39er B Castiglione III FOCUS OF CIVIC HUMANISM A CLASSICAL LEARNING 1 IVIUM see above 2 amp Subjects related to useful in Political Diplomatic Commercial life of Cityistate a Poetry sonnets etc expression of what it means to be HUMAN b Classical architec ure c History philosophy teaching us by historical examples d Moral Philosophy eventually Bgt Machiavelli e lassical Law amp Politics B STRESSED THE VITAACTIVA B ACTIVE LIFE 1 human pursuits not just life devoted to church as Monk or Priest 2 Living Productively duty to man and Go 3 vs Vita contemplativa B Contemplative Life B of Medieval monastic retreat from world IV CIVIC HU39MAN39ISTS A Coluccio SALUTATI 13317140 1 Nota 5 amp Chancellor of Florence documents amp archives 2 Purpose of Scholarship boost morale during War w Duchy of Milan 3 Significance a Viewed as Beginning of Civic Humanism first Civic Humanist b New Literary learning turned to Civic patriotic purposes B Lorenzo VALLA 140771457 1 Priest Humanist amp Severe Critic of Church Latin of Vulgate Tradition of Apostles Creed 2 Eventually Apostolic Papal Secretary under Nicholas V Used new methods of critiquing MSS 3 Demonstrated Donation of Constantin raud thru study of words language a 39 quot A 4 western Crown to Pope for him to dispose of Actually comes from c 750 AD Defense of Papal Interests against Franks 4 Significance New Learning used against Holy Mother Church C Niccolo Machiavelli 1469 7 1527 TRANSITIONAL FIGURE IN LITERATURE Humanism 1 Active Public Servant o LATE Florentine Repub ic a Diplo at to Court of French King b Purpose 1 Represent and promote interests of Florentine Republic 2 Maintain Balance of Power c BACKGROUND merging BALANCEOFrPOWER Politics d Renaissance Italian City7States Gave us Two Modern Political Conce ts 1 Balance of Power 2 or more states reach exist by maintaining equality balance of power 2 Diplomac y serves interest of individual state not all states or Agood of all men 2 NM wrote many works Discourses on Livy Art of War AHistoty of Florence 3 Discourses on Livy his greatest work Livy Roman historian of dying Republic as NM historian of dying Florentine Republic b Discourses thoroughly Republican amp ethical c BUT The Prince B VERY different from the Discourses 4 THE PRINCE a WHY different from Discourses 1 1512 NM exiled to his estates in Tuscany when Medici retook power helped by French 2 Lived there isolated from city life for rest of his life B longing to return to city politics Watched Italy become a pawn of and be torn apart by foreign powers b PURPOSES of Prince 1 Seizure of power by 1 individual Medici duke as Major threat to Republics 2 Addresses how Italy can recover her freedom French HRE 3 Wants to curry favor w Medici hoping to return to govt service c THEMES 1 citizens armies only B No mercenaries resolute policy cash B no neutralism 3 Secular Politics if the people are Wering rulers cannot a ord luxury of a conscience c SIGNIFICANCES 1 Represents thoroughly secular principles of govt theistic just no place for God in affairs of men B hence humanim b Never said AThe Ends justify the means I nigiustgficano i mezzt c BUT the idea of doing the expedient thing IS there 2 NM 7 TRANSITIONAL FIGURE New learning used for thoroughly secular purposes a Literary Humanism Bgt Civic Humanism Bgt ASecular Tho not yet the ASecular Humanism discussed today 5 And Renaissance Ended B MODERN has begun


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