Cult&Soc Issues EDFD 645
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Religious Pluralism amp Diversity Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 1 The various modes of worship which prevailed in the Roman world were all considered by the people as equally true by the philosopher as equally false and by the magistrate as equally useful Edward Gibbon Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Gallup Poll on Public s View of Religion httpwwwga11upcompoll113533Americans Believe Religion Losing Cloutaspx httpwwwga11upcompoll1081 15Americans Evenly Divided Morality Homosexuality aspx httpwwwga11upcompoll109108Belief God Far Lower Western USaspx httpwwwbarnaorgF1eXPageaspxPageBarnaUpdateNarrowampBarnaUpdatelD324 httpwww com 2004 1 1 23101 1 sOZ legn html httpwwwvalpoedu eomet eocoursesmen flre r rm html httpwwwglenmaryorggrcRCMS 2000findingshtm Wood s Diversity Invention of a Concept 39 Nullifies religious exclusivity to ultimate truth 39 Creates a relativistic religious tolerance 39 Requires a non judgmental stance 7 Except for Christian fundamentalism 39 Christian fundamentalism is not diverse and is viewed as the enemy of Diversity 7 What about Islamic fundamentalism 39 A dilemma 7 Islam is different enough to qualify for Diversity 39 Jeffersonian tolerance 7 Sees all religions as lacking and erroneous and views them with equal condescension 39 Based on Deism agnosticism atheism 39 Grounded in the faiths themselves 7 Most faiths have teachings that address outsiders and the tolerance toward them 39 Example Christians view that non Christians are in need of salvation and worth saving 39 Conception of religion 7 All faiths are automatically credited with a similar degree of validity moral equivalency Religious Pluralism amp Diversity Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 2 7 Faith communities are amorphous changing entities rather than grounded stable communities 7 Moves the focus from value of religion s teaching to needs of those who are in search of spiritual fulfillment 7 Sees religion as susceptible to and explanatory for race class gender issues in the United States Wicca is essentially a mystified version of Diversity conjoined to a vague form of nature worship Neo Paganism is a rebellious movement 7 Defines itself against Western civilization and its creedal religious traditions which it sees as intolerant and oppressive Neo Paganism sees itself as profoundly tolerant benign open minded non exclusivist and liberating Religious affiliation has weakened Diversity has 7 Homogenized churches I Little distinctive theological avor 7 they all look alike 7 Flattened religious sensibility I Consumers rather than pilgrims thirstng for religion Predictors of Religious Af liation I Family I Community I Personal Choice Niebuhr s Christ and Culture I Christ against Culture I Christ of Culture I Christ above Culture I Christ and Culture in Paradox I Christ the Transformer of Culture Staub s The Culturally Savvy Christian I Cocoon I Combat I Conform I Transform it by first understanding it A Christian by Any Other Name I Christian I Mainline denominational identity 7 Baptists Religious Pluralism amp Diversity Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 3 39 Southern Baptist 39 Missionary Baptist 7 Methodist 7 Episcopalian 7 Lutheran Born again Evangelical Emerging churchfellowship movement 7 Follower of Jesus Newsweek March 16 2009 The Coming Evangelical Collapse by Michael Spencer Evangelicals have identified their movement with the culture war and with political conservatism Evangelicals have failed to pass on to our young people an orthodox form of faith that can take root and survive the secular onslaught There are three kinds of evangelical churches today consumer driven megachurches dying churches and new churches whose future is fragile Christian education has not produced a product that can withstand the rising tide of secularism The confrontation between cultural secularism and the faith at the core of evangelical efforts to quotdo goodquot is rapidly approaching Even in areas where Evangelicals imagine themselves strong like the Bible Belt we will find a great inability to pass on to our children a vital evangelical confidence in the Bible and the importance of the faith The money will dry up Christian Science Monitor March 10 2009 Religious Pluralism There is one thing a professor can be absolutely certain of almost every student entering the university believes or says he believes that truth is relative 15 The Closing of the American Mind by Allen Bloom Relativism Openness Syncretism Tolerance Religious Pluralism amp Diversity Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 4 The singular sin Generated from callousness or ignorance Wh Who defines the sin Viewing Other Religious Groups 39 Exclusivism 7 Extreme Particularism 39 One39s own faith group possesses all of the truth as revealed to their religion alone by God Other faith groups and religions worship demons and are led by Satan 7 Agnostic Particularism 39 Salvation is attained through belief in Christ alone as Lord and Savior However it may be possible for those who have not heard of Christianity the Gospel or Jesus Christ to be saved and attain Heaven after death 7 Traditional Particularism 39 Salvation is attained only through an explicit knowledge and faith in Christ The vast majority of humans even those who have never heard of Jesus will spend eternity being tortured in Hell 39 Inclusivism 7 One39s own group possesses the truth other religious groups contain parts of the truth The latter39s believers are less likely to be saved 39 Pluralism 7 All group39s beliefs and practices are equally valid when interpreted within their own culture Salvation is for all 1 Source httpwww mm orgrel plurhtm World Views in Con ict Con ict Science amp theology deal with many of the same issues but offer competing incompatible views Complementarity Science amp theology deal with different areas Bible ultimate cause Science physical processes Concordist Science amp theology both describe the origin of the world and other events and these can be reconciled From The Archeological Study Bible p 111 Battles in the Courtroom Proscriptive Scopes v State 289 SW 363 Tenn 1927 7 state statute Religious Pluralism amp Diversity Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 5 Epperson v Arkansas 393 US 97 1968 state statute Prescriptive McLean v Arkansas Board of Education 529 F Supp 1255 1982 7 state statute Edwards v Aguillard 482 US 578 1987 7 state statute Freiler v Tangipahoa Parish Board of Education 185 F3d 3375th Cir 1999 Cert denied 2000 7 school board disclaimer Selman v Cobb County School District 449 F3d 1320 11th Cir 2006 7 school board disclaimer stickers Kitzmiller v Dover Area School District 400 F Supp 2d 707 MD Pa 2005 7 school board disclaimer Academic Freedom Webster v New Lenox School District 122 917 F2d 1004 7th Cir 1990 Peloza v Capistrano School District 37 F3d 519 9th Cir 1994 LeVake v Independent School District 625 NW2d 505 Free Exercise Seagraves v State of California 1981 Sacramento Superior Court 278978 Religious Liberty by Stephen Prothero High school and college graduates who have not taken a single course about religion cannot be said to be truly educated Prothero p 17 Religious Literacy Ability to understand and use the religious terms symbols images beliefs practices scriptures heroes themes and stories that employed in American public life Religion is now emerging alongside race gender and ethnicity as one of the key identity markers of the twenty first century Prothero p 5 Religious illiteracy makes it difficult for Americans to make sense of a world in which people kill and make peace in the name of Christ or Allah Prothero p9 EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Diversity Overview Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 1 Ethnos amp Ethos Ethos The distinguishing character sentiment moral nature or guiding beliefs of a person group or institution Ethnos people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture Ethnos E NOZ Greek people Wood s Conceptions of Diversity 39 Diversity I FACTS 7 Actual racial and ethnic condition in the United States Diversity II 7 HOPES amp WISHES 7 The diversiphile ideal of how the United States should recognize and respond to its racial and ethnic composition Politics of Diversity 39 Diversity is a political doctrine 7 Some social categories deserve compensatory privileges in light of the prejudicial ways in which members of these categories have been treated in the past and the disadvantages they continue to face 39 Political Tactic of Diversiphiles 7 Convert numbers of Diversity I into groups committed to Diversity II 39 Racialist thinking seems to be at the center of the diversity doctrine Tolerate Embrace Celebrate 39 What I ve learned now is that it is not just tolerating people with differences it is embracing them and supporting them It is one thing being tolerated and that is totally not the same as being embraced and celebrated 7 John Sykes gay student Oregon State University in interview with Deborah Burke anthropologist interviewing students on their views of diversity 2002 Arti cial Diversity Educational access in the present can make up for denial of access to educational opportunity in the past Group affiliated by birth is a reasonable stand in for world view of cultural outlook EDFD 645 Diversity Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Overview Page 2 Actors in the 39 Diversi World of Diversity philes Those who elevate the ideal of diversity above national unity Diversilogues Trade in the ideology of diversity Diversidacts 39 Teach diversity Diversicrats 39 Regulate diversity Categorization 39 Euphe mism for one or more unnamed categories of people A1 African Americans A2 African Americans Latinos and Native Americans A3 African Americans Latinos Native Americans and Asians A4 All of the above plus women A5 All of the above plus gays and lesbians A6 All of the above plus people with disabilities Shorthand for cultural diversity in general Representation 39 Figure Ideology s in video games Characters in movies and television shoes Characters in literature Assumes a familiarity with multiculturalism American society is a hierarchy in which whites oppress other groups and that individuals participate in the perpetuation of this hierarchy by harboring hurtful stereotypes about the members of the oppressed groups Set of beliefs that liberates the individual from his attachment to these stereotypes by allowing him to see the worthiness of the oppressed groups 39 Diversity training Sensitivity training EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Diversity Overview Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 3 The TwoWay Mirror Culture is akin to being the observer through the one way mirror everything we see is from our own perspective It is only when we join the observed on the other side that it is possible to see ourselves and others clearly 7 but getting to the other side of the glass presents many challenges Eleanor W Lynch Real diversity is often profoundly provocative To encounter people who are fundamentally unlike yourself is fundamentally unsettling Wood The Paradox of Diversity 39 Metaphors suggest diversity is the pathway to unity and commonality 39 Differences among cultures are to be protected and honored Lora et al v Board of Education of the City of New York 456 F Supp 1211 ED NY1978 Generally shared by thoughtful proponents of this approach of keeping mildly handicapped students in mainstream classes is a commitment to encourage acceptance of diversity Average children are considered to bene t as much from having the handicapped in their classrooms as are exceptional pupils italics mine Regents of the University of California v Bakke US 1978 THE POWELL PLUS FACTOR The file of a particular black applicant may be examined for his potential contribution to diversity without the factor of race being decisive when compared for example with that of an applicant identified as Italian American if the latter is thought to exhibit qualities more likely to promote bene cial educational pluralism Powell s RacialProxy Argument The robust exchange of ideas makes the goal of racial diversity of paramount importance in the fulfillment of the university s mission RacialProxy Argument Racial diversity is a proxy for intellectual diversity Reguires Assumption Diversity of ideas and their robust exchange is promoted by creating racially diverse classrooms EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Diversity Overview Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 4 Questions Does racial diversity really equal intellectual diversity Are we really sure we know what racial diversity is PostBakke Cases The Hopwood Shock Hopwood v Texas 5th Cir 2000 Diversity is not a compelling interest to justify racial preferences in college admissions Supreme Coun Cases Grutter v Bollinger 539 US 306 2003 University of Michigan s Law School s individualized consideration of race upheld Gratz v Bollinger 539 US 244 2003 University of Michigan s undergraduate school s heavy weighting of race as a plus factor struck down Diversity of Ideas to Diversity of Experiences From ProxyforIdeas to ProxyforExperiences Assumptions and Implications University of Michigan Law School Admissions Policy Students from such racial and ethnic groups groups which have been historically discriminated against like African Americans Hispanics and Native Americans are paiticularly likely to have experiences and perspectives of special importance to our miss10n Our students as leaders of the future need to learn how to accept diversity negotiate con icts and form coalitions with individuals and groups if they are to become prepared to be leaders in an increasingly heterogeneous and complex society Patricia Gurin University of Michigan DiversitySpeak Inclusiveness 7 Outsider All are welcome 7 It means Special accommodations for ethnic preferences Tolerance 7 Outsider I won t hassle you 7 It means You will demonstrate to me your genuine respect for what I consider important Fairness EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Diversity Overview Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 5 7 Outsider Fair is not equal Give people what they need 7 It means As a member of this group give me what I think I need or want 39 Justice 7 Outsider Being evenly equitable morally right or legal to all 7 It means Unearned privileges based on the principle that one s ancestors were disprivileged 39 Diverse 7 Outsider Made up of unlike parts 7 It means Composed of people from victim groups in the same proportions as occur in the general population Schlesinger s Premise The militants of ethnicity contend that a main objective of public education should be the protection strengthening celebration and perpetuation of ethnic origins and identities If separatists tendencies go on unchecked the result can only be the fragmentation resegregation and tribalization of American life E Pluribus Unum Alexis de Tocqueville What alchemy could make this miscellany into a single society Hector St John de Crevecoeur Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men Pluralism or Assimilation INCLUSIONISTS Share assimilationists desire for national unity through a common identity they see each group retaining its particular characteristics Ogbu s Accommodation without Assimilation SEPARATISTS Advocate minority nationalism and separate pluralism Reject integrative approach and a common identity Seek separate group identities that will withstand assimilation process The result could be Balkanization or tribalism Schlessinger s Cult of Ethnicity EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Diversity Overview Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 6 INTEGRATIVE PLURALISTS Envisions a multitude of distinctive umbrellas each containing a different group but with the umbrellas edges attached to each other so that together they embrace everyone Kallen s symphony orchestra metaphor describes it Understanding others is an emphasis quotIn the first place we should insist that if the immigrant who comes here in good faith becomes an American and assimilates himself to us he shall be treated on an exact equality with everyone else for it is an outrage to discriminate against any such man because of creed or birthplace or origin But this is predicated upon the person39s becoming in every facet an American and nothing but an American There can be no divided allegiance here Any man who says he is an American but something else also isn39t an American at all We have room for but one ag the American ag We have room for but one language here and that is the English language and we have room for but one sole loyalty and that is a loyalty to the American peoplequot Theodore Roosevelt Competing Ideologies 39 Melting pot 7 de Crevecoeur 7 de Tocqueville 7 Dominant first two centuries of US 39 Main purpose of education 7 Means of assimilation and forming an American identity 7 E pluribus unum OR Salad Bowl Politics of identity Cult of ethnicity Main purpose of education 7 Protection strengthening celebration and perpetuation of ethnic origins and identities Counterrevolutionary to e pluribus unum 7 Two Ideological Positions WEB DuBois Racism 7 The response Protest and agitation Booker T Washingto Racism Cultural Disadvantage from slavery 7 The response Habits amp Skills for equal rights EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Diversity Overview Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 7 Ogbu s Theoretical Framework Voluntary Minoritie 7 Choice for assimilation amp integration into dominant or mainstream culture 7 school is the vehicle for assimilation Involuntam Minoritie 7 History of oppression low status and isolation 7 school represents the dominant or mainstream culture and is viewed with suspicion Cultural Inversion 7 Involuntary minorities regard certain behaviors events symbols and meanings as inappropriate for them ie acting White 1 J without A imilatinn 7 Adapt to dominant culture without losing their cultural identity Schlesinger s Cult of Ethnicity 39 Therapeutic purposes 7 Eg Afro centrism vs Euro centrism 7 Immersion 7 pride in past ethnic accomplishments by providing ethnic role models Even if black America had a spontaneous and authentic relationship with Africa would learnng about Africa improve the self esteem of black children Schlesinger p 93 Is this the role of the school or of those within the particular ethnic cultures ie families churches Exaggerates differences intensifies resentments and antagonisms drives ever deeper the awful wedges between races and nationalities The endgame is self pity and self ghettoization Schlesinger p 106 Individual vs group identity works against assimilation Is it a function of schools to teach ethnic and racial pride When does obsession with differences begin to threaten the idea of an overarching American nationality Would teaching history for example from a Euro centric perspective be considered teaching ethnic and racial pride An Afro centric perspective Schlesinger Even if black America had a spontaneous and authentic relationship with Africa would learning about Africa improve the self esteem of black children John Hope Franklin s Voodoo Principle Or the Consanguinity Principle Can only a black teacher teach black history Can only a female teacher teach women s history Can only a Latino teacher teach Spanish New Diversities EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Diversity Overview Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 8 ABLEISM Oppression of the differently abled by the temporarily able HETEROSEXISM Oppression of those of sexual orientation other than heterosexual such as gays lesbians and bisexuals this can take place by not acknowledging their existence LOOKISM The belief that appearance is an indicator of a person s value the construction of a standard for beautyattractiveness and oppression through stereotypes and generalizations of both those who do not fit that standard and those who do What is Multicultural Education quotMulticultural education is a field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create egual educational opportunities for students from diverse racial ethnic social class and cultural groups One of its important goals is to help all students to acquire the knowledge attitudes and skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic democratic society and to interact negotiate and communicate with peoples from diverse groups in order to create a civic and moral community that works for the common goodquot Source Banks JA amp Banks CAM Eds 1995 Handbook ofresearch on multicultural education New York Macmillan p xi In the 1990s two professors wrote an essay in a college newspaper to de ne how the University might become a truly multicultural institution quotEuro Americans teaching the materials of people of color cannot make the University multicultural because multiculturalism demands empowered people of color as well as empowered areas of knowledge quotWhat we are talking about here is no less than transforming the University into a center of multicultural learning anything less continues a system of education that ultimately reproduces racism and racists Barman Paul Debating P C The Controversy Over Political Correctness on College Campuses NY Dell Publishing 1992 253 257 Questions about Multiculturalism 39 Should public schools teach a common culture to all students Should that common culture be based on a Euro centric culture 39 Should English be the official language of the United States 39 Should the major goal of instruction about different cultures be the teaching of tolerance Should public schools teach non Eurocentric cultural traditions to maintain those cultural traditions EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Diversity Overview Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 9 Do you support the idea of instruction in public schools being centered in American Indian African American or Puerto Rican cultures Should multicultural education attempt to change the dominant culture by incorporating values from other cultures ls multiculturalism only for people of color ls multiculturalism opposed to Western civilization and traditions ls multiculturalism postmodern EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Multiculturalism Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 1 Diversig by Wood Diversity I stresses hard that people must be defined by a race even if the minority does not wish to do so in order to create identifiable quotgroupsquot in society Diversity 11 uses the fiction that diversity of race gender sexual preference etc is equivalent to diversity of worldview Questions Should public schools teach a common culture to all students Should that common culture be based on a Eurocentric culture Should English be the official language of the United States Should the major goal of instruction about different cultures be the teaching of tolerance Should public schools teach nonEurocentric cultural traditions to maintain those cultural traditions Do you support the idea of instruction in public schools being centered in American Indian AfricanAm erican or Puerto Rican cultures Should multicultural education attempt to change the dominant culture by incorporating values from other cultures ls multiculturalism only for people of color ls multiculturalism opposed to Western civilization and traditions ls multiculturalism postmodern Pluralism A Philosophical Perspective 0 Empirical pluralism 0 Diversity of race value systems heritage language culture and religion 0 Factual pluralism O Cherished pluralism Pluralism approval or value 0 Priority 0 A positive good denial of diversity would is bad 0 Philosophical 0r Hermeneutical pluralism Postmo em 0 All diversity and views are equally valid simultaneously Adapted from DA Carson The Gagging afGad Culture is akin to being the observer through the oneway mirror everything we see is from our own perspective It is only when we join the observed on the other side that it is possible to see ourselves and others clearly 7 but getting to the other side of the glass presents many challenges Eleanor W Lynch Ethnos and Ethos Ethos The distinguishing character sentiment moral nature or guiding beliefs of a person group or institution Ethnos people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture Ethnos E NOZ Greek people EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Multiculturalism Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 2 quotIn the first place we should insist that if the immigrant who comes here in good faith becomes an American and assimilates himself to us he shall be treated on an exact equality with everyone else for it is an outrage to discriminate against any such man because of creed or birthplace or origin But this is predicated upon the person39s becoming in every facet an American and nothing but an American There can be no divided allegiance here Any man who says he is an American but something else also isn39t an American at all We have room for but one flag the American flag We have room for but one language here and that is the English language and we have room for but one sole loyalty and that is a loyalty to the American people President Theodore Roosevelt Multiculturalists brand our culture as white Western male Christian middleclass and heterosexual They declare that our schools have forced on students a curriculum that promotes only that perspective The problem they argue is that this curriculum leaves out the contributions of many people People of color women homosexuals and various religious traditions are ignored and thus silenced As a result they contend what passes for knowledge on campus is biased Their goal is to correct this bias Don Clossen Multiculturalism from Probeorg Recognizing that our world is heterogeneous and not homogeneous is a first step toward validating the existence of diverse groups of people The second step is talking about and acknowledging differences And the third step involves accepting as contributing members of society those we previously considered as other No longer can we expect people to be alike under the assumption that likeness will produce a shared culture and generally harmonious relationships Now we must be prepared to respect people who are different even though their beliefs may con ict with our own and make us uneasy From NEA 20002001 EuroAmericans teaching the materials of people of color cannot make the University multicultural because multiculturalism demands empowered people of color as well as empowered areas of knowledge What we are talking about here is no less than transforming the University into a center of multicultural learning anything less continues a system of education that ultimately reproduces racism and racists In The Controversy Over Political Correctness on College Campuses by Paul Berman 1992 UNLV UNLV is committed to being a civil just and inclusive learning community in which all individuals feel valued safe and free to express themselves This environment is vital to the pursuit of excellence in intellectual and interpersonal endeavors With respect and openness guiding our activity we honor what distinguishes us from one another while celebrating that which binds us together Texas AampM A commitment to diversity means a commitment to the inclusion welcome and support of individuals from all groups encompassing the various characteristics of persons in our community Among these characteristics are race ethnicity national origin gender age socioeconomic background religion sexual orientation and disability As we harness the power of diversity we will provide students faculty and staff a university experience rich in perspectives and opportunities to learn from each other The diversity movement claims that its goal is to extinguish racism and build tolerance of differences This is a complete sham One cannot teach students that their identity is determined by skin color and expect students to see each other as individual human beings One cannot teach collective identity and expect students to have selfesteem Michael S Berliner and Gary Hull in Diversity and Multiculturalism The New Racism EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Multiculturalism Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 3 quotI have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their characterquot Dr Martin Luther King Jr 1963 Traditional methods of cultural identification often cause us to frame the way people live their lives The process causes groups of people to be placed in boxes with virtually immovable walls Cornell Thomas in Culture Defined A TwentyFirst Century Perspective in educational Horizons Three Multicultural Lenses 0 Incorporates into the curriculum the historical and educational experiences of a particular minority group or of all minority groups 0 Includes in the curriculum a local or regional minority perspective 0 Focuses on international issues rather than ethnic or other cultural groups within the United States Competing Ideologies O Melting pot 0 de Crevecoeur 0 de Tocqueville 0 Dominant first two centuries of US Main purpose of education 0 Means of assimilation and forming an American identity 0 E pluribus unum Or Salad Bowl Politics of identity Cult of ethnicity Main purpose of education Protection strengthening celebration and perpetuation of ethnic origins and identities O Counterrevolutionary to e pluribus unum 7 Cult of Ethnicity 0 Therapeutic purposes Eg Afrocentrism vs Eurocentrism O Immersion 7 pride in past ethnic accomplishments by providing ethnic role models 0 Even if black America had a spontaneous and authentic relationship with Africa would learning about Africa improve the selfesteem of black children Schlesinger p 93 0 Is this the role of the school or of those within the particular ethnic cultures ie families churches O Exaggerates differences intensifies resentments and antagonisms drives ever deeper the awful wedges between races and nationalities The endgame is selfpity and selfghettoization Schlesinger p 106 EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Multiculturalism Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 4 0 Individual vs group identity works against assimilation We as leaders so called must make a covenant with our people that nothing is more important than the salvation of our people who are now on a death march While we re singing and dancing and popping our fingers and shaking our backsides to the world we are on a death march into ovens but not the same oven called Auschwitz But it is a destruction coming to our people through bad healthcare no health insurance HIVAIDS driveby shootings gang conflict crack cocaine We have now become the enemy of ourselves Louis Farrakan 2006 State of the Black Union Speech Heterogenei within Groups African Americans Asian Americans Hispanics Native Am ericans European Americans x x x x Ogbu s Classi cation of Minorities Voluntary Minorities 7 Choice for assimilation amp integration into dominant or mainstream culture 7 school is the vehicle for assimilation Involuntary Minorities 7 History of oppression low status and isolation 7 school represents the dominant or mainstream culture and is viewed with suspicion Cultural Inversion 7 Involuntary minorities regard certain behaviors events symbols and meanings as inappropriate for them ie acting White Accommodation without Assimilation 7 Adapt to dominant culture without losing their cultural identity Potential Areas of Cultural Differences Language and dialect Sociolinguistic conventions Cooperation v Competition Private v public performance Eye contact Conceptions of time Types of questions Family relationships and expectations Touching and Space x x x x x x x x What is multicultural education Education stressing quotthe promotion of understanding respect and acceptance of cultural diversityquot within the society gt recognition that everyone belongs to a cultural group or multiple cultural groups gt acceptance of cultural diversity and appreciation of it as a positive aspect of society EDFD 645 Social amp Cultural Issues in Education Multiculturalism Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 5 V V VV V V V affirmation that all cultures are equal within the society promotion of multicultural education for all students recognition that there are more similarities than differences between cultural groups recognition that cultural pluralism is a positive aspect of society affirmation and encouragement of selfesteem and pride in history heritage and culture by providing opportunities to share in the cultural heritage of others promotion of citizenship promotion of racial harmony promotion of understanding Culturally Responsive Teachers Sociocultural Consciousness Affirming Attitude Toward Students from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds Commitment and Skills to Acts as Change Agents Constructivist Views of Learning Learning about Students Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices From Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers by A Villegas and T Lucas in JTE V0152 No1 EDFD 645 SOCIAL amp CULTURAL ISSUES IN EDUCATION Philosophical Foundations Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 1 l ESSENTIALISM PERENNIALISM HUMANISM CRITICAL THEORY The basics iresefvde tlquoters 3nal choiice RECONSTRUC Memorization quotw e ge m 39339 If TIONISM Classics responsibility Mastery Knowledge is Repeating themes C mml one s ower Skills i own destiny an l 935 Themes center on Transmission of r Childcentered i Liberal arts social amp personal knowledge i i i Interaction With change i Stimulate thought Teacher is i i others i i i and thinking Curriculum is authority r i i Undersmndin Sees humanity as situated in real g highest order life examples Teacher is mentor deity or theistic i i i i Teacher is and authority View is not seen f i i i acilitator or as Viable change agent Team is Sometimes facilitator militant in tone Cultural Marxism o Totalitarian ideolog 7 ertain things must be true Single factor explanation of histor 7 History is determined by power by which groups defined in terms of race sex etc have power over which other groups Certain groups are a priori good and other groups such as capitalists and those in power are a priori evil 7 Radical feminists militant minorities illegal immigrants homosexuals Relies on expropriation to deprive of possession 7 Quotas affirmative action discrimination Has a method of analysis that automatically gives preferred answers 7 Deconstruction essentially takes any text removes all meaning from it and reinserts any meaning desired 0 o o c From Bill Lind s The Origins of Political Correctness Cri cal Theory Applied to Teaching Education favors a certain type of culture the dominant culture and through this conforms legitimizes and reproduces it while devaluing cultures different from it Critical theorists would agree that schools have a system of inequity built into them and work to delegitimize that practice Minority children often do not possess cultural capital white middle class culture that dominates school systems and society at large 7Pierre Bourdieu and are therefore behind even before they enter schooli Gibson R 1986 Critical Theory and Education London Hodder and Stoughtoni EDFD 645 SOCIAL amp CULTURAL ISSUES IN EDUCATION Philosophical Foundations Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 2 Critical Race Theory 1 Racism is normal daily fact of life in society and the ideology and assumptions of racism are 2 V 4 V M ingrained in the political and legal structures as to be almost unrecognizable Legal racial destinations have complex historical and socially constructed meanings that insure the location of political superiority of racially marginalized groups As a form of oppositional scholarship CRT challenges the experience of White European Americans as the normative standard CRT grounds its conceptual framework in the distinctive contextual experiences of people of color and racial oppression through the use of literary narrative knowledge and storytelling to challenge the existing social construction of race and CRT attacks liberalism and the inherent belief in the law to create an equitable just society Queer Theory H E0 Homophobia permeates each of society s major institutions the family religion education the economy and the government Homophobia affects not just gays and lesbians but the entire societyi Prejudice and discrimination have enormous costs the greatest cost being the immeasurable loss of human life and potential GLBTQ students are often distracted by issues and concerns raised by homophobia Students that have trouble feeling comfortable in their own skin often have difficulties feeling comfortable in an educational learning environment which impacts academic performance When schools address issues of diversity and prejudice sexual orientation should not be excluded from the conversation Those responsible for working with children and adolescents should take the lead in trying to foster an atmosphere of greater tolerance and acceptance of all individuals Besner HF amp Spungin CI 1995 Gay and lesbian Students Understanding their needs Washington DC Taylor amp Francis Feminist Pedagogy Creates classrooms which are more hospitable to women by drawing on examples from their lives acknowledging the broad range of their accomplishments and treating their life experiences as normal Focuses on women gender Promotes an awareness of how gender relations of unequal power are inscribed in speech patterns and interactions so that these can be identified and interrupted in the classroom Seeks to change the classroom culture and climate broadening students39 understanding rather than creating defensive reactions and sensitizing students to the classroom dynamics that favor one group over another Themes in Feminist Pedagogy Authority 0 Shifts to students Position 0 Contextual and relational o Metacognitive approach Empowerment o Encourages students to take responsibility for their own learning and positions Voice EDFD 645 SOCIAL amp CULTURAL ISSUES IN EDUCATION Philosophical Foundations Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr Page 3 0 Students find their own voices and bring their own questions to the material I Nonneutrality of education 0 Awareness that education brings personal and institutional biases and perspectives I Feminism recognizes education both as a site for struggle and as a tool for changemaking Linda Briskin amp Rebecca Coulter 1992 Feminist Pedagogy Challenging the Normative Canadian Journal ofEducation 173 pl 249 I To reflect feminist values in teaching is to teach progressively democratically and with feeling Nancy Schniedewind 1983 39Feminist Values Guidelines for a Teaching Methodology in Women39s Studies39 in Bunch Ci amp Pollack Si eds Learning Our Way Essays in Feminist Education The Crossing Press New York I Feminist pedagogy can only be liberatory if it is truly revolutionary because the mechanisms of appropriation within white supremacist capitalist patriarchy are able to coopt with tremendous ease that which merely appears radical or subversive From bell hooks 1989 Talking Back Thinking Feminist Thinking BlackSheba London pp 50 51A Nihilism I Objective morality does not exist therefore no action is logically preferable to any other I In the absence of morality existence has no intrinsic higher meaning or goal I There is no reasonable proof or argument for the existence of a higher ruler or creatori I Even if a higher ruler or creator exists mankind has no moral obligation to worship them Postmodernism and MetaNarrative I Moderns 7 Believe you can see the world as it really is 7 Narrative changes from religiouscentered to sciencecentered I Science is liberating I Growth and evolution of knowledge 7 Big question Is it true I Postmoderns The modern view of the world is an illusion See modern myths as useful fictions 7 End of any central legitimizing myth whatsoever I Local narratives not a metanarrative 7 Big question What use it Salable or efficient Sapir Whorf Hypothesis 0 Systematic relationship between language and how a person both understands the world and behaves in it 0 Language determines our thoughts 0 The idea is that without particular words in which to express them we will be literally unable to think particular thoughts The nature of a particular language influences the habitual thought of its users 0 Different patterns of language yield different patterns of thought It is sometimes expressed as 39language determines thought39 suggesting that speakers of another language might have a view of the world very different from our own Race and Ethnicity in the United States Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 1 Racism and Prejudice Racism System of advantage based on race Tatum quoting David Wellman p 7 A personal belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race Merriam Webster On Line Dictionary Prejudice Preconceived judgment or opinion an irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual a group a race or their supposed characteristics Merriam Webster On Line Dictionary White Privilege White privilege is a name for the unearned advantages and benefits that accrue to white or lighter skinned people by a system that establishes the experiences values and perceptions of their group as the norm and what is most desired or esteemed gt 1 automatically confers dominance to one group while subordinating groups of color in a descending relational hierarchy gt 2 owes its existence to the history and ideology of White supremacy both as an idea and a set of legal and social practices gt 4 is deeply embedded in the structural systemic and cultural workings of US society and gt 6 means not having to think about race all the time the privilege to enjoy the benefits of whiteness without acknowledging those advantages and while denying that race matters Cultural Racism Whites are smog breathers Tatum p 6 O Assumed superiority of Whites and inferiority of people of color also known as White privilege O Unconscious breathing of the smog stereotypical images ethnic jokes uninformed or misinformed What do I call You or Them ETHNONYM from the Greek evog ethnos quotnationquot and 5voua onoma quotnamequot is the name applied to a given ethnic group EXONYM The name of the ethnic group that has been created by another group of people AUTONYM The name that is created and used by the ethnic group itself Race and Ethnicity in the United States Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 2 2000 Census Race Categories 0 quotWhite 0 A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe the Middle East or North Africa quotBlack or African American 0 A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa 0 It includes people who indicate their race as quotBlack African Am or Negroquot or provide written entries such as African American Afro American Kenyan Nigerian or Haitianquot quotAmerican Indian and Alaska Native 0 A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America including Central America and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachmentquot 0 quotAsian 0 A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East Southeast Asia or the Indian subcontinent 0 Cambodia China India Japan Korea Malaysia Pakistan the Philippine Islands Thailand and Vietnam It includes quotAsian Indianquot quotChinesequot quotFilipinoquot quotKoreanquot quotJapanesequot quotVietnamesequot and quotOther Asianquotquot quotNative Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0 A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii Guam Samoa or other Pacific Islands quotSome other race 0 Multiracial mixed interracial 0 quotTwo or more races 0 People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes by providing multiple write in responses or by some combination of check boxes and write in responses 0 2010 Census considering dropping the Some other race category 2000 Census Ethnicity Categories 0 quotHispanic or Latinoquot 0 quota person of Cuban Mexican Puerto Rican South or Central American or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race 0 The 2010 US Census will have changes designed to more clearly distinguish the Hispanic ethnicity as not being a race 0 That may include adding the sentence quotF or this census Hispanic origins are not races 0 Additionally the Hispanic terms will be reordered from quotHispanic or Latinoquot to quotHispanic latino or Spanish originquot Race and Ethnicity in the United States Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 3 Ethnicity and Race Race The most widely used human racial categories are based on visible traits especially skin color and facial features genes and self identification May be biologicallybased but more often socially constructed US Census categories represent a social political construct designed for collecting data on the race and ethnicity of broad population groups in this country and are not anthropologically or scientifically based Ethnicity Person s ancestry 7 The way individuals identify themselves with the nation from which they or their ancestors came V History V Customs and traditions V Language though sometimes not spoken V Value system Race The Power of an Illusion httpwwwpbsorgrace000 General000 00 Homehtm Theoretical Construct of Racial Identity 0 Manner or extent to which one group identifies with his or her racial group A re ection of how close to or how far from one s racial group a person feels Intuitive or subjective judgment about the degree that one accepts or rejects his or her racial group Description of how people perceive themselves to be Estimation of how important race is to people Part of the self concept related to membership in a group Dynamic and ever changing force in one s life that is influenced by many factors William Cross s Theory of Racial P 39 What does it mean to be Black 0 Pre encounter 0 Part of the dominate White culture 0 May be self critical of racial characteristics 0 Encounter O Events force acknowledgement the personal impact of racism and may result in guilt shame anxiety and depression 0 Heightened awareness of significance of race and what it means to be a part of a group targeted by racism 0 Con ict of cultural expectations and constraints with the dominant culture Ogbu s cultural inversion resulting in behaviors such as acting White Race and Ethnicity in the United States Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 4 O lmmersionEmersion 0 Want to surround self with symbols of one s racial identity and learn about one s racial history 0 Whites viewed as irrelevant O lnternalization 0 Sense of security about one s racial identity 0 Willing to establish relationships across racial boundaries 0 lnternalizationiCommitment O Self worth connected to commitment to concerns of people of color as a whole Janet Helms Theory of White Racial Identlly The Unexamined Norm 0 Contact status 0 Unaware of racism and its effects 0 Often claim not to see race Disintegration 0 Growing awareness of racism and White privilege through social encounters Reintegration O Guilt and denial may transform to fear and anger toward people of color 0 Blame the victim I Pseudo independence O Acknowledges that race has political social and economic implications 0 Develops an intellectual understanding of racism as a system of advantage 0 Guilty White liberal O Self conscious but unsure what to do lmmersionEmersion O Recognizes the need to find a more positive self definition exploring all facets of Whiteness and taking responsibility for interruptng racism Autonomy O lnternalization of new racial self 0 More secure and confident in Whiteness O Able to transcend race non defensively and without blame Some Myths about MultiRacial Children 0 They are inept individuals who lack culture and are destined to have social and psychological problems associated with racial identity 0 quotI have nothing against interracial marriages I just feel sorry for the children because they will not be accepted or know who to identify wit 0 They are more accepted in the minority community and should therefore identify with the parent of color 0 Derivative of the one drop rule Race and Ethnicity in the United States Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 5 O Multiracial individuals do not like to discuss their racial heritage Susan Harris Racial Identity Model for Transracial Adoptees 0 Genetic Racial Identity 0 Factual identity that comes from birth family 0 Imposed Racial Identity 0 What others assumesaythink about another s racial identity 0 People thinking that I just can t be Asian that I must be Jewish or Italian or Puerto Rican or whatever I Biracialmultiracial and transracially adopted people get other peoples imposed racial identity their whole lives 0 Cognitive Racial Identity 0 What a person thinks or knows themselves to be Feeling Racial Identity 0 What you feel like inside regardless of what other people tell you and regardless of what you even know to be true 0 Feeling Racial Identity is not always in synch with the other kinds of racial identity genetic or cognitive 0 Visual Racial Identity 0 What you look like in a mirror 0 Often transracial adoptees feel disconnected from their visual image 0 Possibly a distorted racial image in the same way that people with eating disorders have distorted body images Race Ethnicity and Schools As our schools are becoming increasingly culturally diverse our teachers are becoming increasingly white and middle class Delpit L 1995 Other people39s children Cultural con ict in the classroom New York New Press Educators all across the country most of whom are White teaching in racially mixed classrooms daily observing identity development in process and are without an important interpretive framework to help them understand what is happening in their interactions with students or even in their cross racial interactions with colleagues Tatum p xv When members of the dominant culture have little opportunity to experience other ways of seeing and knowing other world views are dismissed as illusions or as deficient in need of remediation Highwater l 1981 The primal mind Vision and reality in Indian America NY Harper and Row We all bring our own quotprivate collection of biases and limitations to the classroom Paley V G 1999 The kindness ofchildren Cambridge MA Harvard University Press Critical to truly seeing and understanding the children we teach is the courage to re ect about ourselves Facing our biases openly recognizing the limits imposed by our Race and Ethnicity in the United States Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 6 embeddedness in our own culture and experience acknowledging the values and beliefs we cherish and accepting the in uence of emotions on our actions are extraordinary challenges Balabon N 1995 Seeing the child knowing the person In W Ayers Ed To become a teacher Making a di erence in children39s lives pp 4957 New York Teachers College Press quotOur mission at Seattle Public Schools is academic achievement for every student in every schoolquot said Superintendent Joseph Olchefske quotAs we transform schools to meet that goal we have to confront issues of race and culture or we are not going to get where we need to goquot Superintendent Joseph Olchefske Jim Crow Laws PostCivil War 1960s Jump Jim Crow is a song and dance from 1828 done in blackface by white comedian Thomas Dartmouth TD quotDaddyquot Rice 39 Caricature 39 Pejorative John McWhorter Losing the Race amp Winning the Race Self Sabotage in Black America gt Crystallized in the 19605 gt Cult of victimization gt Cult of anti intellectualism gt Cult of separatism Therapeutic alienation to Responsibility amp Accountability Blacks should separate themselves from mainstream American culture and regard its standards and measures of success as fundamentally alien O McWhorter O Separatism 0 Membership in ethnic group is the basic American experience Schlesinger p 118 O Alienation and tribalism O Victimization O Suspicion and hostility Schlesinger p 118 O Antiintellectualism 0 Acting White 0 Voodoo principle Schlesinger p 109 Race and Ethnicity in the United States Notes EDFD 645 Updated Spring 2009 Page 7 Teacher Prejudice Can a teacher confront her or his own prejudices If so how 0 Some assumptions of Obidah s and Teel s research 0 the beliefs intentions and personalities of all teachers play a more significant role in the success or failure of individual students than the curriculum materials class size and so forth p 107 O the unintentional biases of White teachers may undermine the potentially positive processes of teaching and learning p 107 0 Because of their White teachers powerful potential to in uence students lives teachers need to make conscious efforts to recognize the subtle and unintentional biases in their own behavior p 108 Why are prejudices so difficult to eliminate Negative rigid overgeneralized attitudes toward social groups and involve both cognitive and affective processes People are more likely to remember or consider information that confirms their stereotypical beliefs Aversive racism theory 0 Hold contradictions between what they value and believe in and what they feel Workshop approaches and readings have little effect From The Courage to Change Teacher Prejudice in Journal of Teacher Education 53 5 pp 444446 NovDec 2002 How do teachers approach race in their classrooms Two Views Colorblind I treat all students the same and pay no attention to the color of their skin See Color If you don t see the color you don t see the whole child 7 and herhis unique contributions EitherOr Equity Culturally Responsive Teaching Acknowledges cultural diversity in classrooms and accommodates this diversity in instruction Accepting and valuing differences Accommodating different learning styles Empowering students to achieve Building on cultural background J l Maps on PPT from httpwwwvalnn eomet eocourses0e0200usa mam html TYwLunguuge Police by Diane Ravitch Reading Guide EDFD 645 Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr REVISED Page 1 Chapter One Forbidden Topics Forbidden Words 1 Read through various anecdotes that Ravitch offers to illustrate the rationale for rejection of specific passages images etc per the bias and sensitivity criteria Select at least one that stands out to you and tell what you think about it Chapter Two The New Meaning of Bias 1 What implications for education and teaching does Riverside s definition or conceptualization of bias have Should adults assume that because some topics upset adults that they will in turn upset children How does this affect testing textbooks and textbook adoptions Using Riverside s stereotyping categories do you think it is possible or even desirable to avoid all stereotyping and are all of their constructions indeed even stereotyping Chapter Three Everybody Does It The Textbook Publishers 1 Ravitch asserts the desire to control writers language and thought processes has become deeply institutionalized in educational publishing It is no longer an impulse it is policy p 34 Would you agree or not and why Read the extended quote from an artist on pp 40 41 How does this strike you Ravitch lists a number of problematic words expressions phrases and situations on pages 41 45 Read these and using specific examples provide an analysis of this particularly as it fits the multicultural pluralistic postmodern mindset Chapter Four Everybody Does It The Testing Companies 1 When addressing testing companies Ravitch observes Our society s commitment to equality of educational opportunity surely requires that we seek to eliminate every expression of bigotry and that we teach people of all ages to respect others But this does not mean that literature or history should be censored to remove anything that might make the reader uncomfortable p 50 Is this goal censorship in the name of equality of educational opportunity even possible and is it desirable with respect to these means censorship Or has Ravitch misjudged the situation TYwLunguuye Police by Diane Ravitch Reading Guide EDFD 645 Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr REVISED Page 2 ls attempting to remove cultural biases as well as any sensitivities held by any particular cultural group testing companies may in fact create meaningless tests or at least tests that don t capture the robustness of ideas and information Would you agree or disagree with this statement and why Chapter ve Censorship from the Right 1 2 How does Ravitch define censorship How does Ravitch describe the Right s goals of censorship in textbooks How does she describe the Left s goals Contrast and compare these goals After reviewing the list of most frequently attacked books on pages 74 75 do you find any that surprise you Which ones would you have suspected Should any of these books be banned or censored Why or why not Ravitch states It may be impossible for a fundamentalist Christian that would probably include many of us or Orthodox Jew or fundamentalist Muslim to feel comfortable in a public institution that is committed to tolerance and respect among all creeds and promotion of none p 77 Recall Wood s take on this in Diversity Invention of a Concept Would you agree Why or why not Chapter Six Censorship from the Left 1 According to Ravitch what is the convergence point for both Right and Left pressure groups If censors operate solely to shape opinion as Ravitch quotes Joan DelFattore author of What Johnny Shouldn t Read how could this limitation of freedom to diverse ideas affect our children s education as well as democracy itself Using The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn analyze the Left s rationale and approach to censoring this book Citing some of the Left wing groups to which Ravitch refers describe their ideologies and tactics with respect to textbooks TYwLunguuge Police by Diane RaVitch Reading Guide EDFD 645 Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr REVISED Page 3 Chapter Seven The Mad Mad Mad World of Textbook Adoptions 1 Other than to sell textbooks according to RaVitch why have publishers of school textbooks willingly and enthusiastically imposed upon themselves the language codes that control what their authors are allowed to write p 97 RaVitch asserts Ordinary people tend to assume that the textbooks in public schools are up to date accurate and useful Unlike general books textbooks are almost never reviewed in public by expert scholars With the exception of a couple of groups there is no regular independent scrutiny of textbooks other than the pressure groups that have made textbooks their business p 98 Is Ravitch s assertion well founded or does she use hyperbole here What are the implications On page 102 RaVitch challenges a couple of typical parental assumptions about textbooks What are those assumptions and what are the implications of those assumptions not being true Chapter Eight Literature Forgetting the Tradition 1 2 Compare and contrast censorship abridgement and Bowdlerization Although RaVitch does not call for a canonization what is her complaint about pressure groups effects on literature in schools What is canonization How does RaVitch characterize today s literature textbooks What is Ravitch s position on the assumption that students can comprehend only the literatue written by and about people who share their racial ethnic or gender identity Chapter Nine History The Endless Battle 1 When and why did American history textbooks begin to be overhauled and essentially decimated See FitzGerald s description bewildering litany of problems crises and con icts p 133 TYwLunguuge Police by Diane RaVitch Reading Guide EDFD 645 Dr Raymond W Donny Lee Jr REVISED Page 4 2 After reading this chapter re ect on the effects of revisionism and political correctness in history textbooks in American schools What are your thoughts Chapter Ten The Language Police Can We Stop Them 1 What is the irony of Bradbury s Fahrenheit 451 being expurgated without his knowledge And having this pointed out to him by students no less Actually this may be encouraging that students are reading and astute enough to recognize this fact Ravitch asserts The goal of the language police is not just to stop us from using objectionable words but to stop us from having objectionable thoughts The language police believe that reality follows language usage If they can stop people from ever seeing offensive words and ideas they can prevent them from having the thought or committing the act that the words signify p 158 159 Would you agree Why or why not What are the implications if this assertion is true According to Ravitch what are some of the pernicious and pervasive p 159 effects of censorship in American education In contrast what should American schools be and offer What is Ravitch s three fold strategy to combat the language police Do you think this strategy could work Why or why not General Questions 1 After reading this book would you recommend it to others What would you tell them