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Speech Communication

by: Fleta Wintheiser II

Speech Communication COMO 101

Fleta Wintheiser II
Harding University
GPA 3.5


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Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fleta Wintheiser II on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMO 101 at Harding University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/222127/como-101-harding-university in Communication Studies at Harding University.

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Date Created: 10/12/15
COMO 101 Lectures Group Networks Membership and Leadership Chapter 12 I Describes functions participants should seek to assume and avoid in groups I Three categories of roles Taskoriented roles Maintenanceoriented roles Selfserving roles up Role Classi cation Model I Taskoriented roles help the group achieve its goals TaskOriented Roles Initiating Information seeking Opinion seeking Information giving Opinion giving Clarifying Coordinating Evaluating Consensus testing 92806 COMO 101 Lectures 92806 X MaintenanceOriented Roles I Maintenanceoriented roles help the group run smoothly Encouraging Gatekeeping Harmonizing i i Compromising Standard setting SelfServing Roles l Selfserving roles prevent the group from working effectively Blocking Aggression Recognition seeking Withdrawing Dominating Joking o Selfconfessing 0 Help seeking Leadership I Leadership 7 the ability to in uence others Can be positive or negative Groups need effective leadership Effective leaders perform combinations of the task and maintenance roles and demonstrate role versatility Designated leader 7 person given the authority to exert in uence Within a group Achieved leader 7 engage in effective leadership behavior Without being appointed COMO 101 Lectures 92806 Leadership Styles I T ypeX 7 leader who does not trust group members and are not concerned with their personal achievement I Type Y 7 more of a risk taker more trusting of the group and is concerned with their personal achievement I Autocratic Authoritarian 7 directive leader Laissezfaire 7 nondirective leader Democratic 7 represents a reasonable compromise between autocratic and laissez faire leaders Theories of Leadership I Trait theory 7 leaders are people who were born to lead I Special builtin identi able leadership traits I Situational theory 7 depends on the situation I Can be affected by the nature of the problem social climate personalities of group members size of the group and time available to accomplish the task I Functional theory 7 several group members should be ready I Any task or maintenance activity can be considered leadership Diversity and Gender I Culture I In uences the way group members communicate I Can both enhance and impede a group s operation I Mexican American Japanese Native American I Gender I Men and women have different goals for communicating it I Both genders working together enhances productivity I Women 7 more collaborative and participatory I Men 7 more directive I The same messages are evaluated differentlybased on gender 9 COMO 101 Lectures 92806 Cooperation vs Competition I Individual goals 0 Congruent or coinciding goals 9 cooperation I Cooperative goal structure 7 members Work together to achieve eir ob39ectives 0 Agree that each has an equal right to satisfy ne d s n Each member can get What he or she Wants at least some ofthe time 4 Plays for power are avoided gt Do not attempt to manipulate each other by Withholding 39 ling In ormation or dissemb I Contradictory goals 9 competition I Competitive goal structure 7 members hinder one another s efforts to obtain a goal 1U Defensive behavior 7 occurs When one perceives a threat or an attack on his or her selfconcept I Evaluation vs description I Control vs problem orientation I Strategy vs spontaneity I Neutralityvs empathy i I Superiorityvs equality I Certainty vs provincialism I Defensive nonverbal cues I Supportive nonverbal cues Cyberspace Groups I Online groups experience many of the same problems that faceto face groups experience I Online group members perform roles I Hackers I Phreakers I Moderators I Net police I Continuous membership evolution COMO 101 Lectures 92806 I Encourage an open supportive environment 0 Contributions and communication from all members I Establish a cooperative climate o Coordination not manipulation I Be ready to perform needed leadership and membership roles 0 Task roles present and accounted for x a Maintenance roles effectively carried out i 0 Negative individual selfcentered roles deemphasized I Encourage continual improvement I Develop insights needed to facilitate more effective interaction COMO 101 Lectures 92806 The Roles of the Group in Decision Making and Problem Solving Chapter 11 Group membership 7 In uence and are in uenced by each other 7 Affect the character and are affected by it 7 Not just a number of people in a particular space Group size 1 7 57 people 7 Optimal size 7 smallest number capable of handling the assigned tas azxna quot139 Goals Structure and Climate I Goals 7 a group s motivation for existing I Structure 7 member positions and roles performed I Climate 7 emotional atmosphere of a group Effective climate characteristics I Supportiveness I Participative decision making in l Trust among group members l Openness and candor V High performance goals azxna N f 739 quot39 COMO 101 Lectures 92 am a Groups as Problem Solvers l Advantages of the small group a Variety of different people with different information and different points of view Increases individual motivation Easier to identify other people s mistakes before becoming too costly or damaging Decisions of a group tend to be better received than those of an individual a Working as part of a group is more pleasant and ful lling than working alone 92806 92 am a l Disadvantages of the small group Groups as Problem Solvers Tempting to become lazy a Personal goals sometimes con ict with group goals a Decision making may be dominated by a few forceful and persistent members o Some members may be unwilling to compromise 0 Decisions made are o en riskier when made by a group Takes longer to reach a group decision than that of an individual 92 am a Methods of Decision Making Effective group considers 0 nature of the problem a time available to solve the problem 0 kind of climate in which the group is operating Group decision making methods a Majority vote Averaging 0 Expert member deciding Leader retaining all decision making power a Consensus most effective COMO 101 Lectures 92806 Gender Culture and Personal Styles I Men and women focus on different aspects of the group s life I The cultural background of group members affects the nature of communication in the groupteam is Collectivists lndividualists BZBU V T J 7 Facts Values and Policies I Questions of facti involve the truth or falsity of a statement I Questions of value iinvolve subjective judgments I Questions of policy 7 designed to help determine future actions BZBU J r T J a Generally agreedupon structure consisting of six basic componen 5 Must ask if The resources of all group members are being used a The group is using its time to its advantage a The group is emphasizing fact nding and inquiry i it 0 Members are listening to each other and respecting each other Pressure to conform is being kept to a minimum Atmosphere is supportive trusting and cooperative COMO 101 Lectures 92806 Brainstorming l Designed to encourage creativity and generate ideas 0 Lessens the inhibitions of members Warmer more playful enthusiastic and cooperative atmosp ere Encourages the individual s potential for creativity Suspended judgment i L I Killer phrases I Killer looks Kaleidoscope thinking 7 twisting existing data and looking at it from other angles 92 am a V Technology and Groups I Virtual groups Leveling of status differences Getting together is easier and faster than with faceto face meetings Possible to chat with groups of people and not have g gender race appearance vocal quantities age or fear of how others will respond to the group 92 am a COMO 101 Lecture Notes Developing Your Speech Supporting Your Ideas Chapter 15 The Research Process o Potential sources of information Published works Other people Yourself Online and offline research C The library s online catalogs V Reference works 7 Computeraided and online searches Email Newgroups l World Wide Web 39 T V Z Primary Research I Primary Techniques Personal observation Examine what you know about the topic I Direct observation of an event person or stimulus The survey 1 Conduct aninformal survey with a prospect The interview a More detailed than a survey and assumes that the person being interviewed is in some way an expert on the topic 92806 COMO 101 Lecture Notes 92806 Integrating Your Research I Making your research and experiences believable and understandable for an audience I Definitions I Statistics I Examples and illustrations I Testimony I Comparisons and contrasts I Repetition and restatement Illustrating Your Research I Presentation Aids 7 audio and visual I Do I really need them I Many speakers choose to not use them when the content depends on them I Other speakers use so many that they clutter the content an d make the presentation con ising I Why use presentation aids I Easier for audience to I Follow I Understand I Respond to I Remember Visual Aids I Types ofvisual aids o Objects and models a Graphs l Pie graph I Bar graph I Line graph I Pictographs I Photographs and drawings I Computer graphics COMO 101 Lecture Notes 92806 7 Iquot quot o BioTech not Pu39ldquot e C Medial lacrnatlenul 9mde 39 lndumiul Consimdion admirery of m I Email l Churdms Tenant lmpmvmanl wmm use or DONATED Fuuns Wmmwulnv men Plank Mum Fem ily Housing is no 57mm lmlmvmnn m WWW Pie Charts o 40 Mining o 16 Manufacturing amp Distribution o 12 Environment amp Consultancy o 11 Finance 1 ampAdministration o 7 Engineering o 14 Technical Energy amp Utilities 93 Bar Graphs Ham39s hacked El Joe39s l Ralph 2 so in Gr so m a sum prices For mm ietaurinc chains COMO 101 Lecture Notes Line Graphs US Com Acres mum Acres Line Graphs Trash on the Beach Type and Percent Toial 739 r smugg 39 259 Gradeul o 205 0 92806 COMO 101 Lecture Notes il 7 33 Pictographs Ice Cream Served to Students at the School Party e e e w e e a a e e e e e Kay Each 6 5 students Using Visual Aids I Guidelines for using Visual aids 0 Criteria I Simplicity As transportable as possible and as easy as possible to use Clarity 7 c To enhance understanding not cause confusion 39 I Visibility Lettering should be tall enough and photographs or pictures should be large enough to be seen 92806 COMO 101 Lecture Notes 92806 Audio Aids and Computer Presentations I Audio aids I Audiotape 7 readily available and easy to use as speech accompanimen I Computer presentations I Help make visual aid production quicker and easier I PowerPoint Clip libmry o Backgrounds Formats Layouts Colors Avoid data smog I How much information is too much information C English in he World mlmm urSpeJlren Deception 0 Computer graphics make it possible to distort actual images 0 Unethical speakers alter their visuals torj conform with the point they are trying to make 911 svsphoto commainoldrm Jpg COMO 101 Lecture Notes Support Your Ideas Examine yourself other people and published materials I Stir the audience s imagination Supportive devices I Audio and visual aids enhance the effectiveness increase a comprehension o retention o motivation 92806


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