Intro Modern European History
Intro Modern European History HIST 131
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Volkman on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 131 at Hope College taught by Fred Johnson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/222138/hist-131-hope-college in History at Hope College.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
An Age of Exploration and Expansion 922009 13100 AM Vasco de Gama39s voyage is considered the sign of the future European spice trade but the seas had been busy long before Islam and the Spice Trade Kickoff to the spread of Islam founding Malacca on Malaya by sultan Paramesvara moved his center of trade commerce to Malacca under pressure of the Thai state o Paramesvara converted to Islam to help his ability to participate in Muslim trade o Malacca is leading economic power in region o Promotes spread of Islam The Spead of Islam in West Africa Decline of Mali The kingdom of Songhai o founder Sonni Ali chieftain seized Timbuktu in 1468 o Songhai became major trading state o Sonni Ali diedgt son gt Askia Mohammed military commander who seized power o Askia Mohammed tried to hold together Songhai but eventually it broke apart A New Player Europe Europe had be relatively isolated except crusades Vikings Interest in the East myths Marco Polo lead to interest in reaching Asia by sea o The Motives 0 Economic 0 Religious although doubtful sincerity 0 Glory grandeur intellectual curiosity adventure o The Means 0 State enterprise growth of centralized monarchies authority and resources 0 level of knowledge and technology fairly accurate maps Portolani detailed charts made by medieval navigators mathematicians 13 and 14th cents detailed coastal contours and distances Not good for overseas voyages o seaworthy ships from Chinese Arabs 0 Knowledge of the wind patterns in Atlantic The Portuguese Maritime Empire 922009 13100 AM Portugal explores coast of Africa under Prince Henry the Navigator 1394 1460 Henry39s Objectives Find a Christian kingdom to ally against Muslims o Acquire new trade opportunities o Extend Christianity 1419 founded navigator39s school 1441 Portuguese reached Senegal River bringing back African slaves 1000 slaves per year after 1471 discovered Gold Coast The Portuguese in India o Bartolomeu Dias turned back at the Cape of Good Hope o Vasco da Gama around Africa finds spices The Search for Spices o Admiral Afonso de Albuquerque set to control spice trade from Muslims Raided Arab ships o Attacked Malacca 1511 killed all Arabs built a fort a warehouse and a church 0 help destroy the Arab spice trade blocking passage 0 proved Portuguese with a station on the way to the Spice Islands Moluccas o Launched further east to China 1514 and the Spice Islands 0 treaty with sultan for cloves o Within years Portuguese had control of spice trade and o Why Success 0 guns and seamanship 0 sort of manipulated and intimidated Spanish Conquests in the quotNew Worldquot 922009 13100 AM Spain tried to reach spices by going west leads to exploration Greater Resources Grander empire The Voyages o Christopher Columbus financed by Queen Isabella of Spain 0 October 1492 explored Cuba and Hispaniola o 3 more trips 1493 3998 and 1502 and reached all the Indies and Honduras trying to find Asia o John Cabot under Henry VII England explored New England o Pedro Cabral Portugal 1500 accidentally discovered S America o Amerigo Vespucci letters of geography The Conquests o Treat of Tordesillas 1494 east for Portuguese west for Spanish o Conquistadors wealthy upperclass glory greed religious zeal o funded privately o Cort s landed Veracruz Gulf of MX o marched to Tenochtitlan friendly welcome from Moctezuma who velieved they were from Quetzalcoatl feathered serpent because of their horses Cort s demands they accept Christianity Moctezuma hostage and destroyed religious shrines population revolted and drove them from the city Aztecs suffer diseases city destroyed in months o Francisco Pizarro 14701541 expedition from 153136 destroyed Inkas peruvian Andes o conquests from European diseases which had killed the population o Spanish created colonial system that extended Europe to the New World Governing the Empire o Queen Isabella says Indians are under the encomienda system encomienda a package 0 permits Spaniards to collect tribute from and use Indians as laborers o Spaniards were supposed to protect Indians and supervise spiritual and material needs Brutally abused the system sugar plantations goldsilver mines forced labor starvation disease o Indians suffer smallpox measles and typhus O O O Only 300100000 natives survived by 1570 o Bartolom de Las Casas a Dominican monk wrote to help abolish the encomienda system 1542 Council of the Indies nominated viceroys in place of the king activities Christian affairs Spanish possession Mexico Cent America Caribbean islands Peru capital Lima each area governed by a viceroy Catholic monarchs had power to establish churches officials fees missionary activities etc hundreds of thousands were converted and baptized o establish schools hospitals European society The Impact of European Expansion 922009 13100 AM Impact to natives o Native civilizations politics social structures destroyed diseases Impact to Colonizers o reinforced belief in superiority Eurocentric o Gold silver sugar dyes cotton vanilla agriculture o Portugal challenges Italy in eastern trade o Rivalry among European powers 0 Spain and Portugal leading followed by English and Dutch New Rivals o Portuguese lacked numbers and wealth to totally dominate Indian Ocean trade local resistance to colonization Portugal is challenged o Europeans in Asia 0 15205 Ferdinand Magellan struggled was killed to acquire Tidor but Spain sold their rights to the Portuguese 0 Spain concentrated control over the Philippines 0 English and Dutch threaten Portuguese 1591 first English ship arrived from the Indies East India Company to provide stable source of capital Dutch arrive in India 1595 Dutch East India Company established under gov39t o Europeans in the Americas 0 Dutch French and English encroach on Spanish and Portuguese 0 Portuguese trade east and west is eroded but Portugal keeps old on Brazil plantations migrants etc o Spain39s power declines less silver monarchy in poverty 0 Dutch West India Company went bankrupt Dutch in North 0 French in Louisiana Antilles o 1664 English seized New NetherlandNew York 0 English succeed in Colonizing Religious persecution economic interests Massachusetts Bay Company colonies remained of minor significance to English economy Africa in Transition 922009 13100 AM The Portuguese in Africa Francisco de Almeida seized East African port cities and built forts o wanted to control trade in gold centuries in control of local people of Zimbabwe Mwene Metapa came to control it in the 14005 0 Portuguese started out as friendly allies but began to colonize Mozambique 0 Portuguese not strong enough and Mwene Metapa drove them away 0 shepherds and farmers conflict Hutu and Tutsi The Dutch in South Africa 0 attempt to take Portuguese settlement on Mozambique 0 1652 Dutch set up a way station at the Cape of Good Hope base for fleets en route to the East Indies o Developed into permanent colony o Boers Dutch farmers moved in Afrikaans Dutch dialect o Decline of Songhai Empiregt Dutch become active in W African trade 0 seized Portuguese forts along W Africa and taking over trade The Slave Trade Europeans had little effect on those in the inner continent but great on the coasts o Origins of Slavery o Africans enslaved each other centuries before Portugal 0 Biggest market Middle East for domestic servants o Slavery existed in many European countries 0 Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans 1450 amp on 0 America sugarcane demandslaves 0 First used natives turned to Africans stronger heartier o 1518 first ship of slaves from Africa to Americas Spain Growth of the Slave Trade 0 Exponential growth Total 10 mil people to Americas The Middle Passage the voyage from Africa to the Americas 0 Huge losses disease malnourishment o mortality rate for slaves lower than Europeans 0 Sources of Slaves 0 Local slave traders traveled inland as Africa was depopulated o Slave traders dictated prices volume etc 0 Mostly male slaves for East Asian textiles furniture etc o The Effects of the Slave Trade 0 tragic individual victims 0 depopulation mostly in Angola Congo River East Africa 0 West Africa balanced the population with high birthrate and new crops from the Americas to support population 0 20 of slaves to Europeans were children 0 Justify carrying on a tradition slaved were exposed to the Christian faith replace Indian workers Political and Social Structures in a Changing Continent 0 mainly affected the coast 0 Morocco defeats the Songhai kingdom because of changing trade routes 0 African kingdoms were cracked sometimes destroyed because of the arrival of Europeans Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade922009 13100 AM Encounter with the West beginning with Portuguese ships resulted in the breakdown of traditional societies and colonial rule The Arrival of the West The Dutch 0 Dutch succeed in controlling the spice trade and political and military control 0 Dutch founded Batavia Jakarta on island Java and ruled through the local aristocracy 0 Pepper plantationsgt monopolize clove trade gt control of almost all Indonesia 0 European39s had less effect on resistant mainland monarchies or Southeast Asia had less spices 0 European powers intervene in politics State and Society in Precolonial Southeast Asia 0 15001800 very limited Western influence 0 Religion and Kingship o Buddhism and Islam well established Some Christianity in the Philippines 0 Division between devout Muslims in cities and animist peasants in rural villages Muslims did not penetrate all the way to the middle inland o batik Muslim converts couldn39t tattoo 0 Political Systems 0 Buddhist kings godlike character of the monarch innately superior due to karma 0 Javanese kings blend of Buddhist and Islamic politics semidivine sacred quality as Islam penetrated Javanese monarchs lost this 0 Islamic sultans mortal with magical qualities defender of faith rule according to the Shari39a 0 Vietnamese emperors o The Economy 0 agriculture based economy becoming more cash crops 0 higher living standard than others in Asia 0 Society 0 Nuclear family comparatively feminist The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact9302009 55000 PM coal and steam to drive machines shift from agriculture and handcrafts to manufacturing environmental crisis people migrated to cities creates wealthy industrial middle classThe Industrial revolution in Great Britain began after 1750 Origins improvements in agricultural practices in 1700sgt increase in food production more ppl at lower prices less labor have money left to purchase manufactured goods population growth surplus labor for factories effective central bank individuals interested in profit political power in the hands of the people parliament helped business plenty of raw material colonial empire demand for cotton clothes Changes in Textile Production flying shuttle spinning jenny James Hargreaves Cartwright39s waterpowered loom steam engine James Watt Other Technological Changes Henry Cort developed quotpuddlingquot to produce high quality iron new machines and industries 1804 Trevithick lst steampowered locomotive Rocket public railroad transportation prices fall markets grow enhancing revolution The Industrial Factory shifts to keep machines running peasants not used to boring tedious work children beaten eventually a regular work week is natural Britain richest nation coal and cotton The Spread of Industrialization Belgium France and Germany first Industrialization on the Continent 1815 still agrarian lack of roads and transportation prevented revolution like Britain39s Customs barriers made things expensive businessmen unwilling to take risks like Britain learned technology from British establish technical schools Gov39ts took more control in these states jointstock investment bank on the continent pooled savings of investors creating capital to go back into industry Britain started small but continent had big money for advanced machines o The Industrial Revolution in the United States railroads 18005 Limiting the Spread of Industrialization in the Rest of the World o before 1870 revolution did not extend beyond US and Europe except eastern EuropeRussia India 17005 huge cotton exporter 18005 early under British East India Companygt Indian spinners and handloom weavers were unemployed by factory merchandise Encouraged Indians to export raw materials buy Britishgt prevent industrialization Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution o Population Growth and Urbanization decline in death rates o growth of cities miserable living conditions deaths outnumbered births here o Industrial Middle Class the people who constructed factories purchased machines found markets o most of working class industrial proletariat o Industrial Working Class factories and mines horrible working conditions o child labor exploited more than ever delicate touch small size o 1821 over half of Britain was under 20 years old o Factory Act of 1833 some children replaced with women o Efforts at Change 0 Socialism equality of all people replace competition with cooperation Later Karl Marx39s followers labeled these utopian socialists Robert Owen British utopian socialist New Lanark Scotland transformed factory town into a healthy community but failed in the US trade unions associations formed by skilled workers to gain wagesworking conditions some strikes Union movement focus on creation of national unions Amalgamated Society of Engineers biggest in Britain 0 O O The Growth of the Industrial Prosperity 9302009 55000 PM New Products o 1870 substitute steel for iron lighter smaller faster machines o electricitygt lightbulb telephone Bell 1876 radio internatl combustion engine oil and gasoline o 1900 Henry Ford revolutionized car industry with Model T 1903 Wright bros first flight New Patterns o increase in wages after 1870 lower prices o new consumer ethic musthaves c 18701914 Germany industrial leader of Europe o Europe divided Britain Belgium France the Netherlands Germany West AustroHungarian Empire and N Italy advanced industrialized core high living standards transportation healthy educated people o south and east S Italy AustriaHungary Spain Portugal Balkans and Russia still agricultural Emergence of a World Economy o true world economy market for goods banking shares investments o Europe dominated the world by beginning of the 20th century The Spread of Industrialization o rapid development in Russia 18905 under Sergei Witte steel and coal railroads oil and Japan education railroads industries tea silk arms ships Women and Work New Job Opportunities o organizations believe women should be homemakers not in industrial workforce o 2nd Industrial Rev opened door to jobs for women larger plants gov39t services create service jobs Looking for lowwages and shortage of male workers clerks typists secretaries nurses teachers o jobs offered freedom but limited in careers Organizing the Working Classes o Marxism 1848 Communist Manifesto Marx and Engels o Marxist Theory oppressors gov39t controlling class vs oppressed depended on the owners of the means of production class struggle history is filled with class struggles Bourgeoisie VS Proletariat Marx predicted open revolution and overthrow of the bourgeoisie 0 Form dictatorship to organize production end result is a classless society the state would wither away Socialist Parties German Social Democratic Party SPD 1875 competing for elections in the Reichstag lower house of parliament then sought to improve condition of the working class largest party in Germany 1912 Second International 1889 association of national socialist groups against capitalism Revisionism and Trade Unions 0 revisionists rejected revolutionary socialism must organize mass political parties for progressive reform democratically o trade unions for evolutionary socialism right to strike in 1870s Britain Reaction and Revolution The Growth of Nationalism 9302009 55000 PM The Conservative Order c after Napoleon European rulers try to restore old order Congress of Vienna Sept 1814 o legitimacy necessary to restore the legitimate monarchs already restored Bourbon monarchy 0 peace arrangements were to contain revolution conservatismgt Dominant forces Rich gov39t monarchies churches after 1815 o intervention asserting the right to send armies into countries under revolution to restore monarchs Forces for Change o liberalism idea that people should be as free from restraint as possible 0 protection of civil liberties basic rights 0 liberals were not democrats right to vote and hold office only to property owning men adopted by middleclass men favored voting rights for themselves 0 Nationalism French Revolution each nationality should have it39s own government o Germans wanted national unity in a German state w central gov39t o threat to political order o nationalism and liberalism strong allies later it divided people rather than unifying them Revolution and Reform 18301832 c conservative order dominated after 1815 but liberalism and nationalism grew as the Industrial Revolution grew o 1830 France overthrew Bourbon monarch and created limited constitutional monarchy with LouisPhilippe 18301848 called the bourgeois monarch o Britain avoided revolution by passing Reform Bill 1832 increased male voters o nationalism Belgium rebelled against Dutch to become independent constitutional monarchies Russians crushed Poland39s attempt to liberate itself Austria intervened in Italy 0 The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century972009 70300 PM Background to the Reformation Renaissance of the 15th century prepares for reformation of Europe Martin 0 0 0 The Growth of State Power 0 New monarchies renaissance states attempt to control gov39t and church and concentrate royal authority absolute monarch Louis XIV o Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince the end justifies the means Social Changes in the Renaissance o peasants 8590 of Europe 0 extremely poor 3040 support religious reform The Impact of Printing 0 Johannes Gutenberg made bibles religious ideas more available and spread rapidly 0 Printing allowed Europe to compete w China Prelude to Reformation 0 Christian Humanism Desiderius Erasmus 14661536 planted seed for Luther 0 It39s about philosophy not relics sacraments pilgrimages etc Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation o quotThe Renaissance Popes failed to meet church39s needs War like money and powerhungry o relics and indulgences very corrupt Luther and the Reformation in Germany Monk and Prof University of Wittenberg 151316 Justification by faith alone upset by indulgences NinetyFive Theses calls for a reformed German Church overthrow papacy Excommunicated Jan 1521 appear before reichstag refused to denounce beliefs Elector Frederick of Saxony stepped in to protect Luther Lutheran churches in Germany and Scandinavia state supervised Politics and Religion in the German Reformation 0 Emperor Charles V tries to defeat Lutheran princes in 1546 Unable he agrees to a truce End of religious warfare in Germany 1555 Peace of Augsburg o Rulers were free to choose religious of their subjects but no religious toleration in the truce The Spread of the Protestant Reformation o Switzerland Ulrich Zwingli 14841531 cathedral priest Ziirich 1518 o preaching gospel destroying papal Christianity 0 Sought alliance with Luther but did not agree on Communion Luther took it literally Zwingli figuatively 0 Oct 1531 war between Catholic and protestant states Zwingli wounded and killed 0 passed leadership to John Calvin o Calvin and Calvinism 15091564 France 0 fled to Geneva Switzerland 1536 o Predestination elect and damned o reform in Geneva Consistory for enforcing moral discipline court punished for dancing drunkenness swearing playing cards o The English Reformation rooted in politics not religion King Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherin of Aragon no male heir and marry Anne Boleyn Pope would not allow Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer voided marriage 1533 1534 Parliament finalized break of the Church of England with Rome The Act of Supremacy 1534 king only head of Church little change in doctrine theology ceremony After Henry39s death 1547 Anglican church moved toward the Protestant direction order Henry VIII Edward VI quotbloodyquot Mary Mary tried to return England to Catholicism burned over 300 Protestants o The Anabaptists 0 return to early Christian ways 0 separate Church and State 0 adult baptism spirit equality no political offices or killing 0 O O O 0 considered dangerous radicals persecuted by Protestants and Catholics The Social Impact of the Protestant Reformation o places family at the front after abolishing celibacy o does not alter women39s roles as childbearing servants The Catholic Reformation Lutheranism Germany Scandinavia Calvinism Scotland Switzerland France the Netherlands eastern Europe but Catholics also reform o The Society of Jesus The Jesuits founded by Spanish nobleman Ignatius of Loyola 14911556 0 Loyola brought new religious order absolute obedience to papacy hierarchy for society education quotconflict for Godquot 0 restores Catholicism to parts of Germany and E Europe 0 Francis Xavier traveled to Asia to convert o A Reformed Papacy 0 Pope Paul III 153449 appointed a reform committee who blamed problems on corrupt policies of popes and cardinals Recognized Jesuits and Council of Trent o The Council of Trent 0 March 1545 through 1563 group of church officials met in Trent GermanyItaly Continue to oppose protestants Scripture and Tradition are EQUAL Only the church can interpret scripture o Purgatory and indulgences strengthened but cannot be sold 0 O Europe in Crisis 15601650 972009 70300 PM Politics and the Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century Religious economic social and political o The French Wars of Religion 15621598 0 Huguenots 7 total French Calvinists 4050 of the nobility were Huguenots gt political threat Towns and provinces resist monarchy and revolt Huguenot leader Henry of Navarre was crowned as king Henry IV 15891610 Converted to Catholicism Passed Edict of Nantes in 1598 Catholicism official religion but gives freedom of religion to Huguenots o Philip II and Militant Catholicism o greatest advocate of militant Catholicism Philip II quotThe Most Catholic Kingquot King of Spain Holy Roman Empire son of Charles V Spanish political and cultural greatness Monarchical authority Strict conformity to Catholicism attempt to control Netherlands a Nobles oppose attempt to crush Calvinism 0 Violence in 15661609 revolt ended by recognizing the independence of northern Netherlands provinces 0 Spain seemed powerful but was broke no armed forces and poor government o The England of Elizabeth 0 Elizabeth Tudor Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn 1558 religious moderation and compromise mostly protestant church she ruled it moderate 0 Philip II invaded to return England to Catholicism defeat of the armada Economic and Social Crises recession in the 16305 and 16405 less silver from America o Population Decline o famine war plague created social tensions some lead to witch obsessions O O o Witchcraft Mania more than 100000 people prosecuted for witchcraft in Europe 15th and 16th centuries o 75 accused were women usually peasants single widowed and many over fifty o Economic Trends in the 17th Century 0 Mercantilism economic practices encourage exports to benefit nation transportation trade monopolies tax imports o imports more available to consumers expand trade and colonies 0 commercial expansion made easier by new organizations jointstock company invest by buying shares Dutch East India Company 0 80 of Europeans still worked the land Almost all free of serfdom but taxes and fees instead SeventeenthCentury Crises Revolution and War o The Thirty Years39 War 16181648 0 Calvinist bohemia leaders rebelled against Catholics Holy Roman Emperors Denmark Sweden France and Spain enter war fought on German soil ended by Peace of Westphalia all German states free to determine religion 0 End to Holy Roman Empire all states independent France most powerful 0 political motives were the main force of public affairs o A Military Revolution 0 15601650 revolutions in the science of warfare because of the increasing pressure for a nation to build military to become successful larger armies and navies expensive taxes More power to state governments O O O O O Response to Crisis The Practice of Absolutism 972009 70300 PM France Under Louis XIV 16431715 c absolute monarch divineright Court of Louis XIV was imitated by all of Europe o Political Institutions 0 Versailles outside Paris personal household of the king central governmental machinery nobility 0 Louis eliminated all other policymakers by moving them into the court life and out of politics o The Economy and the Military 0 JeanBaptiste Colbert pushed mercantilism 0 Louis waged four wars between 11671713 0 Huge Military 0 left France poor with lots of enemies Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe new powers o Prussia Frederick William the Great Elector 16401688 laid foundation 0 inherited land with no natural defense 0 Built army of 40000 4th largest in Europe 0 General War Commissariat o Austria 0 Habsburgs 0 Most of Southeastern Europe Austrian Empire 0 collection of territories held together by the Habsburg emperor archduke of Austria king of Bohemia king of Hungary 0 not centralized in gov39t c From Muscovy to Russia 0 Ivan quotthe terriblequot IV first tsar of Russia caesar end 1598 o 15 years anarchy 0 Michael Romanov 400 years of Romanovs 0 Peter the Great 16891725 vulgar and harsh punishments wants to westernize Russia and path to Europe war to win lands from Sweden St Petersburg symbol to the west England and Limited Monarchy 972009 70300 PM Conflict Between King and Parliament c Q Elizabeth died cousin King James VI takes throne o Puritans want to rid all roman Catholicism from the Anglican church James defends it 0 Many Puritans in the House of Commons of Parliament who were alienated by James39 divine right theories o Charles I son of James VI caused Puritans to leave to America Civil War and Commonwealth 0 civil war 16421648 c New Model Army Oliver Cromwell caused parliamentary forces to win and execute Charles Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords Englandcommonwealth o Cromwell didn39t work well with Parliamentgt military dictatorship o Cromwell39s death 1658 army puts Charles II in power Restoration and a Glorious Revolution o William of Orange and James39 protestant daughter Mary invaded England and the royal family fled to France o affirmed parliament39s right to make laws and taxes An Intellectual Revolution in the West 9132009 41300 AM Scientific Revolution affected Europe39s educated elite wide impact Age of Enlightenment o Toward a New Heaven A Revolution in Astronomy 0 Aristotle Ptolemy from Ptolemaic geocentric theorygt earth at center Beyond the tenth sphere was Empyrean Heaven Nicholas Copernicus 14731543 heliocentric theory gt sun center of universe circular orbits Johannes Kepler 15711630 elliptical orbits Galileo Galilei 15641642 first European telescope found mountains on the moon substances of planets more clear Publication made Europeans aware of the new views Church condemns Copernicanism threatens conception of universe and heavens as spiritual world 1642 Isaac Newton laws of physics worldmachine concept universe is a huge regulated machine natural laws of time space and motion o Toward a New Earth Descartes and Rationalism o Philosopher Ren Descartes 15961650 Cartesian dualismO Using mindhuman reason we can understand the material world Separate mind from matter o Europe China and Scientific Revolutions not China possibly because of ideals or brightest Chinese were in other occupations Background to the Enlightenment o believed that could make a better society through reason 0 Isaac Newton Worldmachine If there were natural laws there could be laws to govern politics economics justice and religion 0 John Locke blank mind theory people molded by environment thus change the environment The Philosophes and Their Ideas o literary political social reformers from all classes international but France was leader Paris capital o Rational criticism applied to everything o Montesquieu 16891755 comparative study of gov39ts 0 applied scientific method to social and political arena 0 3 gov39ts republic monarchy despotism O O O 0 Separation of powers checks and balances Voltaire 16941778 middleclass playwrighte author of pamphlets novels plays letters essays histories o criticized traditional religion for relgious toleration o Deism God is clockmaker who allows it to run according to natural laws Diderot 17131784 condemned Christianity 0 encyclopedia change the general way of thinking more tolerant more humane and reasonable society Toward a New quotScience of Manquot 0 Adam Smith 17231790 founders of economics individuals should be free to pursue economic self interest laissezfaire gov39t should stay out of the economy Gov39t has 3 funtions n Protect society from invasion n defend citizens from injustice a keep up certain public works roads etc The Later Enlightenment o JeanJacques Rousseau 17121778 people had become enslaved by gov39t follow quotgeneral willquot good for community Emile education should foster natural instincts emotions balance between emotion and reason Women were quotnaturally differentquot from men abandoned his children The quotWoman Questionquot in the Enlightenment 0 order stated that women were inferior and male domination was natural necessary and right Maria Winkelmann Germany astronomer Applied for position as assistant astronomer at the Berlin Academy she was denied who feared setting a precedent for hiring women 0 Female thinkers disagreed Mary Wollstonecraft 17591797 founder of feminism Vindication of the Rights of Woman 1792 Rousseau and others said slave ownership and monarchy was 0 wrong to have automatic power but it was acceptable to oppress women Women have reason and are entitled to the same rights as men Culture in an Enlightened Age Baroque still popular but by 1730s Rococo decorating and architectural style spread Grace charm gentle action Curved lines o secular pursuit of pleasure happiness and love High Culture literary and artistic culture of the educated wealthy ruling class 0 Popular culture writtenunwritten culture of the masses 0 in 1700s two cultures were combining middle classes reading women magazines daily newspapers Popular Culture fesitvals Carnival after Christmas to Lent nime of indulgence Economic Changes and the Social Order9132009 41300 AM New Economic Patterns population growth around 1750 better diet plague gone famines gone o better farming climate American crops o cottage industry entrepreneurs outsourced to rural workers to make clothes and textiles and bring them back c 17005 overseas trade boomed France and England dominate France loses Seven Years39 War 1763 and Britian is on top European Society in the Eighteenth Century o Social classes determined by birth 0 Peasants 85 of Europe rural free peasants vs serfs Colonial Empires and Revolution in the Western Hemishpere 9132009 41300 AM The Society of Latin America o Portugal Brazil Spain had Central America most of S America and some of North Am o Latin America multiracial o mestizos offspring of Indians and Spaniards o Mulattoes Africans and whites descendants o The Economic Foundations gold and silver Caribbean and Colombia silver in MX Peru 0 agriculture large landowners left Indians as peons native peasants permanently dependent on landowners or poor farmers on marginal lands 0 Trade raw materials sugar tobacco diamonds gold silver to Europe manufactured European goods to colonies o The State and the Church in Colonial Latin America 0 ruled by viceroys not possible for Europe to have direct control over Americas for Brazil MX Peru New Granada La Plata o creoles Americanborn Europeans o spread Christianity bring Indians together convert teach trades control lives 0 Catholic church hospitals orphanages schools nunneries educated natives and women British North America o Spain challenged by British 0 MonarchParliament shared power Parliament gaining it 0 growing middle class expand world empire Canada India in the Seven Year39s War o The American Revolution 0 Stamp Act 1765 0 Declaration of Independence affirmed Enlightenment39s natural rights of quotlife liberty and the pursuit of happinessquot 0 French soldiers revenge on British served 0 General Cornwallis British surrendered 1781 o Treaty of Paris 1783 recognized independence o Birth of a New Nation O O 0 Articles of Confederation 1781 did not create strong central gov39t 1787 decided to make new constitution Promise to add a bill of rights 1789 derived from natural rights phiosophy Toward a New Political Order and Global Conflict 9132009 41300 AM want enlightened rulers reform must come from above they thought Prussia the Army and the Bureaucracy Frederick II quotThe Greatquot 17401786 educated cultured had Voltaire live in his court believed king was first seant of the state enlarged army watch bureaucracy abolished torture except with treason or murder granted limited freedom of speech and press complete religious toleration kept serfdom and social structure The Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs Empire of different nationalities languages religions cultures Empress Maria Theresa centralized Empire not open to reform Joseph II 17801790 abolished serfdom death penalty established equality before law religious toleration alienated nobility and church successors undid many of his reforms Russia Under Catherin the Great Catherin II 17621796 invited Diderot to speak on political reform but Catherine was skeptical considered equality but did nothing in order to support Russian nobility led to worse conditions for peasants and rebellion killed leader Pugachev and rebellion collapsed territory expansion Enlightened Absolutism Reconsidered Joseph II Austria was the only leader who truly made changes toward reform Catherine and Frederick were all talk Aristocracy still in power Changing Patterns of War Global Confrontation philosophes condemned war but rulers didn39t listen Seven Years39 War Britain Prussia against Austria Russia France Prussia39s strength worn down until Russia pulled out stalemate Treaty of Paris 1963 0 French left India to the British 0 Canada to British 0 Spain gave Florida to British 0 France gave Louisiana to Spain The French Revolution 9132009 41300 AM Background to the French Revolution o Social Structure of the Old Regime o Populations 27 million 0 First Estate clergy some in class of commoners 130000 people owned 10 of land exempt from taile tax 0 Second Estate Nobility 350000 people owned 2530 of land leading positions in gov39t military law church tax exemptions 0 Third Estate commoners 97 of France peasants were 7580 of total pop quotrelics of feudalismquot must pay to use village facilities 8 23 mil were bourgeoisie middle class a merchants industrialists bankers lawyers doctors 0 even nobility were frustrated with old order and opposed it o Other Problems Facing the French monarchy 0 bad harvests manufacturing depressiongt food shortage rising prices for food unemployment 0 near collapse of gov39t finances wars royal extravagance 0 Louis XVI 17741792 meeting the EstatesGeneral reps from all 3 estates double from the third c From EstatesGeneral to National Assembly 0 EstatesGeneral at Versailles May 5 1789 0 3rd estate wants equal representation and gets it June 17 1789 3rd estate declared itself the quotNational Assemblyquot constitution Louis XVI sides with first estate and threatens to use force to dissolve the EstatesGeneral July 14 1789 Stormed the Bastille armory dismantled it led to king39s loss of authority peasant revolts throughout the country Destruction of the Old Regime O O O o National Assembly abolished rights of landlords adopted Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men o Does this include women Olympe de Gouges wrote the Declaration of the Right of Woman and the Female Citizen o Catholic church also reformed quotCivil Constitution of the Clergyquot bishops and priests to be elected o 1791 National Assembly established constitutional monarchy many still unhappy o king attempted to flee but was caught The Radical Revolution o National Convention Sept 1792 abolish monarchygt republic o January 21 1793 king executed o many peasants did not accept the authority of the convention o Austria Prussia Spain Portugal Britain the Dutch Republic and Russia aligned against France o A Nation in Arms 0 Committee of Public Safety Robespierre took control of France 17934 0 French Revolutionary army pushed back allies and conquered Austrian Netherlands o Reign of Terror 0 16000 people guillotined o Lyons o Equality and Slavery Revolution in Haiti 0 slavery abolished 1791 but abolished in 1794 for colonies o 1791 slave revolt St Domingue Toussaint L39Ouverture seized control of all of Hispaniola by 1801 o 1802 Napoleon reinstated slavery in French colonies sent army 0 1804 Haiti announced freedom Reaction and the Directory o unnecessary terror continued because Robespierre became obsessed with purifying state of corruption Robespierre sent to guillotine July 28 1794 o Reign of terror came to a halt new constitution 1795 o Gov39t under the Directory 179599 stagnation and corruption still economic problems o coup d39 tat 1799 military general Napoleon Bonaparte took power The Age of Napoleon 9132009 41300 AM Napoleon brought revolution to an end called himself Son of the Revolution The Rise of Napoleon o born Corsica Italian 1769 militarily educated 1785 lieutenant o read philosophes Rousseau studying military campaigns o Consulate new form of Republic 0 Napoleon first consul 1802 consul for life 1804 crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I Domestic Policies o establish peace with Catholic church o codification of the laws Civil Code rights protected made women less equal than men o centralized administrative machine new aristocracy huge censorship o started good increasingly bad Napoleon39s Empire o France was at war with European coalition of Russia GB and Austria Napoleon39s Grand Army defeated Austrian Prussian Russian armies The Grand Empire 18071812 Napoleon master of Europe 0 The French Empire dependent states and allied states 0 Nobility and clergy lost special privileges sprread revolutionary principles couldn39t overcome British navy Continental System prevent British goods from reaching Europe to weaken Britain system failed 0 others saw French as oppressors o The Fall of Napoleon 1812 invasion of Russia 0 Russians refuse the Continental System 0 Russians refuse to fight keep Napoleon39s army from finding food stop to fight at Borodino French won Moscow on fire abandon and turn back most dead Europeans attack crippled army Paris captured March 1814 Napoleon sent to Elba in exile Bourbon monarcy restored with Louis XVIII brother of Louis XVI O O O O O O
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