Sociology & Soc Problems & Lab
Sociology & Soc Problems & Lab SOC 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Dahlia Altenwerth on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at Hope College taught by Debra Swanson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/222140/soc-101-hope-college in Sociology at Hope College.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Chapter One Basics Sociological perspective stresses the social contexts in which people live Society a group of people who share a culture and a territory Social Location the corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society Origins Emerged middle 1800s ndustrial Revolution ties to land and culture tradition and social life were broken Comte founder of sociology positivism applying the scientific method to the social world Sociologyquot the study of society Spencer second founder of sociology thought societies evolve from lower to higher forms Darwinian quotsurvival of the fittestquot social Darwinism Marx class conflict bourgeoisie vs proletariat solution is a classless society Durkheim got sociology recognized as an academic discipline goal to show how social forces affect people s behavior suicide social integration the degree to which people are tied to their social group people with weaker social ties are more likely to commit suicide Weber capitalism protestant work ethic readiness to invest capital in order to make more money Sexism in 1800s rigid roles minimal education for both genders writing was considered masculine Sociology in N America took root at the Univ of Kansas in 1890 George Mead developed the symbolic interactionist perspective Jane Addams HullHouseopen to people who needed refuge worked to pass 8hr days and child labor laws WEB Du Bois first African American to earn doctorate at Harvard race relations heighted by personal experiences C Wright Mills power elite the top leaders of business politics and the military Applied Sociology uses sociology to solve problems ex National Association for the Advancement of Colored People an application of sociology in some specific setting Theoretical Perspectives theory a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work Symbolic Interactionism analyze how our behaviors depend on the ways we define both ourselves and others individuals evaluate their own conduct by comparing themselves with others Horton how people use symbols to develop their views of the world and to communicate symbols define our relationships self is a changing symbol Functional Analysis functionalismstructural functionalism society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together we need to look at structure and function to understand Merton functions the beneficial consequences of people s actions help keep a group in equilibrium latent functions unintended consequences that help a system adjust latent dysfunctions hurt a system Conflict Theory Marx Feminists equal rights among men and women Levels of Analysis macro largescale patterns of society micro social interaction what people do when they are in another s presence Research Select a topic Define the problem Review the literature already been researched Formulate a hypothesis operational definitions precise ways to measure the variables Choose research method Survey asking people a series of questions select a sample narrow population to the target group you re going to study sample individuals from target group random assignment ask neutral questions must allow respondents to express own opinions types of questions closedended followed by a list of possible answers openended allow people to answer in their own words establishing rapport a feeling of trust Participant Observation Fieldwork researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting Secondary Analysis analyze data that someone else has already collected Documents ex newspapers court records Culture Chapter 2 the language beliefs values norms behaviors and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next learned and shared ways of believing and of doing the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us material culture jewelry art machines etc nonmaterial culture a group s ways of thinking Symbolic culture symbols something to which people attach meaning and that they then use to communicate with one another gestures using one s body to communicate with others without using words Language symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought allows culture to develop by freeing people to move beyond their immediate experiences provides a socialshared past and future the basis of culture reflects and shapes cultural experience SapirWhorf hypothesis reverses common sense it indicates that rather than objects and events forcing themselves onto our consciousness it is our language that determines our consciousness and hence our perception of objects and events valuesnormssanctions values ideas of what is desirable in life norms describe expectations that develop out of a group s values positive sanction expresses approval for following a norm Folkways and Mores folkways norms that are not strictly enforced mores MORErays core values ex stealing is a violation taboo a norm so strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion ex eating human flesh it touches almost every aspect of who and what we are yet we weren t born with them culture shock tendency to use our own group s ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others Cultural relativism try to understand a culture on its own terms Subculture A world within the larger world of the dominant culture Counterculture a group in which some of its values and norms place it at odds with the dominant culture Values in US society achievement and success Chapter 3 Human nature Feral children could not speak bit scratched growled and walked on all fours ate grass were insensitive to pain and cold 1789 Scientist in France took feral child to lab solated children able to conclude that humans have no natural language nstitutionalized children had low le and difficulty forming close bonds with others began to suspect a social cause for mental retardation did experiment but those who were cared for improved their IQ and control group worsened therefore high intelligence is based on close relations with other humans early interaction with others is necessary to establish intelligence and the ability to form close bonds later on Deprived Animals in experiment when scared monkeys went to terrycloth mother not feeding wire mother intimate physical contact results in motherchild bonding the longer the period of isolation the more difficult its effects are to overcome society makes us human babies do not develop naturally into human adults it s through human contact that people learn to be member of the human community socialization process in which society makes us human Socialization into the Self and Mind Charles Cooley looking glass self our sense of self develops from interaction with others Each to each a looking glass Reflects the other that doth pass The looking glass contains three elements We imagine how we appear to those around us We interpret others reactions We develop a self concept we continually modify the self Mead role taking children attain the ability to take the role ofanother gradually at first only able to take the role of significant others parents siblings as self develops children internalize the expectations of more and more people Three stages mitation under three mimic others gestures and words Play three to six pretend to take the roles of specific people Games organized play or team games begin able to take multiple roles Me vs I self as the subject active creative spontaneous part of self Me self as object made up of attitudes we internalize from interactions we cannot think without symbols Piaget Reasoning Four stages to developing reason Sensorimotor birth to 2 understanding is limited to direct contact with environment Preoperational 2 to 7 develop the ability to use symbols Concrete operational 7 to 12 reasoning abilities remain concrete Formal operational after 12 capable of abstract thinking Global aspects stages differ from one person to another stages not as distinct as thought Learning Personality and Emotions Freud Development of Personality founded psychoanalysis personality d inborn drives that cause us to seek selfgratification pleasureseeking Ego balancing force between the id and the demands of society that suppress it and id and superego prevents one from dominating Superego conscience represents culture within us moral component believe are not the primary reason for behavior Emotions Global emotions Paul Ekman concluded that everyone experiences six basic emotions anger disgust fear happiness sadness and surprise and that we all show the same facial expressions Expressing emotions facial expressions dependent on gender culture social class relationships What we feel dependent on culture socialization is essential for our development as humans from interaction with others we learn how to think reason and feel Socialization into Gender by expecting different attitudes and behaviors from us because we are male or female the human group nudges boys and girls into separate directions in life Family experiment mothers subconsciously reward daughters for being passivedependent Peers Media male female and are more likely to be in a highstatus position women athletes receive little coverage Girls have to be skinny and gorgeous but are powerful Video Games college students relieve stress by escaping into video games we learn what to expect of ourselves and another by family which is reinforced in society social inequality Agents of socialization people and groups that influence our orientations to life selfconcept emotions attitudes behavior Family social class working class parents are concerned that their children stay away from trouble use physical punishment why Blue collar bosses tell workers what to do stress obedience dependent on freedom middle class parents focus more on developing children s curiosity self expression and selfcontrol reason with children rather than use physical punishment why At work they take initiative dependent on freedom the neighborhood from poor areas more likely to get in trouble with law pregnant drop out and have mental health problems betterquot areas watch out for children more have less transition religion key component in ideas of right and wrong 65 of Americans belong to a local congregation religious ideas pervade US society providing basic ideas of morality for all Day Care disadvantage more hours in day careweaker bonds with mother more likely to fight mothers away are less responsive to children s emotional needs less sensitive anyway advantages score higher on language tests SchoolPeers elementary separate by sex and develop own worldsnorms boys athletic ability coolness roughness high grades lowered popularity girls family background physical appearance ability to attract popular boys high grades increased popularity influence our behaviors that may even violate social norms Workplace anticipatory socialization learning to play a role before entering it you come to think of yourself in terms of the job llI m a nurse Resocialization learning new norms values attitudes and behaviors to match new situation Total institutions place where people are cut off from society and are under control of officials ex boot camps prison degradation ceremony attempt to remake self by taking away and then replacing current identity ex fingerprinting shaving the head personal identity kits isolated from public
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