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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Monday November 24, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 11/24/14
Human Nutrition 2210 112414 242 PM Week Fourteen Infancy through Adolescence Infant growth and Development Rapid growth rate Weight doubles 4 6monthstriples by 1 year Length increases 50 by end of 1 year Nutrients needed to support proper growth Inadequate nutrition Nutrient Needs High calorie needs rapid growth and high metabolism rate Protein Needs Half should be from essential amino acids Breast milkformula provide sufficient protein Fat Needs Vital to nervous system development Half of the calories supplied by human milkformula comes from fat Vitamin K Routinely given injection at birth Intestinal bacteria then begin to synthesize Other Vitamin Needs Breast fed infants Vitamin D supplementation until consuming enough from other sources Vitamin B12 for infants of vegan moms Mineral Needs Iron stores become depleted 4 6months Introduction of iron fortified solid foods Zinc and Iodide breast milkformula Fluoride supplement 6 monthstooth development Water Needs 0 Fluid 3cupsday via human milk or formula Supplement water may be necessary in hot climate dehydration kidney damage vomitingdiarrhea Babies can easily dehydrate Normally additional water isn39t needed Formula Feeding Cow milk not tolerated Formulas follow strict control guidelines fortified with vitamins and minerals follow label Cow39s milk base formula lactose sucrose whey Soy base formula soy protein Pre digested formula Readiness for solid foods 6 months Why 6 months Nutritional o Replenish iron stores vitamin D Physiological o More mature digestive system increase kidney function Physical o Extrusion reflex disappears better head and neck control ability to sit up Allergy prevention First foods Introduce one at a time Iron fortified cereals rice cereal Strained foods and meats No cow39s milk until age 1 Food Allergies Symptoms diarrhea vomiting rash wheezing Common food allergies egg whites chocolate peanuts cow39s milk What NOT to feed an infant Honey corn syrup highly seasoned foods Excessive formulabreast milk Foods tend to cause choking Cow39s milk Excessive applepear juice Allergenic foods Feeding Problems Low iron diet absence of entire food group drinking raw milk Not drinking from cup by age 1 Continual feeding from a bottle after 18 months Drinking too much juice American Academy of Pediatrics Preschool Children 2 5years Average gain 66bs per year 3 4in per year 0 Slowing growth rate Reduction of appetite nutrient dense foods Promote good eating habits Encouraging nutritious foods Serve new foods repeat exposure Sensitive taste buds wary of new foods One bite rule no thank you bite Prefer crisp textures and mild flavors Teach by example Meal time happy time Nutritional Problems with Preschoolers Iron deficiency anemia Poor oxygen supply to cells Compromised learning abilities lower resistance to disease iron fortified cereals lean meats WIC Dental Cares Start oral hygiene early Avoid stickysugary candy foods cavity Fluoridated water and toothpaste School Age Children 5yr Breakfast fortified cereals Overemphasis low fat diets eating disorders Need nutrition education wise food choices 15 of school age children are overweight or obese 40 of obese children become obese adults 80 of obese adolescents become obese adults Health threat type 2 diabetes heart disease most cancers The teenager Rapid growth spurt age 1013 for girls and 1215 for boys 0 Height growth 10in for girls and 12 in for boys Girls gain fat and lean tissue Boys gain in lean tissue Increase appetitepeer pressure Nutritional Problems of Teens Anorexia nervosabulimia Poor food choices High fatsodium intake Lack of calcium rich foods Iron deficiency anemia Getting Teens to Eat Right Teens are unaware of long term health Recommend smaller portions of high fatsugar foods Larger servings of low fat dairy lean meats veggies fruits whole grains Importance of nutrition on physical performance and fitness Snacking and Teens 14 13 calorie needs met through snacking Common snacks chips candy cola ice cream Snack for socialization not hunger Poor habits move into adulthood increase risk for chronic disease Graying of America People over 65 13 of population 0 Prescription meds hospitalization federal health budget nutritional related problems Nutrient Needs Calorie needs decrease Protein exercise preserve muscle and bone mass Limit fat emphasize complex carbs plenty of fluids mineral and vitamin needs mostly the same Calcium vitamin D iron blood loss zinc decreased absorption magnesium limited intake folate B6 B12 supplements Benefits of Good Nutrition Delay onset of chronic disease Improve current condition and quality of life Decrease hospital stays length More independent Medications Influence Nutritional Needs Impact absorption of nutrients interact Affect appetite increase loss of nutrients Aspirin long term anemia Diuretics leach potassium Alternative Medications Not evaluated by FDA One product at a time keep symptoms diary possible health risks question purity and quantity check with physician Depression elderly Death of loved one living alone decrease appetite poor food choices medications need social support Meal on Wheels Program Alcohol ethanol Moderation 7kacg Guidance moderate drink with meals no driving not when pregnant little benefits for young lower risk for cardiovascular disease 0 No more than 1 drinkday for women and 2 drinksday for men 112414 242 PM 112414 242 PM
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