New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Introduction to Psychology

by: Cornell Jaskolski Jr.

Introduction to Psychology PSY 100

Marketplace > Hope College > Psychlogy > PSY 100 > Introduction to Psychology
Cornell Jaskolski Jr.
Hope College
GPA 3.84

Patricia Roehling

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Patricia Roehling
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cornell Jaskolski Jr. on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at Hope College taught by Patricia Roehling in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/222146/psy-100-hope-college in Psychlogy at Hope College.


Reviews for Introduction to Psychology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/12/15
MODULE 21 Associative learning learning that certain events two stimuli in classical conditioning occur together Classical conditioning a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus US begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus Also called Pavlovian or respondent condition Learning a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Behaviorism the view that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behavior without reference to mental processes Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not 2 Unconditioned response UR in classical conditioning the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus US such as salivation when food is in the mouth Unconditioned stimulus US in classical conditioning a stimulus that unconditionally naturally and automatically triggers a response Conditioned response CR in classical conditioning the learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus CS in classical conditioning an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus US comes to trigger a conditioned response Acquisition the initial stage in classical conditioning the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response Extinction the diminishing of a conditioned response occurs in classical conditioning when a US does not follow a CS Spontaneous recovery the reappearance after a pause sometimes hrs of an extinguished CR Generalization the tendency once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses Discrimination in classical conditioning the learned ability to distinguish bw a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus MODULE 22 Associative learning learning that certain events a response and its consequences in operant conditioning occur together Operant conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher Respondent behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Skinner s term for behavior learned through classical conditioning Operant behavior behavior that operates on the environment producing consequences Law ofeffect Thorndike s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Operant chamber a chamber also known as a Skinner box containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforce with attached devices to record the animal s rate of bar pressing or key pecking used in operant conditioning research Learning a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Shaping an operant 39 in which 39 39 39 U r guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior Reinforcement in operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior it follows increases that behavior Positive reinforcement increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food a positive reinforce is any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response Negative reinforcement increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli such as shock a negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response Primary reinforcer an innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need Conditioned secondary reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce Continuous reinforcement reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs Partial Iquot 39 f 39 f 39 g a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement FOUR SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Fixed ratio schedule in operant conditioning 0C a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses Variable ratio schedule in 0C a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed interval schedule in 0C a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Variable interval schedule in 0C a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals 25 4 Punishment an event that decreases the behavior that follows Cognitive map a mental representation of the they layout of one s environment for example after exploring a maze rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Latent learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Intrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake Extrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment MODULE 23 Learning a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Observational learning learning by observing others Modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so the brain s mirroring of another s action may enable imitation language learning and empathy Prosocial behavior positive constructive helpful behavior the opposite of antisocial behavior MODULE 24 Memory the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information Flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event Encoding the processing of information into the memory system for example by extracting meaning Storage the retention of encoded information over time Retrieval the process of getting information out of memory storage Sensory memory the immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system Short term memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten Long term memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system includes knowledge skills and experiences Working memory a newer understanding of shortterm memory that involves conscious active processing of incoming auditory and visualspatial information and of information retrieved from long term memory MODULE 25 Automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space time and frequency and of welllearned information such as word meanings Effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Rehearsal the conscious repetition of information either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage Spacing effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better longterm retention than is achieved through massed study or practice Serial position effect our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list Visual encoding the encoding of picture images Acoustic encoding the encoding of sound especially the sound of words Semantic encoding the encoding of meaning including the meaning of words Imagery mental pictures a powerful aid to effortful processing especially when combined w semantic encoding Mnemonic memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices Chunking organizing items into familiar manageable units often occurs automatically MODULE 26 Iconic memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli a photographic or pictureimage memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second Echoic memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli if attention is elsewhere sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds Long term potentiation LTP an increase in a synapse s firing potential after brief rapid stimulation believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory Amnesia the loss of memory Implicit memory retention independent of conscious recollection also called procedural memory Explicit memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and quotdeclarequot also called declarative memory


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.