NUCLEAR SYSTEMS LABORATORY
NUCLEAR SYSTEMS LABORATORY NE 447
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jade Bins PhD on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NE 447 at Idaho State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/222175/ne-447-idaho-state-university in Engineering Chemical at Idaho State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Idaho State University College of Engineering Nuclear Engineering Laboratory Report Style Guide For use in NE 443 ThermalFluids Laboratory NE 447 Nuclear Systems Laboratory 10 January 2005 10 WRITTEN LABORATORY REPORTq 11 THE WORD DATA 12 FINDINGS VS WORK PERFORMED 13 NUMBERING AND SPACING 14 DAQ PROGRAMS 15 ACRONYMS 16 FORMAL REPORT GRADING SHEET 17 MEMO REPORT GRADING SHEET ONUIJkJkbww M 20 FORMAL LABORATORY REPORT FORMAT 7 21 INTRODUCTION 7 22 STRUCTURE OF A FORMAL REPORT 7 2 2 1 Title Pace 8 222 Summary 8 2 2 3 Table of C ontents 8 2 24Notation l M 9 2 25 Intr rlmti n 9 22 6 Theory 9 2 2 7 Experimental Method 1 0 2 2 8 Results 1 0 2 2 9 Discussion of Results 1 0 2210 C 39 1 0 2 2 1 1 References 1 0 221214 quot 11 23 FIGURES 12 24 TABLES 13 25 EQUATIONS 14 30 MEMO STYLE REPORTS 15 31 STRUCTURE OF MEMOSTYLE REPORT 15 311 Title orHeaaling 15 3 I 2 Body 1 6 313 Appendix 1 6 32 SIMILARITIES TO FORMAL REPORT 16 40 CONCLUSIONS 17 2 DRAFT 10 Written Laboratory Reports A written report is required for each laboratory experiment All reports must be computer generated Computer facilities are provided thought the College of Engineering for your use Scanners are also available thought the College of Engineering and the University Library Laboratory reports are due at the beginning of the laboratory sessions Although you will perform laboratory experiments in groups and share raw data writing of the laboratory reports is absolutely an individual effort except where stated that a report is a group effort Plagiarism will not be tolerated in any form Late laboratory reports will not be accepted Reports are classified as either formal full reports or memostyle reports Each is described in detail later on in this document The object of your report is that an unguided reader should be able to reproduce the setup the experiment the results and come to the same conclusions 11 The Word quotDataquot The word data is a plural word It refers to more than one the word datum is singular For example The data are conclusive and show or The datum is located 12 Findings vs Work Performed There are two types of reports reports of findings and reports of work performed For a report of findings use present time passive ie third person n0 pronouns For a report of work performed use past time passive For these courses you will write ONLY REPORTS OF FINDINGS Also do not write a story book or history book No one is interested in reading that the student learned that or the lab group setup or then the student decided that etc For example do not write The student connected the strain gage to the Wheatstone bridge Then the student recorded the value in the lab boo Instead write The strain gage is connected to the Wheatstone bridge and the value recorded in the lab boo Generally try to detach yourself from schooloriented project thinking and try to write in terms of a product or project Your boss in the future is not interested in what all went DRAFT 3 wrong in the process of accomplishing a task 7 this might even be information you do not want to confess to without being asked since this may re ect badly on you Rather focus on the product its performance the design the results the conclusions etc Answer all questions posed in the lab manual or lab handout and include in the report Do not write your answer as a Question Answer format Do NOT do this Q What happens when the wires are switched A The voltage polarity is reversed Do this When the wires are switched the voltage polarity is reversed 13 Numbering and Spacing Number every figure table equation section and page Generally the title page does not count towards the page numbers The page numbers before the Introduction Summary and Contents are numbered in lower case Roman numerals The first page of the Introduction is numbered page 1 and proceeds from there Choose one convenient location for the page number for example the lower right comer and be consistent with the placing thereafter Use 15 spacing for the report except for the Summary References and Appendices 14 DAQ Programs LabVIEW is a programming software not a program that takes measurements You use a program that is writtenprogrammed with LabVIEW for your data acquisition DAQ Describe the program and include it in the Appendix Also note how to spell and capitalize the word LabVIEW 15 Acronyms At the first use of an acronym define the acronym Thereafter you may use only the acronym The Summary is a standalone document and must include acronym definitions according to the above rule Then starting with the Introduction you must define all acronyms once more and follow the stated rule DRAFT 4 16 Formal Report Grading Sheet Formal Reports are graded based on the following table FORMAL REPORT GRADING SHEET necessary outcome include pros and cons make suggestions for re engineering and give reasons for why this number or this approach Describe the meaning of the results and your own DRAFT 5 17 Memo Report Grading Sheet Memo Reports are graded based on the following table MEMO REPORT GRADING SHEET your own DRAFT 6 20 Formal Laboratory Report Format In the following the format and structure of a formal technical report is presented The purpose of each section of the report is explained and a method for approaching the writing is given It is hoped that by following these guidelines students will develop good report writing habits from an early stage 2 1 Introduction In addition to the analytical and design skills which you need to become a successful engineer a number of other skills known as transferable skills will be required throughout your career Amongst these communication skills have been identified in a survey as being of primary importance The ability to communicate your ideas or findings to others is as important as the knowledge itself This section will deal with report writing The purpose of a report is to convey information factually brie y and clearly Brevity is important a report is not an essay Clarity is achieved by subdividing the report into headed sections each with a definite part to play There is no single quotbestquot way to present a report The structure here is appropriate to any technical report but may be modified by course organizers for particular types of report The audience for your full report should be a colleague who would be interested in all aspects of the report To get started write down the headings of your report and note brie y what the content of each section is to be Once you have your structure done start working with the section that you feel most comfortable with 22 Structure of a Formal Report There are 11 parts to any formal report and each of these has a different purpose Title Page Summary Table of Contents Notation List when needed Introduction Theory Experimental Method Results Discussion of Results Conclusions References Appendices DRAFT 7 The purpose of structuring a report is to make it accessible to likely readers The purpose of a layout is to enhance the ease with which the reader can nd their way about With currently available word processors it is possible to use a variety of different methods to enhance the report eg bold characters different font sizes for headings and bullet points You will note that the document you are reading now conforms to this layout A brief outline of each section is given below 221 Title Page The title page contains Title of report centered near top Authors centered Date centered Submitted tofor 222 Summary Also known as the Executive Summary or the Abstract In as few words as possible the summary which will head up the report lets the reader know the subject of the report goals of the effort where the information has been obtained and the key findings Difference Between and Executive Summary and an Abstract Executive Summa Not to exceed 3 pages in length the Executive Summary is a short yet informative description of the contents of the report The audience for an Executive Summary is usually the top boss 7 include the project goals key results and findings Also it is ok to include key tables figures etc The Summary is not an Introduction Abstract Sometimes Summaries are called Abstracts Summaries are seldom longer than 100 words Typically an Abstract includes key ndings and results but does not include gures or tables 223 Table of Contents For reports greater than 10 pages in length a Table of Contents should be included Included in the Table of Contents are the Executive Summary or Abstract list of Figures andor Tables all major headings and subheadings References and Appendices If numbers are used in titles then they should also be included Right justify all page numbers see example below Left justify the top heading and indent all subheadings Connect the heading title to the page number with some form of leader usually as shown below DRAFT 8 Summagi of hlethnd Q 4 31 Thermocouple and Resistor 4 2 Light Bulb Filament 9 When your report includes ve or more gures andor tables they may be included in a separate list 224 Notation List When needed or asked for the Notation List should follow the contents section prior to the Introduction List the symbol name and what the symbol stands for and units used for that symbol For example 6 Normal stress NZ mm TW Wall temperature F Symbols are listed alphabetically starting with English letters and then including Greek letters if used 225 Introduction The material which you are about to present in the main body of the report must be set in context Questions the reader will ask will include Why is this work being presented Where does it t in with the World of Engineering How does it relate to other work in the eld What are the aims and objectives of the project Present all relevant background material as well as well as the reasoning for the experiment being performed Do not use the reason as required for the class or something similar Pretend you are an engineer writing to your boss 7 why would they have you performing the work Detail the Objectives of performing the experiment Note an objective is measurable therefore note how you will assess the outcome based on the objectives set 226 Theory Include all necessary information to explain the theory behind the experiments to be performed so that an engineer outside of your eld could understand what you are doing Also include all equations that will be used in the process of analyzing deriving and designing the productreport along with an explanation DRAFT 9 227 Experimental Method Explain in detail the methods used in performing the lab Include all procedures description of setup and equipment so that another person could use your report to reproduce your experiment and results Another person ie another engineer should be able to use the information given in your Experimental Method to completely reproduce your laboratory results without consulting outside information 228 Results Present all results experimental as well as analytical Also include the uncertainty analysis The text of this section should refer to each table or figure and explain what is being presented ethere should be no ambiguity concerning results presented 229 Discussion of Results This is the critical section 7 discuss in detail the meaning or representation of the results Identify any trends conclusions proscons or outcomes Do the results correlate with what was anticipated Why or why not What do the results mean Are the results valid How could the results be improved What are sources of errors Be as detailed as Qassiblel Tie together your report by connecting results with each listed objective Re ect critically on the outcome based on these objectives lessons learned pit falls noted and procedures used List recommendations for improving the design instrumentation methodology etc Note this is an obj ectoriented section not person oriented 2210 Conclusions The conclusions should be a condensed version of the intervening sections giving the key findings of the work It should be closely related to the objectives which were stated in the introduction You should not be presenting new information in the conclusions 2211 References All work sited from a different source other than your own including the intemet needs to be referenced References can be presented in either of two formats 7 however the author of the report should be consistent throughout Parenthetical Style DRAFT 1 In the text the authors and publication date are presented in parentheses as shown below It is well known that the horse comes before the cart Saddler and Wright 1923 In the Reference section the references are listed in alphabetical order according to the last name of the first author as shown below Saddler A and Wright B 1923 quotDesign rules for cartwrightsquot J Horsedrawn Vehicles 26 pp104190 Note that a book or journal has each word beginning with upper case a paper title appears in quotes and does not have capitals and abbreviations are used for common words such as J Journal and Tran Transactions The bold figures indicate the volume of the journal Page numbers should always be noted and given Superscript Number Style In the text the reference is identified by a superscripted number contained within square brackets as shown below References are listed sequentially as encountered in the text the first reference being number 1 and so forth It is well known that the horse comes before the cart3 In the Reference section the references are listed in numbered numerical order 3 Saddler A and Wright B 1923 quotDesign rules for cartwrightsquot J Horsedrawn Vehicles 26 pp104190 Formats for various possible references can be found in any technical writing manual or style guide One possible example is Turabian Kate L 1996 A Manual for Writers of Term Papers Theses and Dissertations Sixth edition University of Chicago Press Chicago 2212 Appendices If there is information which is not of immediate use to the reader or for some other reason is difficult to incorporate in the body of the report then it should be consigned to an appendix Typical appendices include long mathematical derivations or large design drawings but key diagrams should be put in beside the relevant text If more than one Appendix is used then they are numbered consecutively as they are encountered in the text DRAFT H 23 Figures Figures should be numbered consecutive according to their encountered reference in the text ALL gures should be referred to inthe body of the text As an example of a text reference By comparing the temperatures of the series of devices dissipating identical amounts of energy the location of the liquidvapor interface can be found see Figure 2 01 Figure 2 shows an example of the expected results from the series of devices dissipating identical amounts of energy General guidelines for figures include o All figures appear either on the page referenced in the text or on the next closest following page Never insert a figure before it is referenced in the text Figures should appear at either the top of a page with text only below or at the bottom of a page with text only above excluding the figure caption Never wrap text around a figure 7 the figure should encompass the entire width of the document between the right and left margins Regardless of which style is chosen be consistent throughout the document The f1gure s caption is located below the figure and is centered lefttoright if one line or less If more than one line the caption is leftjustified The caption should be written out in sentence form see Figure 2 above for an example The caption should begin with the figure s number for example Figure 2 The caption s font should match that of the text of the report Text and numbering included as part of the figure should be large enough to be easily readable when printed 0 Use computergenerated figures Figure 2 shows an example of a figure and its caption Figures should be numbered separately from tables DRAFT 12 g A 5 resistive device 1 I resistive device 2 in vapor 5 power resistive device 3 E a source resistive device 4 resistive device 5 location of liquidvapor resistive device n 1 hqmd interface hotter device temperature Figure 2 Sketch of a onedimensional liquidvapor interface system using the temperature measurement of selfheating resistive devices along with a sketch of the expected temperature variation between devices in and out of the liquid 24 Tables Tables should be 39 J quot J39 to their A reference in the text ALL tables should be referred to in the body of the text As an example of atext reference Baseline test results for water using large currents are shown in Table 3 or Table 3 shows test results for water using large currents General guidelines for tables include All tables appear either on the page referenced in the text or on the next closest following page Never insert a table before it is referenced in the text Tables should appear at either the top of a page with text only below excluding the table caption or at the bottom of a page with text only above Never wrap text around a table 7 the table should encompass the entire width of the document between the right and left margins Regardless of which style is chosen be consistent throughout the document 0 The table s caption is located above the table and is centered lefttoright if one line or less Ifmore than one line the caption is leftjusti ed o The caption should be written out in title form with the appropriate capitalization see Table 3 above for an example DRAFT 13 The caption should begin with the table s number for example Table 3 The caption s font should match that of the text of the report Text and numbering included as part of the table should be large enough to be easily readable when printed Use computergenerated tables Table 3 Baseline Test for H20 Large Currents The primary difference between the formatting of Figures and Tables is the caption Figure captions are located below and are written in sentence form whereas Table captions are located above and are written in title form 25 Equations Equations are numbered sequentially as they are referred to in the text They are separated from the text by a space above and below The equation is centered between the left and right margins with the equation number rightjustified and appearing in parentheses It is acceptable to locate equations within text Equations may be hand written but with modern word processing programs can be easily included electronically Long derivations should be consigned to an appendix As example Tw Tur v TweT s Tm 2 f2 7 f Tfus 1 rw rrus 21n39rw l39n39rfus and 7T 0T dw 1 dr 7 7 75quot T i 2 0 soIr 0r rw ar dt rm fus dt DRAFT 14 30 MemoStyle Reports In the following the format and layout of a memostyle technical report is presented 31 Structure of MemoStyle Report A memostyle report is not meant to be a full formal report sans individual section titles A memo should be short concise and include only relevant information The memo should be around three pages in length and can include pertinent calculations figures etc in an attached appendix Your audience for a memo should be a boss or colleagues who are interested in reading about your findings without the detail necessary to reproduce your results A memo can be broken down into the following sections 0 Titleheading 0 Body 0 Appendix 311 Title or Heading A memo should include a heading section that contains the following information To to whom is the memo addressed From who wrote this memo Date the date the memo was completed andor submitted Subject a brief oneline title detailing the subject of the memo bP N The following is an example of a memo heading To John Doe Supervisor of the Thermal Experimentation Group From Student W Smarts Date December 15 2004 Subj Results of Flat Plate Free Convection Experiment Start the body ofthe memo here DRAFT 15 The titleheading is located at the top of the first page of the memo Do not place the memo titleheading on a separate firstpage 312 Body The body of the memo is where the main writing takes place Typically start the writing a few lines below the last line of the titleheading The body should contain A short introduction with regard to what information ie experiment is contained within the memo If pertinent a short explanation as to why the work was performed should also be included Include the measurable objectives of the experiment A brief description of what experimentation was preformed as well as a description of the setup The use of figures showing the mechanical and electrical setup and tables showing the list of equipment used is required and may suffice in some situations It is appropriate to place these figurestables in the appendix and reference them from the text A presentation of the results tables gures numbers and an accompanying discussion with regard to their meaning Do not forget to include the uncertainty analysis A sample of all calculationsequations should be included in the appendix A concluding statement that indicates how the experiment and accompanying report meet the objects 313 Appendix Information that is pertinent to the work performed but either occupies too much space or is considered supporting ie calculations etc should be included in an appendix Typically in an industry situation you would have a very limited appendix However for this course make sure that all sample calculationsequations are included in the appendix including uncertainty analysis 32 Similarities to Formal Report With regard to the Formal Report some items in the Memo Report will be identical for example The numbering and format of all figures and tables Reference styles References may be included as an appendix item or they may be shown in a footnote Equation style and numbering Grammar and sentence mechanics DRAFT 16 40 Conclusions Good reporting is as important as good engineering The purpose of the report is to inform the reader Know who your audience is Good layout helps the reader The abstract when included should be a selfcontained guide to the contents The introduction and conclusion should be sufficient to inform the reader of the main outcomes of the report The writing of a report is a straightforward exercise which will occur naturally if the above guidelines are followed Good writing skills are developed through practice and can become a strong asset to your job DRAFT 17 EXAIVIPLE FORMAL LABORATORY REPORT DRAFT Lab 1 Temperature Measurement of a Cryogenic Fluid using A Resistance Temperature Detector RTD October 2 2004 by Student W Smarts ME 443 ThermalFluid Laboratory College of Engineering Idaho State University DRAFT 19 SUMMARY DRAFT 20 TABLE OF CONTENTS DRAFT 21 INTRODUCTION It is a well known that the temperature at which a liquid boils known as the saturation temperature is dependent on the pressure exerted on the liquid Data for various properties can be found in an undergraduate Thermodynamics textbook Cengel and Boles 2002 as well as in specialized thermodynamic property books Reynolds 1979 DRAFT 22 REFERENCES Cengel Yunus A and Boles Michael A 2002 Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach DRAFT 23
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