INTRO TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
INTRO TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Russel Anderson on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Idaho State University taught by T. Letzring in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/222182/psyc-101-idaho-state-university in Psychlogy at Idaho State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Psych 101 Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 1 7 The Evolution of Psvchologv 959 0 gt1 9 What is the current de nition of psychology What is critical thinking and how can it be accomplished What is positive psychology and why is it important to study What are the two roots of psychology and how did they in uence the study of psychology What was the focus of the rst two schools of thought in psychology structuralism and functionalism Who were the schools developed by What is the focus of study in each contemporary approach to psychology biological behavioral psychodynamic humanistic cognitive evolutionary sociocultural Think of a question psychologists might ask such as Why are some children more violent than others and come up with a separate answer that ts each of the psychological perspectives Your answers don t have to be right just make sure they align with the one of the perspectives For example one might answer the question from a biological perspective by explaining that violent children have more of some chemical X than nonviolent children and chemical X causes violence Explain what it means to say that the mind impacts the body and the body impacts the mind Chapter 2 iPsvchologv s Scienti c Method 9 D ID ID ID ID ID I UIAUJNt O NHHHH oxoooxlcx ION LAN What attitudes do psychologists need to have to make them good scientists Describe the steps in the scienti c method What are operational de nitions What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory What is the difference between a population and a sample What are the two main settings in which psychological research is done Describe descriptive correlational and experimental research methods including the advantages and disadvantages of each method What is a correlation coef cient and how can it be interpreted Why can a causeandeffect relationship not be established with descriptive or correlational methods What requirements must be met for a study to be an experiment What are independent variables and dependent variables What are experimental and control groups What does it mean to have statistically signi can results from a research project and why is it also important to calculate and report an effect size What should researchers do to ensure that their research is ethical Based on research what should people do to increase their level of happiness Chapter 8 iMemory What are some study strategies suggested by the supermemorist in the video shown in class and discussed in the book and what are some reasons that these strategies are useful Describe the three fundamental processes of memory and what roles each plays in memory How can the process of encoding be improved De ne the 3 stages of memory according to the AtkinsonShiffrin theory Describe the function duration and capacity of each stage What can be done to improve the capacity and duration of shortterm memory What is working memory Explain explicit and implicit memory How do episodic semantic and procedural memories differ How is information in longterm memory represented and organized Explain the serial position effect including primacy and recency effects and how these effects might affect retrieval 33 34 35 36 37 38 What can we conclude about the retrieval of longterm memories from the 7 Dwarfs demonstration in class what methods were used to test retrieval Describe how context and state or mood can serve as retrieval cues Describe ashbulb memories especially how the differ from regular memories What factors in uence forgetting Explain the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve What can be learned about memory from the case of Clive Wearing How is memory related to aging mental activity and physical activity Chapter 3 7 The Biological Bases of Behavior 3 Describe the four characteristics of the nervous system KO 4 O A N A U A A A ex A 1 A 00 A 0 VI 0 UI N Describe the two systems of the nervous system What are the functions of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems Identify and describe the functions of the following neuron parts cell body dendrites axon myelin sheath Describe the neural impulse Be sure to include the following concepts stimulus threshold action potential allornone principle terminal button synapse neurotransmitters excitatory and inhibitory signals Describe the following neurotransmitter s functions and what happens if there is too much or too little of each neurotransmitter acetylcholine GABA norepinephrine dopamine serotonin endorphins and oxytocin Describe the methods used to study the brain Describe the functions of the following brain regions cerebral cortex amygdala hippocampus pons cerebellum medulla reticular formation hypothalamus and thalamus Explain the organization of the brain into the hindbrain midbrain and forebrain including some basic structures in each part Explain how parts of the body are represented on the cortex especially in the motor cortex and somatosensory cortex Explain lateralization and specialization in the brain hemispheres including how the hemispheres communicate with each other and the basic functions that each hemisphere is primarily in charge of In the inclass video why did the splitbrain patient have trouble giving a verbal description of the object she saw in her left visual field and processed in her right hemisphere How did the experimenters help her to resolve her confusion Explain what it means to say that the brain has plasticity What evidence from research supports this How are genetics and behavior related and how can this be studied 53 Explain how biological processes are related to health and wellness Psych 1101 7 Introduction to General Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide Ch 47 Chapter 4 7 Human Development 8995 N D I D I p m w V J UJNt I ON ND D ID I 00001 N What is development and how do nature and nurture relate to it Brie y describe the debate about the importance of early life experiences Describe the primary changes that occur during each state of prenatal development What physical changes occur during adolescence What factors determine the onset of puberty How does the brain change during childhood and adolescence Describe what it means to say that children have a biological predisposition to learn language What evidence is there to support this idea Describe Piaget s theory of cognitive development Be sure to know what the characteristics of thinking at different stages object permanence symbolic thought egocentric thinking reversible thinking conservation of mass use of logic What are supports and criticisms of Piaget s theory What is resilience and under what conditions are children more likely to be resilient What cognitive changes occur during adulthood What is temperament and what are the 3 broad patterns Based on the book lecture and the video shown in class how can attachment be measured and what outcomes can attachment predict Describe the role of parenting in social development Be sure to explain the four types of parenting styles that are described in the book According to Erikson s theory of psychosocial development what is the basis of the various developmental stages Describe the following stages of Erikson s psychosocial development theory trust vs mistrust identity vs identity confusion intimacy vs isolation and integrity vs despair Describe the three main stages of Kohlberg s theory of moral development How can a person s level of moral development be measured What other factors might affect moral development Explain what gender roles are and two ways to explain where gender differences come from Describe a few of the positive aspects of aging Chapter 5 7 Sensation and Perception 22 3 N N 4 N Ul NN ION NM 000 Define sensation and perception Describe the difference between bottomup and topdown processing and when each type is most likely to be used Brie y describe how sensation works including the ideas of sensory receptors absolute and difference thresholds and subliminal perception Describe the factors that in uence how people perceive sensory stimuli including fatigue expectancy urgencyimportance attention perceptual sets and sensory adaptation Include how this is related to the Cocktail Party effect and the Stroop effect Describe the basics of how the eye receives and processes sensory information Explain how parallel processing and binding are important for visual perception Describe the Gestalt principles that help us determine how people perceive whole pictures Explain the following illusions and how they trick our perceptions Ames Room MullerLyer illusion Ponzo Illusion and the moon illusion Chapter 6 States of Consciousness 30 3 l What are biological and circadian rhythms Describe how the suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN serves as the body s internal pacemaker and the LAM LAN LAMB LA OOC J bu CW 4 Jgtlgt JgtUJ 4 UI De ne consciousness and describe the idea of levels of awareness How are brain waves related to different levels of consciousness role of melatonin in this process What happens when people get out of sync with their circadian rhythms What are some of the functions of sleep What are some theories that are used to explain the purpose of sleep What happens when people are sleep deprived Describe the 4 stages of NonREM sleep and REM sleep Describe the symptoms possible causes when mentioned and treatments of the following sleep disorders insomnia narcolepsy sleep apnea and night terrors What are the 5 basic characteristics of dreaming What parts of the brain are more and less active during REM sleep How can this help us understand the characteristics of dreams Explain some theories of dreaming including Freud s theory cognitive theory the activation synthesis model and the middleground theory What is hypnosis and what are some possible explanations of this state Explain what meditation is and the effects it has on the body Describe the major categories of psychoactive drugs and how they in uence the body depressants stimulants hallucinogens hintlook at the table on p 253 What factors in uence the effects of psychoactive drugs on the body 46 What is the difference between physical and psychological drug dependence Chapter 7 Learning 47 48 4 UI UI N O O UIUI Ullk 57 How can we decrease behaviors without using punishment Explain observational learning and what this tells us about the necessity of reinforcement for UIUI 000 How do psychologists define learning and associative leaming What is classical conditioning and how does it work Provide an example of how an animal or person would learn an association between two stimuli Explain why Pavlov s dogs salivated to the sound of a bell and define the following terms in doing so neutral stimulus unconditioned stimulus unconditioned response natural re ex conditioned stimulus conditioned response and conditioned re ex Define the following terms and explain how they relate to classical conditioning acquisition stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination extinction and spontaneous recovery Identify the UCS UCR CS and CR in the case of Little Albert Provide some examples of when classical conditioning happens in everyday life 53 What is operant conditioning and how did Thorndike and BF Skinner contribute to the study of operant conditioning Describe how acquisition and shaping occur in operant conditioning Describe the various aspects of stimulus control including discriminative stimuli stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination Define positive reinforcement negative reinforcement positive punishment and negative punishment and give an original example of each What are the drawbacks of using punishment to change behavior learning Explain Bandura s Bobo doll study and how this is an example of observational learning 61 What role do the following cognitive factors play in learning purposive behavior expectancy learning insight learning 62 Describe the differences between classical and operant conditioning 63 Explain how biology can constrain learning 64 How can we use the principles of learning to increase our health and wellness
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