New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Brown Gutkowski Sr.


Brown Gutkowski Sr.
GPA 3.9


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Chemistry

This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brown Gutkowski Sr. on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 at Idaho State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/222187/chem-111-idaho-state-university in Chemistry at Idaho State University.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/12/15
Chem 1 1 1 Notes SET 2 Mass and the Periodic Table Russian Chemist MendeleeV arranged know elements in order of atomic mass and with a certain number of elements in each row Doing this he found that elements with similar chemical properties were in Actually need to order by Atomic Periodic Table Rows Columns s or s why Overall metals metalloids nonmetals Main group elements Certain columns have special names 1 Alkali Metals 2 Alkaline Earth Metals 3 Transition Metals 4 Halogens 5 Noble Gases Why do you suppose atoms in the same family are chemically similar Arrangement of their Atoms combine bond together to form molecules Structures of the molecules compounds are represented by a structural formula a condensed structural formula and or molecular formula Consider Acetic Acid Structural formula Condensed formula Molecular formula Two basic types of compounds different types of bonding Ionic Compound metal nonmetal Molecular Covalent Compound nonmetals and metalloids Nomenclature depends on this Start working on Nomenclature Ionic Compounds versus Binary Molecular Compounds Acid Organic Compounds Flow Chart Organic Compounds carbon containing Before we talk about electrons the glue for a chemical bond consider nucleus and its changes Radiation small particles or light emitted from sample Common radiation particles is a fast electron Positron is a emission is the release of a helium nucleus no electrons what is the charge Radioactive Decay How and why does a nucleus emit More than naturally occurring isotopes are stable and the rest are not arti cially made isotopes that are radioactive TO BE STABLE Lighter elements Heavier elements require more to stabilize the nucleus Magic 2 8 20 28 50 82 and Neutrons Protons of stable isotopes Even Even Even Odd Odd Odd No stable nuclides with atomic number greater than 7 Technetium and Promethium z 43 and 61 If neutron to proton ratio is such that the nucleus is not stable the nucleus emits radiation Overhead If the nucleus has excess neutrons it can stabilize by converting proton to electron Beta Emission In Beta emission the Beta particles are emitted from the nucleus and the proton stays in it Conversion of a neutron to a proton and emitted electron changes the identity of the atom Why quotAlchemyquot Making gold out of other substances Consider Unstable Phosphorous32 nucleus When this unstable molecule is converted to sulfur32 its stability is achieved Emission of Beta particle l decay results in nucleus with same mass but different atomic which has increased by l Balancing nuclear Eqns 1 Sum ofquotmass squot on both sides of eqn must be the same 2 Sum ofquotAtomic quot on both sides ofthe eqn must be the same 3 Remember the quotmass and atomic For 5 particle at particle positron 7 emission Example Iodine139 is a beta emitter What product results when it emits Another Example What nucleus could undergo i decay to the only stable nucleus of gold Alpha emission can occur as well What product is formed in the alpha decay of Uranium238 Summary We ve examined fundamental particles which make up atoms We know protons gives identity neutrons gives isotope same protons electrons cation anion relative to protons Atoms combine bond together to form molecules Structures of the molecules compounds are represented by a structural formula a condensed structural formula andor a molecular formula Structural Formula Condensed structural formula Molecular Formula Two basic overall types of compounds depend on types of bonding Ionic Metal plus Nonmetal or Cation plus anion Electrostatic attraction in the bond Molecular or Covalent Compound Nonmetals bonding together form this compound Nomenclature depends on whether the compound is ionic or covalent and a few other factors Nomenclature Factors 1 ionic 2 Binary Molecular 3 Acid 4 Organic contains C See the Nomenclature Flow Chart for further information We will investigate the different types of bonding in terms of the electronic nature of the atoms which are coming together The part of the atom involved in a chemical reaction is Hint Physicists have been known to call chemists this Consider our picture of the atom to this point What does Li look like How about Sodium of electrons in shells 2 8 8 18 etc What about the halogens F Cl Br I What about the noble gases Why the term noble gas These electronic quotshellsquot explain the ionic bonding in NaF NaFgtNaF39 or inC12 C1 Cl gt Clz This was one of the theories of electronic arrangement Test it Further Test Based on the Relationship of Light and Matter How can light de ne the arrangement of electrons in an atom Demo What is light Newton vs Huycrens Particle vs wave Both convey information Wave lambda wavelength nu frequency of waves passing a given pttime for light c lamba nu or more generally v 7 v Einstein and the photoelectric effect Light is quantized as photons Ephmon h v hc 7 About this same time emission of light from hydrogen was being studied Bohr theorized the following arrangement Perhaps the Energy of the Electrons in the Orbits was related to the frequency of the light emitted Get at energy by looking at the forces on the electron Fe q6 q6 r2 the electrostatic force is balanced by the movement of the electron in the orbit the centrifugal acceleration 2 2 2 Fmamvre r Had to assume that only certain radii were allowed in order to explain the EMISSION SPECTRUM in terms of the energy of an electron in certain orbit Found that E was En RHn2 RH Rydberg constant 2180 X 1018 where n is the orbit The radius of the orbit is only allowed to have certain values as well rn Absorption and Emission for Hydrogen Energy of an electron in orbit depends on which orbit Orbits delineated by number n Absorption light causes electron to move to a higher orbit Emission electron falls from higher orbit to lower causing emission of a photon For Hydrogen The nl state is the lowest energy state and if an electron is in an quotexcited statequot it will Example drop from n3 to n2 or from n3 to nl Emit Energy in the form of a photon Delta E A E change in energy A E h Vphoton En final En initial E1ow Ehigh Negative value for AE indicates photon emitted V photon the frequency of a photon cannot be negative Absorption electron goes from lower to higher energy state AE h V photon Efinal Einitial Ehigh E1ow Positive value for A E indicates that the photon is absorbed Note that A is always nal initial Example Calculate the wavelength of the photon absorbed in the transition of an electron from n2 to n3 level Is A E or Extend idea to other atoms as we saw Could explain families BUT Energies of Atomic Emission Lines were not working out About this time Davidson and Germer Electrons Diffracted Particles have wave properties DeBroglie Relationship p hk 7 hp p mv V velocity STRANGE TIMES New NonNewtonian Mechanics Quantum mechanics Schrodinger Eqn 1 2 is the probability of an electron being in a certain region of space Probability Cloud Solution to Schrodinger Eqn for the hydrogen atom gives several allowed solution for each with a set of quantum numbers So solutions are Pnylymlyms n is similar to the Bohr Quantum s lP17070712 is different than szlyogZ different orbit different region of space or some other electron property n 1 m1 n1S are quantum s The quantum 3s tell which state the electron is in The quotstatesquot were derived for the electron of Hydrogen Atom Consider what n 1 m1 and n1s tell us and what values of these Quantum s are allowed 1 11 Principal quantum relates to the overall energy of the electronic state and the distance of an electron from the nucleus the quotsizequot of the atom Electrons which are in electronic states with the same n are said to be in the same shell or level n can be nl23 2 l Angular momentum Quantum Relates to the shape of the electronic state Distinguishes subshells or sublevels of a given level n by their shape Subshells may have the same n but different 1 quantum numbers 1 can only have values from 0 to nl Different subshells are usually denoted by letters Letterspdfg l 0 l 2 3 4 To denote a subshell in a particular shell write the value of the n quantum for the shell followed by the letter designating the subshell Y21 2p Can I have a 3f subshell A 3d 3 m1 is the magnetic Quantum relates to orientation in space and denotes exact quotorbita quot electron occupies Allowed values are integers l to 1 for subshell orbitals l 0 s m1 0 llpm1l0l 3 different orbitals corresponding to a p subshell overhead 2px 2Py 2P2 LP211 L1 21 1 1 210 Orbitals speci ed by same n amp l have different m1 values orientation in space but same energy and general shape Note that there are 21l orbitals in each subshell p has how many orbitals m1 values Only two electrons per orbital 4 n1s spin quantum refers to two possible orientations of the spin of the electron n1s can be 12 or 12 for given values ofn 1 m1 Permissible values of Q nlm1 ms subshell of orbitals notation in subshell 1001212 200 211 210 2 3 3 Remember Derived for Hydrogen Atom Ground State is Problems in the 2039s Ground state is lowest energy con guration Electron in lowest energy orbital How do we expect the orbitals to be arranged in terms of their energy Overhead Notequotnquot quantum alone determines energy So gmd state is Fine for Hydrogen can we extend it to manyelectron atoms can we extend it to many electron atoms Point of new model Answer is a quotguardedquot yes But energy of the manyelectron orbital no longer depends only on the principal quantum but also on the shape so 1 Mendeleev39s arrangement of the element in periodic table based on observed chemical properties Elements in same family have similar chemical properties Now explain the periodic table arrangement in terms of the electronic structure or the atoms The structure is de ned by where electrons exist which is given by I znylymlyms so n 1 m1 n1s quantum s For many electron atom how are they distributed in possible orbitals Atomic Electronic Con guration a particular distribution of the electron in the available subshells HlsHe quotGround statequot electronic con guration is a distribution where the electrons are alranges so that How can I get the ground state con guration l Aufbau principle Building up principle Atomic Electronic con guration is determined by successively lling up subshells with electrons according to the energies minimal energy orbitals lst Figure Order of lling ls 2s How do I know this ordering Memorize it or look at the Periodic Table See Table g Examples 2 Exceptions have to do with a half lled or fully lled shell These arrangements have extra stability Cr Cu Mo Ag overhead Au Abbreviated Notation noble gas core written in brackets followed by electron con guration outside the noble gas core Be ls2 2s2 or He 2s2 Pseudo Noble Gas Core why use it Noble gas core with nl d10 So why do elements in the same family react similarly Orbital Diagrams Used to show how the orbitals of the subshell are actually occupied by the electrons Rules 1 Only TWO 39239 electrons are allowed in each orbital 2 Electrons in the same orbital same n 1 m1 quantum MUST have different n1S values Spin of electron in the same orbital must be opposite 3 Up arrow in orbital indicates electron has n1s 12 spin up down arrow indicates spindown n1s 12 Examples B 152252213 ls 2s 2p N Hund s rule Only after all orbitals are halffilled do electrons quotpairupquot So Hund39s Rule gets you the Ground State lowest energy orbital diagram Pauli Exclusion Principle Says that Only two electrons are allowed in an orbital and they must have opposite spins 20 Excited States Orbital Diagram Two ways for excited state 1 pair up electrons rather that spin parallel Violate Hunds 2 put electron in higher energy orbital Consider C a b c ls 2s 2p paramagnetic has unpaired spins and weakly attracted in magnetic eld diamagnetic has paired spins not affected by a magnetic eld Valence Electrons An electron in an atom outside the noble gas or pseudo noble gas core Valence Electrons involved in bonding Account for similarities of chemical properties Main group elements have valence shell con gurations nsa npb Transition elements d subshell is being lled Inner transition metals Summary the periodicity of the periodic table is explained by the ground state electronic con guration Knowing the electronic con gurations Can predict three properties of atoms 21 size ionization energy and electronegatiVity electron affinity 1 Trends in size n tells most about size size increases with increasing atomic number in a family moving across a row from left to right n same but more protons in nucleus Down a family or group size Across a row period size Overhead figure 2 Ionization Energy Ionization act of pulling an electron out of an atom 3s Li ls22s1 gt Li1s2 e39 Electron in the atom as Li is more stable than Li e39 15 7 Ionization energy energy required to pull an electron out Values quoted for lmol of atoms 6022 X 1023 atoms 22 23


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.