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by: Leanne Becker


Marketplace > Idaho State University > Geoscience > GEOL 406 > ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY
Leanne Becker
GPA 3.83


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leanne Becker on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 406 at Idaho State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/222189/geol-406-idaho-state-university in Geoscience at Idaho State University.




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Date Created: 10/12/15
Glussarytn Ennrunrriental GenlngyAO S lnf7 z b e W l h w h HO ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY GEOL 406506 Glossary of useful Terms 1 Abiotic not living 2 Absorption the penetration ofatoms ions or rnolecules into the bulk rnass ofsubstrate Acdimau39on time elapsed before onset of detectable biodegradation t 3 i ofa contaminan 4 Acid compound with tendency to donate protons hydrogenions H 5 Acidic high concentration activity of free protons 5 Activity e ective concentration Norrnally e ective concentiation in due environment 7 Adsorp on the retention ofatorns ions or molecules on the sur ce ofanother substance 3 Advec on the process oftransfer of uids through a geologic formation in response to a pressure gra ent 9 Aeration the process ofbringing air into contact with aliquid 10 Aerobic with oxygen 11 Aliphatic ofor pertaining to a broad category ofcarbon compounds distinguished by a straight or branched open chain arrangernent ofthe constituent carbon atorns The carboncarbon bonds may be either saturated all available sites are involvedin bonds or unsaturated Alhanes alhenes and alkynes are aliphatic hydrocarbons 12 Anaerobic without oxygen 13 Anisotropic the condition in which hydraulic properties ofthe subsur ce are unequal when rneasured in all directions 2151004 Glossary to Environmental Geology 406506 2of7 14 Aquifer a geologic formation capable oftransmitting signi cant quantities of groundwater under normal hydraulic gradients 15 Aquitard a geologic formation that may contain groundwater but cannot transmit it at any signi cant rate Aquitards frequently act as con ning formations 16 Aromatic of or relating to cyclic organic compounds 17 Attenuation natural attenuation the reduction or lessening in amount of a contaminant usually used to refer to natural processes 18 Autotrophic quotselffeedingquot Refers to organisms that are able to make their own biological molecules form inorganic chemicals and an energy source 19 Background concentration naturally occurring concentrations of compounds of concern 20 Base compound with tendency to donate free hydroxide ions OHN 21 Basic 21 high concentration activity of hydroxide ions 22 Bioassay method for determining compound toxicity 23 Bioaugmentation inoculation addition of acclimated nonnative microbial species to a site 24 Bioavailability availability of a compound to degrading species 25 Biodegradability the relative ease with which chemical species will degrade will degrade as a result of biological metabolism 26 Biodegradation the biologically catalyzed enzymatic destruction of a compound through reduction in complexity of the molecule The ideal goal is to completely mineralize the contaminants 27 Biomass the amount of living matter in a given area or volume 28 Bioremediation using biological degradation to treat waste sites 29 Biotic living 30 Borehole hole drilled into the subsurface for soil sampling or placement of a well 8152004 Glossary to Environmental Geology 406506 3of7 31 BTEX Benzene Toluene Ethyl benzene and Xylenes 32 Bulk density the ratio of unit mass to unit volume of soil 33 Capillary fringe upper level of the water table which is of variable height 34 Condensate the liquid that separates from a vapor during condensation 35 Cone of depression area around a pumping well where the water table has been arti cially lowered 36 Confining layer a geologic formation characterized by low permeability that inhibits the ow of water 37 Diffusion the passive movement of a species from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration 38 Dispersion movement of a substance away from its source 39 Down gradient in the direction of decreasing head 40 Drawdown lowering the water table via pumping of groundwater 41 Effluent outgoing leaving the source 42 Entrained particles or vapor transported along with owing liquid or gas 43 Equipotential areas of equal hydraulic head 44 Equipotential lines imaginary lines water table contours connecting areas of equal hydraulic head Together they create a potentiometric surface a map of the subsurface water table 45 Evaporation the process whereby liquid enters the gas phase 46 EXsitu environmental medium in a different place than its original location 47 Extraction well a well used to remove substances from the subsurface 48 Field capacity water holding capacity the maximum amount of water a soil can retain against gravity This is the same as plant available water 49 Flow net 21 set of equipotential lines that indicates the direction of 8152004 Glossary to Environmental Geology 406506 4of7 groundwater ow 50 Free product petroleum or petroleum products in excess of 001 ft in thickness oating on surface water or groundwater 51 Gasoline analytical group aviation gasoline gasohol and motor gasoline or equivalent petroleum products 52 Gradient the rate of change in value of a physical or chemical parameter per unit change in position 53 Groundwater water in the subsurface within the zone of saturation or phreatic zone 54 Grout seal A mixture of clay and0r cement in water poured between borehole and well casing Forms a protective seal 55 Henry39s law constant the ratio of the concentration of a compound in vapor to the concentration in liquid at a given temperature and pressure 56 Heterogeneous varying in structure or composition 57 Heter0tr0phic organisms that derive carbon and energy for growth and maintenance from the breakdown of organic matter 58 Homogenous uniform in composition or structure 59 Hydraulic conductivity a coef cient of proportionality describing the rate at which water can move through a permeable medium 60 Hydraulic gradient the change in potentiometric peizometric head between two points 61 Hydraulic head the potential for a uid to ow it is an energy potential and can be pictured as quotelevationquot of the water table 62 Hydrocarbon chemical species composed of carbon and hydrogen only 63 Hydrophillic tending to dissolve in water Hydrophillic species will generally dissolve into the groundwater and be transported with it in the same phase 64 Hydrophobic tending not to dissolve in water Hydrophobic compounds generally form a separate nonaqueous phase when put into contact with water picture a glass of oil and water 8152004 Glossary to Environmental Geology 406506 5of7 65 In situ environmental medium left in its original location 66 Indigenous naturally occurring 67 In ltration movement of uids from surface through the unsaturated zone or vadose zone into an aquifer 68 In uent incoming 69 Injection well a well used to inject a pressurized uid into the subsurface 70 Inlet well a well through which a uid enters the subsurface under normal pressure 71 Lipophilic quotfatlovingquothydr0ph0bic 72 MCLs Maximum Contaminant Levels 73 Mineralization complete conversion of organic matter to inorganic matter Such as the breakdown of petroleum hydrocarbon molecules resulting in water and carbon dioxide end products only 74 Moisture content the amount of water lost from a soil with drying and expressed as a unit ratio 75 Monitoring well a well used to detect the presence of free product or to collect samples 76 Nonaqueous phase liquid NAP L contaminants that have very low solubility in water and tend to remain in a separate bulk phase in the subsurface 77 Nutrients elements and compounds that are necessary for growth of organisms 78 Offgas treatment system unit operations used to treat waste gas streams 79 Permeability the amount of hydraulic conductivity resulting from pore space alone 80 Phreatic zone the saturated zone or water table 81 pH acidity or bascicity level 8152004 Glossary to Environmental Geology 406506 60f7 82 Piezometer a temporary well used to determine the direction of groundwater ow 83 Plume the portion of the subsurface that is contaminated extending away from the source of pollution 84 Polyaromatic hydrocarbon aromatic hydrocarbon with more than one fused benzene ring 85 Pore volume porosity total volume of pore space in a given volume of soil 86 Pressure gradient a pressure differential in a given medium 87 Radius of in uence the maximum distance away from an air injection or extraction source that is signi cantly effected by a change in pressure or ow rate of air 88 Recalcitrance resistance to degradation 89 Recharge the annual amount of moisture that is returned to an aquifer 90 Redox oxidatior reduction 91 Residence time the amount of time a compound remains in a particular environmental compartment 92 Saturated zone zone of saturated conditions in the subsurface also known as the water table or phreatic zone 93 Soil moisture water retained in the pore spaces of the vadose zone 94 Solubility amount of a substance that can dissolve in a given medium 95 Sorption adsorption plus adsorption 96 Sparge injection of air below a water table to strip dissolved volatile organic compounds and0r oxygenate groundwater to stimulate microbial decomposition of contaminants 97 Speci c gravity ratio of density of a substance to the density of water 98 Speci c retention amount of moisture retained by soil after gravity drainage 99 Speci c yield amount of moisture yielded by a soil under gravity 8152004 Glossary to Environmental Geology 406506 drainage 100Surfactant Surface Active Agent 101 Total petroleum hydrocarbons the concentration of all petroleum species in a given sample or environmental compartment 102 Total volatile organic aromatics the sum concentrations of BTEX 103Transmissivity ability of a material to permit passage of a uid through its interior 104Unsaturated zone the portion of the subsurface above the water table also known as the vadose zone 105Vadose zone the unsaturated zone 106Vapor pressure pressure exerted by a vapor against a medium solid liquid or other gas with which it has attained equilibrium 107Volatile organic compounds VOC organic compounds with high volatility that will generally pass into the vapor phase at normal temperatures and pressures 108Water table the saturated zone 109WeII hole drilled into the subsurface to reach groundwater 110WelI casing steel or PVC pipe typically inserted into a well to prevent borehole collapse 111Well pack sand or gravel pack placed in a well screen that acts to prevent plugging of the screen 112WeIl screen part of the well casing which is slotted in the zone of interest and allows uids to enter the well 7 of7 8152004


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