Popular in Precolonial Africa
Popular in History
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Date Created: 11/24/14
11172014 European Settler Colonialism in Southern Africa 0 Overview 0 Dutch were sent to S Africa in the 1600s to set up a new Dutch society in the area This area was conducive to European settlement because of its Mediterranean climate making yellow fever and malaria much less prevalent there Colonization results in destruction absorption or displacement of indigenous Khoisan groups 18quot century Expansion of Dutch colony results in growing conflicts with indigenous groups Growth and centralization of many of these indigenous groups results in further tension 19quot century Natural and manmade events cause turmoil shift from high annual rainfall to a prolonged period of drought intensifies competition for resources British takeover of the colony results in conflict between Dutch settlers and British colonial gov The Khoisan The Dutch and the Making of a Colonial Society in the 17quot and 18quot centuries O Vasco de Gama finds the Cape of Good Hope and learns that Africa can be circumnavigated in order to reach India Makes this a very important trading station for cargo vessels Indigenous groups In the east the AgroPastoralists were both farmers and herders who kept to the eastern coast where higher rainfall allowed the keeping of crops and cattle The western part was home to Transhumant Pastoralists economies revolved around seasonal herding along with hunting and gathering Proximity to deserts in the area gave less rainfall could not support cereal agriculture Carefully timed the grazing times for their cattle so that they would not over graze their livestock and would give the environment time to recover o It was these Khoisan with whom Europeans were trading with By the 17quot century the British and Dutch were both trading with them for cattle to eat on the trading voyages At first this was a mutually profitable agreement 0 By the mid 17quot century the Dutch East India Company wants to regularize and control the prices of the trade and set up a trading post called Cape Town in 1652 At first it was supposed to only be a trading post with a minimal garrison to upkeep it however the Khoisan did not cooperate in the way the Dutch wanted them to The landscape also appeared empty of people and rich in cattle available to their settlement Ignored the fact that these lands belonged to the Khoisan societies 0 Started giving lad to soldiers who were sent to guard the settlement Was the beginning of the creation of a permanent and agricultural colony In only a few years the once peaceful trade with the Khoisan devolved into violent takeover and economic inequality The Dutch stopped offering iron for cattle for fear that the iron would be used against Dutch settlers rather that trade the Dutch began to just raid and steal cattle from the Khoisan o 1659 the first of two Dutch Khoisan wars Two large groups of Khoisan speakers allied to attack Cape Town but after several months of stalemate had to come to peace negotiations with the Dutch Truce negotiations point out the logical arguments that the Khoisan bring to the table The Khoisan say that if they were to go to Holland they wouldn t be allowed to act in the way that the Dutch were acting in S Africa The Dutch decided to ignore them anyway and decided that the Khoisan lost the land they had been fighting for This was now a colonial mission and the Dutch were going to expand their power Begin playing Khoisan groups against other Khoisan to eliminate potential alliances 0 Cape Town 17quot C Boer s means pesant or farmer becomes the cultural and ethnic lable for Duct colonists in the area Dutch encouraged immigration and by the end of the 17quot C the population was around 1000 Slavery was an important part of the colony 200300 slaves imported from Mozambique Madagascar and Indonesia representing the extent of the Dutch colonial empire New language of Afrikaans appears in the 18 century A combination of Dutch Bantu Khoisan and Malay languages o 18quot century trekbore expansion Means Journey peasant As the Dutch trekked into the interior they began to adopt the pastoralist tendencies of the Khoisan who had been there before Continually traveling and searching for new grazing lands for their livestock Lived constantly out of oxdrawn covered wagons Trekboers were similar to the Khoisan in their nomadic lifestyle but were different in the facts that they had guns and horses which could be used against the Khoisan living in the area Small Pox epidemics brought by the Dutch decimated the Khoisan population Those who survived responded through resistance tried to slow down Dutch expansion through guerrilla warfare others tried to move out of the area further north towards the deserts in the north and get away from the Dutch Others still became hunters working with the Dutch frontiersmen as hunters and guides however there is still much tension between the Boers and Khoisan in these areas The third option was to attach themselves to the Boer society by becoming an actual part this was the best option for the hundreds of children left orphaned by Dutch raids and epidemics They become a class of indentured servants learn Afrikaans wear Dutch clothing but are very much a subservient class Trekboers displaced andor absorbed the Khoisan in the western part of the region 0 Eastern expansion By the mid 18quot C the Boer expansion reaches east in addition to the northern expansion Brings them into conflict with the Bantu speaking agro pastoralist groups The agro pastoralist groups were experiencing a massive growth of their society due to the cultivation of a new crop in addition to millet and sorghum maize which was introduced to many African areas after the Columbian exchange It is more calorically dense and productive than other food crops and resulted in massive population growth Many of these groups thus began organizing themselves around being suppliers in addition to farmers Prolonged era of growth and expansion in eastern S Africa by the time the Dutch began moving that way These African groups were not as easily mowed over as the Khoisan had been Produced a culture of raid and counterraid between the Boers and the Africans Leads to a series of short but violent frontier wars in the eastern part of the region 0 Cape Colony at the end of the 18quot C Continued growth of Dutch settlers Made up of 3 groups 21000 European settlers from various areas 25000 slaves from the Indian Ocean trade and a small but unrecorded amount of adopted Khoisan British Colonial Policy in the 19quot Century 0 Napoleonic Wars 18031815 British become concerned about the strategically valuable Cape Town falling into French hands during the war The colony passes between Dutch and British hands 3 times from 17951814 Finally becomes British in the Anglo Dutch Treay of 1814 o 2 key issues shape British policy Boer expansion Wanted to keep the peace and were not trying to turn this into a culturally British colony just a strategic colony for resupplying their navy The British would defend Boer communities against raids by Xhosa Nguni etc when necessary but recognized that the African raids were a result of Boer raids Generally discouraged further Boer expansion Slavery Leads to further tension between Boer settlers and colonial gov Britain took over the colony just as they were throwing their hat in with the abolitionists The abolition of the slave trade in British colonies effective since 1807 would be enforced in every colony including Cape Town No longer access to the slave trae leads to the Hottentot Code which tried to augment this labor shortage by forcing Khoisan to live in specific places and keep a pass stating their job and who they worked for and were permanently attached to land that they worked Reduced all Khoisan to bondage 0 British policy on slavery in Cape Town a move towards abolition 1828 ordinance 50 Overturned much of the Hottentot code Restored Khoisan rights to move freely and choose employers Revoked pass requirement Abolition of the slave trade did not improve conditions within slave plantations in European colonies 1838 Abolition of slavery throughout the British Empire 0 Slavery and the slave trade now totally illegal Did not sit well with the Dutch Boers Rise of the Zulu Kingdom 0 Nguni speaking group Arguably the most famous of all historical African societies Known for Shaka who violently resisted European colonialism o Shaka Zulu 17871828 and his rise Two competing chieftains in the SE region of S Africa in the Mthwethwa Confederation Maintained economic prosperity by controlling ivory trade with the Portuguese Shaka emerged as a young wariior who impressed Dingiswayo the leader of the Confederation and became his heir after the kings son died Shaka inherited the kingdom and ruled for a decade before being assassinated by his half brother During his reign he was able to organize the Zulu state into a major military power in the region 0 Shaka s impact Extreme militarization Organized the young men into full time professional army regiments Required the men to stay in the army until they were 30 Celibacy required while in the army created total warriors with nothing to lose New military tactics full body shield stabbing spears in addition to throwing spears The Mfecane and the Great Trek 0 Mfecane Nguni means The Crushing Called Difaqane Sotho and Tswana the Scattering o Shaka replaced by his brother Dingane in 1828 Under Dingane s leadership the Zulu started their main resistance against European encroachers Dingane was used to Europeans but unhappy that these Europeans were coming from the west looking for land rather than from the sea looking for Uade o Voortrekkers left the Cape Town colony and tried to move into the Zulu homeand The movement was a protest to a number of policies passed by the British such as the abolition of slavery and the passing of Ordinance 50 Boers bought into slavery on a basis of racial hierarchy In this way everyone regardless of whether or not they owned slaves was supportive of the slave system because it kept them pure 0 The Retief Manifesto was a document justifying the massive movement by the Voortrekers out of the Cape Town colony Reference the ability of vagrants Khoisan to move about freely as one reason for their leaving They were angered about the emancipation of their slaves Want to reserve a social order that would keep the European superior to the Africans Promise to respond to any violence perpetrated on them with more violence Want to govern themselves separately from the British Motives of manifest destiny say they are going with god into the wild territory 0 The wild territory was Dngane s Zulu territory 0 The voortrekers knew the consequences of their leaving and expect to be in a situation where they would have to defend themselves The Zulu asked the Boers to earn their spots on Zulu land by fighting the Lesthoto who had recently raided the Zulu They do but after the defeat of the Lesthoto the Boers In 1838 Dingane invited the Boer leaders to his capitol where after a great feast he ordered the massacre of the Boer leaders Dingane hoped that this would play on the tensions between the Boers and the British however the British support the Boers rather than the Zulu Last battle between Boers and Zulu comes on Dec 16quot 1838 The Zuu s had begun to fragment and a Boer leader named Andries Pretorius attacked the Zulu the Boers circled their wagons into a sort of fort Around 500 Boers defeated thousands of Zulu warriors The battle date was a holiday until the end of apartheid Dingane died during the battle and Pretorius became the new ruler of the Zuu39s homeland Slaves and Ivory in East Africa 11192014 0 Slavery and African Slaves in the Muslim World 0 Two ways a person could legitimately be enslaved under Islamic doctrine O NonMuslims captured in holy war jihad Children of those already enslaved could be born into slavery However just because slavery could be hereditary did not mean that it always was 0 Muslims encouraged manumission legal freedom to enslaved individuals Masters who fathered children with their slaves often took this route 0 Islam encouraged allowing slaves to earn money to purchase their freedom Islam required owners to treat slaves kindly and provide for their religious instruction Slaves who converted to Islam were considered spiritual equals Religious conversion did not alter the slaves political status but helped to facilitate a cultural assimilation of the slaves Majority of slaves in the Muslim world were women to serve as concubines and domestic workers Purchased about 2 females for each male purchased 0 Among males eunuchs were sought after as guards and royal administrators Kinless people were expected to be more loyal as they had no one else to be attached to In this way eunuchs were seen to be the most loyal males 0 Non castrated males were used a soldiers If they didn t die in wars they could earn their freedom especially if they worked their way up the military ladder They were also used as manual laborers on various plantations and in salt and other mines o Manumission and castration create a drain on the slave population in the Islamic world which led them to go out and find infidels in ready supply on the east coast of Africa 0 Growth of TransSaharan Red Sea and Indian Ocean Slave Exports in the 19quot Century 0 Egypt invades Sudan in 1820 Historically Nubia Sudan had been a quasi independent state in alliance with Egypt Paid a slave tribute to the Egyptians Muhammad Ali Pasha 17691849 r 18051848 oversaw Egypts independence form the weakening Ottoman Empire Redoubled efforts to assert Egyptian dominance over the Nile Valley Launched his invasion in 1820 and what had been a tributary relationship became military occupation and export of slaves Increased trade in the Indian slave trade a result of this invasion 10s of thousands of people are transported out of Sudan through TransSaharan and Indian Ocean trade routes The modest flow became a torrent 0 Spread of Brazilian Slave Trade into the Indian Ocean Growth of plantation slavery in Brazil The Brazilians took advantage of the French and British withdrawals from the slave trade left more for Brazil This led to an increase in plantations of sugar and coffee in Brazil Pressure form the British navy made slaves from Atlantic African ports more expensive For the first time therefore it made more economic sense to go around the Cape of Good Hope and find areas not under British scrutiny 0 Development of Plantation Slaver in Indian Ocean Islands Two in particular the Seychelles and Mascarenes Islands off Africa39s east coast French develop sugar and coffee plantations on these islands in the 18quot century because they had similar climates to the Caribbean Islands They had volcanic soil and tropical climate Provided a means to expand the Caribbean plantation system When the French lost Haiti they focused on these islands instead 0 Arab Omani Empire and Plantation Slavery in East Africa Led into the area by Portuguese expeditions The Portuguese at first only set up trade posts in order to get involved in the East African Gold trade Eventually started sacking the cities and built Fort Jesus the first European fort built to withstand cannon fire outside of Europe Built it like this because they feared other powerful states in the Indian Ocean notably the Omani Portuguese eventually controlled the towns but never controlled the land or sea routes of the area 0 Influenced the political culture They displaced Swahili elites and replaced them with friendly leaders 0 Eventually the Portuguese presence began to whither on the Swahili Coast and it became clear that a strong state could expel them In the latter half of the 17quot century some Swahili elite ask the Omani to invade the Swahili coast which the Omani did and expelled the Portuguese from important areas of the coast Omani control brought 2 key developments 0 New increase in Muslim influence and culture on the Swahili coast 0 Omani presence also opened it to increased slave exports from the coast Omani s main export was dates grown on plantations which were to be worked by slaves The Omani gov encouraged immigration to the Swahili coast and est a permanent residence at Zanzibar requiring that all trade conducted around the coast go through Zanzibar Omani influence became more entrenched in the 19quot century Ruler at the time was Said bin Sultan AISaid Made two important moves 0 Moved the capitol to Zanzibar from which the entire empire was governed Established an alliance with the British Empire who were using their naval power to est themselves as the dominant traders in the Indian Ocean 0 Religious and cultural tensions underlie already existing political tensions between the Omani and the Swahili Swahili were not as pious as the Omani and for fear of the tensions boiling over he wanted a powerful ally to support his rule 0 British wanted to bolster their control of the Indian Ocean trade Wanted to curtail the slave trade to India 0 AISaid agrees to the Moresby Treaty making it illegal for Muslims to sell slaves to Christians Treaty allowed Oman to continue selling to the Islamic world Recognizing that the Omani would have trouble relying on the slave trade for economics if they were allied with the British AI Said decided to focus on new exports other than slaves such as ivory and cloves 0 Ivory was a very sought after commodity in the Western middle class who wanted to be consumers 0 Cloves were expensive because they were only cultivated in SE Asia up until this point AISaid began giving out land for plantations on Zanzibar using slave labor to produce the cloves 0 Many of the slaves that had once been out of East Africa were now being kept there By 1840s there were German and French companies trading Ivory on the coast in addition to the British and Americans 0 Slave and Ivory trade Across Central Africa Specific groups of African traders emerged during this time to control the trade routes from which slaves and ivory were sent to the coast Before the 19quot c combat was alright of passage for boys becoming men In the 19quot c caravans replace this tradition as proof of ones masculinity
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