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by: Carly Rasmussen

EnlightenmentModernismandPostmodernism.pdf ENGL1701

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Foreign Language > ENGL1701 > EnlightenmentModernismandPostmodernism pdf
Carly Rasmussen
U of M
GPA 3.93
Modern Fiction
Professor Goldberg

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Modern Fiction
Professor Goldberg
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Rasmussen on Monday November 24, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL1701 at University of Minnesota taught by Professor Goldberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see Modern Fiction in Foreign Language at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 11/24/14
Enlightenment Modernism and Postmodernism 1 Literary Analysis a We are not limited solely to the dominant scholarly thought of the time in which the text was produced b Postmodern perspective dominates current scholarly analysis draws from all three C Literary analysis does not exist in a vacuum free of or separate from the dominant cultural perspectives of the scholarly milieu in which the scholar is participating 2 Modernism a Movement in the visual arts music literature and drama which rejected the old Victorian standards of how art should be made consumed and what is should mean i More specific than postmodern analysis ii High modernism 19101930 major figures of modernist literature helped radically redefine what poetry and literature could be and do b Literary Modernism i An emphasis on impressionism and subjectivity in writing and in visual arts an emphasis on how seeingreadingperceiving takes place rather than on what is perceived 1 Stream of conscious writing ii Movement away from the apparent objectivity provided by the omniscient third person narrators fixed narrative points of view and clear cut moral positions 1 Faulkner s multiply narrated stories iii Blurring of distinctions between genres so that poetry seems more documentary and prose seems more poetic 1 T S Elliot e e cummings Joyce Woolf iv Emphasis on fragmented forms discontinuous narratives and random seeming collages of different materials V A tendency towards re exivity or selfconsciousness about the production of the work of art so that each piece calls attention to its own status as a production as something constructed and consumed in a particular way Vi A rejection of elaborate formal aesthetics in favor of minimalist designs and a rejection in large part of formal aesthetic theories in favor of spontaneity and discovery in creation 1 Poetry of William Carlos Williams Vii A rejection of the distinction between high and low or popular culture both in choice of materials used to produce art and in methods of displaying distributing and consuming art C Works of art can provide the unity coherence and meaning which has been lost in most of modern life art will do what other human institutions fail to do 3 Postmodernism a Emerged as an area of academic study in the mid 1980 s i Art architecture music film literature sociology communications fashion and technology b Rejects boundaries between high and low forms of arts and rigid genre distinctions i Emphasizes pastiche parody bricolage irony and playfulness ii Re exivity selfconsciousness fragmentation discontinuity deconstructed decentered dehumanized subject C Different from modernism modernism presents a fragmented view of human subjectivity and history but presents that fragmentation as something tragic that should be lamented as a loss while postmodernism celebrates this incoherence 4 Enlightenment a Principles i Stable coherent knowable self conscious autonomous universal no physical conditions or differences affect how the self operates 1 Sigmund FreudCarl Jung unconscious can t know psyche ii Self knows itself and the world via reasoning and rationality highest form of mental functioning and the only object form iii Mode of knowing by the objective rational self is science which can provide universal truths about the world regardless of the individual status of the knower 1 Knowledge produced by science is trut 2 Always lead to progressperfection 3 Able to explain all human institutions and practices analyzeimprove them by reason and objectivity iV Reason is the ultimate judge of what is true and therefore what is rightgood legal and ethical 1 Freedom consists of obedience to the laws that conform to the knowledge discovered by reason 2 In a world governed by reason the true will always be the same as the good and the right beautiful there can be no conflict between what is true and what is right V Science stands as the paradigm for any and all socially useful forms of knowledge vi vii Science is neutral and objective scientists those who produce scientific knowledge through unbiased rational capacities must be free to the study the laws of reason not motivated by other concerns Languagemode of expression used in productiondissemination of knowledge must also be rational 1 To be rational language must be transparent function only to represent the realperceivable world which the rational mind observes 2 Firm and objective connection between signifier and signified objects of perception and the words used to represent them b Principles justify and explain all of our social structuresinstitutions democracy law science ethics and aesthetics C Modernity is fundamentally about order create order out of chaos creating more rationality is conducive to creating more order the better it will function d Modern societies constantly on guard against disorder Binary opposition between orderdisorder to assert superiority of order Modern societies continually have to construct disorder Western culture disorder becomes the other defined in reaction to other binary oppositions 1 The other not part of dominant culture must be eliminated from ordered rational modern society 2 Jim ees from Western culture into the wild 5 Francois Lyotard 19241998 a Equates stability with the idea of totality or a totalized system Reality is the total system everything fulfills its role b Maintained in modern society through the means of grand narratives and master narratives that justify the culture to itself America s grand narrative Democracy is enlighteneddemocratic form of government and leads to universal human happiness Marx s grand narrative Capitalism will fall allowing the worker to have a utopian socialist world C Meta theory or meta ideology philosophy explaining why the belief systemsphilosophies exist d Lyotard argues that all aspects of modern societies including science primary form of narrative depend on these grand narratives Postmodernism critique grand narratives the awareness that such narratives serve to mask contradictions


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