Gen Psychology PSY 101
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Psychology 101 Notes Defining Psychology Scientific study of behavior and mental processes Key terms Science Behavior Mental Processes Psychological Frame of Mind Psychologists approach life questions as scientists Attitudes of scientific approach critical thinking curiosity skepticism objectivity Science of All Human Behavior Not just about psychological disorders diverse field understanding truths of human life in all its dimensions includes people s best and worst experiences Careers in Psychology Clinical 24 Industrial 12 Academic 34 Private Practice 22 Schools 4 Other 4 Structuralism Wilhem Wundt 18321920 German philosopherphysician First psychology laboratory 1879 Identify elements or structures of mental processes introspection Functionalism William James18421910 American psychologist and philosopher Identify purposes or functions of the mind Why is human though adaptive Natural flow of thought or stream of consciousness Evolution amp Natural Selection Charles Darwin18091882 British Naturalist Natural selection is adaptive and functional Nature favors traits that promote reproduction and survival Successful characteristics become dominant Contemporary Approaches Biological Behavioral Psychodynamic Humanistic Cognitive Evolutionary Sociocultural Biological Approach Focus on brain and nervous system Neuroscience Structure function Behavioral Approach Emphasis on observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants Notable Behaviorists John B Watson BF Skinner Psychodynamic Approach Emphasis on Unconscious Conflict between biological drives and society Childhood early family experiences Founding father Sigmund Freud Humanistic Approach Emphasis on Positive human qualities Capacity for positive growth Freedom to choose any destiny Notable Humanistic Psychologists Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Cognitive Approach Emphasis on mental processes involved in knowing How we direct attention perceive remember think solve problems Evolutionary Approach Use of evolutionary ideas Adaption Reproduction Natural Selection Sociocultural Approach Examination of ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior Focus on comparisons of behavior Scientific Method Observation Choose a variable phenomenon studied by scientists anything that can change Develop a theory idea that attempts to explain observations seeks to explain why something happened can be used to make predictions Scientific Method Hypothesis Formulate a hypothesis educated guess derived from theory Scientific Method Research Establish an operational definition objective description of variable how will variable be measured Collect and analyze data number crunching what do data mean Scientific Method Conclusions draw conclusions is theory supported should theory be changed Evaluate conclusions publication and review ongoing research process Types of Psychological Research Descriptive research Finding out about some variable Correlational research discovering relationships between variables Experimental research Establishing causal relationships Correlational Research Examining whether and how variables are related and change together Correlation and Causation Correlation does not Causation Experimental Research Random assignment formation of groups using chance Random assignment helps establish causation Independent variables 9 manipulated Dependent variables 9 measured Experimental groups experience manipulation Control groups serve as baseline for comparison Experimental Research Validity External Validity do experimental results apply or generalize to real world Internal Validity Are changes in dependent variable due to independent variables Experimental Research Bias Experimenter Bias Demand characteristics Research Participant Bias Placebo effect doubleblind experiment Research Settings Laboratory Research Control but with some drawbacks Naturalistic Observation Real world setting APA Ethics Guidelines informed consent confidentiality debriefing deception Nervous System electrochemical communication circuitry billions of interconnected cells neuroscience neuroscientists Nervous System Pathways Afferent Nerves Efferent Nerves Neutral Networks Nervous system divisions nervous system central nervous systemperipheral nervous system9brainspinal chordsomatic nervous systemvoluntaryautonomic nervous 39 y 39 nervous 39 g 39 nervous systemcalming Nervous System Stress llFight or Flight Reaction Function of Sympathetic Nervous System Corticosteroids Stress hormones Acute stress is momentary Chronic stress is continuous Nervous System Cells Neurons Nerve cells Information processing Glial cells Support Nutritional Benefits Neurons Structure Cell body Contains nucleus Neural Impulse Resting PotentialStable negative charge of inactive neuron Action potential Brief positive electrical charge or firing Abides by allornothing principle Can we measure the speed of neural transmission 2 groups shoulder tappers ankle tappers signal must travel longer distance in ankle tappers extra 45 feet per person everything else cancels out difference in timeextra distance 45 people feet per second 973 feet per second Synapses and neurotransmitters Synapses space between neurons Neurotransmitters stored in synaptic vesicles within terminal buttons chemical signals which allow electrical impulses to cross synaptic gaps Neurochemical Messengers Neurotransmitters are excitatory inhibitory or both Acetylcholine Stimulates firing of neurons involved in action of muscles learning memory Alzheimer disease Ach deficiency Gamma aminobutyric acid keeps many neurons from firing anxiety low levels of GABA U r39 r39 in inhibits firing of neurons in CNS excites heart muscle intestines urogenital tract depression too little norepinephrine Agitated manic states too much norepinephrine Dopamine helps to control voluntary movement Serotonin involved in regulation of sleep mood attention learning Depression lowered levels of serotonin Endorphins natural opiates that mainly stimulate firing of neurons shield body from pain elevate feelings of pleasure Oxytocin hormone and neurotransmitter important role in experience of love and social bonding Drugs and neurotransmitters drugs influence behavior mainly by interfering with neurotransmitters Agonist drug that mimics or increases effects of neurotransmitter Antagonist drug that blocks effects of neurotransmitter Studying the brain brain lesioning determines effects of brain tissue disruption on behaviors Staining dyes neurons for tracking neural Brain imaging fMRI 9 brain function Organization of the brain hindbrain adjacent to top part of spinal cord midbrain rises above hindbrain forebrain uppermost region of the brain Forebrain thalamus and basal gangalia thalamus serves as relay station for information Forebrain cerebral cortex 4 lobes occipital loveback temporal lobesbottom frontal lobesfront parietal lobestop Cerebral Hemispheres corpus callosum large bundle of axons connecting brain s Cerebral Hemispheres Corpus Callosum Large bundle of axons connecting brain s two hemispheres relays information two sides Left Hemisphere Receives information from right side of body Language processing such as speech and grammar Right Hemisphere Receives information from left side of body processing nonverbal information Endocrine System Endocrine System set of glands that regulate activities of certain organs Glands organs or tissues that create chemicals that control bodily functions Hormones Chemical Endocrine System Pituitary gland controls Brain damage Plasticity and Repair Collateral Sprouting Axons of healthy neurons adjacent to damaged cells grow new branches Substitution of Function Damaged region s function is taken over by another brain area Neurogenesis New neurons are generated Brain Tissue Implants Brain grafts Implants of healthy tissue into damaged brains Stem Cells primitive cells with capacity to develop into most types of human cells Genetics and Behavior Chromosomes Threadlike structures containing DNA The Study of Genetics Selective Breeding Genetic method use to demonstrate importance of genetic influence on behavior Sensation and Perception Sensation Process of receiving stimulus energies from external environment Processes BottomUp Processing Information about external environment 9Sensory receptors 9 brain making sense of information TopDown Processing Starts with cognitive processing at higher levels of brain Sensory Receptors and the Brain Sensory Receptors Specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory nerves and brain Afferent nerves to brain Efferent to body Sensation Photoreception detection of light perceived as sight Mechanoreception detection of pressure vibration and movement perceives as Confused Senses Synesthesia one sense induces experience in another sense Phantom limb pain reported pain in amputated arm or leg Thresholds Subliminal Perception Detection of information below level of conscious awareness what is detectionquot Difference Threshold just noticeable difference Degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before difference is detected Weber s Law Principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage to be perceived as different JND just noticeable difference Weber fractions light intensity 0079 sound intensity 0048 finger span 0022 lifted weight 0020 line length 0029 tastesalt 0083 electric shock 0013 teghtsoonian 1972 Perception of Sensory Stimuli Attention Selective cocktail party effect Shiftable novelty size color movement stroop effect Perceptual set Predisposition or readiness to perceive something a particular way Other Perceptual Phenomena Sensory Adaptation a change in responsiveness of sensory system based on average level of surrounding stimulation Extrasensory Perception ESP perception in absence of concrete sensory input Parapsychology Scientific study of ESP Absence of empirical data for existence of ESP The Visual Stimulus Light form of electromagnetic energy wavelength 9 hue or color amplitude 9 brightness purity 9 saturation or richness Structure of the Eye Sclera white outer part of eye helps maintain shape of eye Visual Processing Feature Detectors neurons in primary visual cortex that respond to particular features of a stimulus Parallel Processing 39 of39 across different neural pathways Binding integration of what is processed by different pathways or cells Color Vision Trichromatic Theory Three types of cones sensitive to different but overlapping ranges of wavelength Support includes color matching color blindness Color Vision OpponentProcess Theory Afterimages Sensations that remain after stimulus is removed not explained by trichromatic theory explained by opponentprocess theory Visual system treats colors as complementary pairs conclusion both theories are correct Perceiving Depth Ability to perceive objects threedimensionally Binocular cues 9 combined images from two eyes disparity convergence Monocular cues 9 available from image in one eye familiar size height in field of view linear perspective and relative size overlap shading texture gradient Perceiving Motion Retinas of humans cannot detect movement neurons specialized to detect motion feedback from body environment rich in cues real movement apparent movement Chapter 4 Consciousness William James amp Stream of Consciousness Levels of awareness higherlevel of consciousness lowerlevel of consciousness altered states of 39 39 no Sleep Biological Clocks Desynchronizing the Biological Clock Can get thrown off regular schedules jet travel changing work shifts insomnia Resetting the Biological Clock bright light melatonin Why do we sleep restoration adaptation growth memory Sleep Deprivation Lack of sleep is stressful Stages of Wakefulness and Sleep Massive electrophysiological changes occur throughout the brain Beta waves Reflect concentration and awareness highest in frequency lowest in amplitude more desynchronous Sleep stages 1 and 2 Stage 1 drowsy sleep myoclonic jerks or sudden muscle movements EEG characterized by slow highamplitude theta waves Stage 2 decreased muscle activity no conscious awareness of environment theta waves interspersed with sleep spindles Sleep stages 3 and 4 Characterized by delta waves slowest and highest amplitude brain waves referred to as delta sleep the deepest sleep Bedwetting sleep walking sleep talking REM sleep Rapid eye movement sleep Active stage during which dreaming occurs fast wave activity similar to relaxed wakefulness likely plays a role in memory nonREM sleep 9stages 1 through 4 Sleep Cycles one sleep cycle 5 stages of sleep 90 to 100 minutes Sleep and the Brain Reticular Formation Core of brain stem distinct patter of neurotransmitter activity during each sleep stage plays crucial role in sleep and arousal Neurotransmitters involved in sleep serotonin epinephrine acetylcholine Sleep and Disease stroke and asthma obesity and heart disease immune system and infection cytokines mental disorders depression Alzheimer disease stroke and cancer Sleep disorders insomnia sleepwalking sleep talking and sleep eating nightmares night terrors sudden arousal from sleep intense fear narcolepsy sudden overpowering urge to sleep bowler sleep apnea individuals stop breathing and awaken to breathe better Dreams Freud Dreams symbolize unconscious wishes Cognitive theory dreams as subconscious cognitive processing lack of attention to roles of brain structures and activity in dreaming activationsynthesis theory dreams as result of synthesis of neural signals Addiction Psychoactive drugs increase dopamine levels in brain s reward pathways ventral tegmental area nucleus accumbens activation of limbicpleasure sensors Drug Classes stimulants depressants hallucinogens Psychoactive Drugs Stimulants Caffeine Nicotine Amphetamines uppers Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens Also called psychedelic drugs marijuana actually hard to classify since marijuana has stimulant depressant and hallucinogenic qualities MDMA ecstasy LSD lysergic acid diethylamide Speed of Action Drugs that produce quick physiological reactions tend to be the most addictive Opponent process Every psychoactive substance involves the body working against the drug to maintain homeostasis Taking a stimulant will activate the opponent process where the body will depress systems to llget ready for the effect of the drug Familiar surroundings will act as cues to start this process Doing drugs in a novel environment will not start this opponent process Accidental overdoses Unrelated but cool opponent process illusion Hypnosis Altered state of consciousness Psychological state of altered attentionexpectation Nature of hypnosis The Four Steps Minimizing distractions maximizing comfort concentration on something specific information about what to expect in hypnotic state suggestion of events or feelings already occurring Explaining Hypnosis Hypnosis as a Divided State of Consciousness Hidden Observer Social Cognitive Behavior View of Hypnosis Cognitive Factors Attitudes expectations beliefs Social Context Meditation Attaining peaceful state of mind Mindfulness Meditation For depression panic attacks anxiety For chronic pain stress psoriasis Meditative State of Mind Hypnogogic reverie 9Feeling of wellness Increased activation in basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex Decreases in anterior cingulate Learning and Behaviorism Learning Systematic relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience Behaviorism Theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors Discounts importance of mental activity Types of Learning Associative Learning and Conditioning Classical Classical Conditioning Reflex Automatic without prior learning Unconditioned stimulus UCS Unconditioned Response UCR Learning Association after pairing of stimuli Conditioned Stimulus CS Conditioned Response CR Classical Conditioning Extinction Weakening of CR when UCS is absent Spontaneous Recovery Recurrence of CR after time delay without further conditioning Classical Conditioning in Humans Explaining and eliminating fears Watson amp Rayner Little Albert Counterconditioning Systematic Densitization Explaining Pleasant Emotions Aversive Conditioning Classical Conditioning in Humans Placebo Effect Immune and Endocrine Systems mmunosuppression Taste Aversion Learning Drug Habituation Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning Based on involuntary responses Operant Conditioning Explains voluntary behaviors BF Skinner Consequences change probability of behavior operant behavior Consequences contingent on behavior Operant Conditioning Thorndike s Law of Effect Positive outcomes strengthen behavior negative outcomes weaken behavior The Skinner Box Controlled conditions to study operant conditioning Operant lever press by rat 9Consequence food Shaping rewarding approximations of desired behaviors Principles of Reinforcement Reinforcement INCREASES probability of behavior Positive r 39 of 39 39 U pleasant Negative Reinforcement Removal of something unpleasant Primary Reinforcer innately satisfying Secondary reinforcer Acquires positive value through experience Principles of Reinforcement Generalization performing reinforced behavior in different situation Discrimination responding to signal that behavior will or will not be reinforced Extinction behavior no longer reinforced decreased in frequency Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Behavior is reinforced every time it occurs Partial Reinforcement Reinforcer follows behavior only a portion of all the time Partial Reinforcement Schedules Ration number of behaviors vs Interval time elapsed Fixed predictable vs Variable unpredictable Punishment Punishment decreases likelihood of behavior Positive punishment Presentation of something unpleasant Negative Punishment Removal of something pleasant example time out Operant Conditioning Timing Immediate vs Delayed Reinforcement Waiting for delayed but more highly valued reinforcers Immediate vs Delayed Punishment Immediate more effective but delayed can have effect Immediate Reinforcement vs Delayed punishment Immediate consequences usually win Applied Behavior Analysis Also called behavior modification use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior all human behavior is understood as being influenced by rewards and punishments Bandura s Observational learning Also called imitation or modeling learning when behavior is observed and imitated vicarious reinforcement amp vicarious punishment Cognitive Factors in Learning Purposive Behavior Tolman behavior is goaldirected Expectancy Learning and Information Latent Implicit Learning Unreinforced learning not immediately reflected in behavior Studey Rats in a maze Cognitive Factors in Learning Insight Learning Kohler Problem solving in which sudden insight or understanding occurs Thinking lloutside the boxquot Studies of Apes llstick problem llbox problem Duncker Candle Task Biological Constraints in Learning Structure of an organism s body Permits certain kinds of learning inhibits other kinds of learning Instinctive Drift Tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning Preparedness Speciesspecific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but no others Memory Retention of information or experience over time Processes Encoding Storage Retrieval Memory Encoding Process by which information enters memory storage Some information enters automatically Other information requires effort Attention Deep processing Elaboration Use of mental imagery Attention To begin memory encoding must pay attention Selective Attention Focusing on specific aspects of experience while ignoring others limitation of brain s resources Divided Attention Attending to several things simultaneously quotMultitaskingquot Mnemonic Device using imagery Peg Word System One is a bun two is a show three is a tree four is a door five is a hive six are sticks seven is heaven eight is a gate Use of Mental Imagery Powerful encoding tool verbal code image code DualCode Hypothesis memory for pictures better than memory for words pictures stores as both image and word Memory Storage How information is Retained over time represented in memory Atkinson Shiffrin Theory Sensory Memory Holds information in sensory form for an instant Shortterm Memory Limitedcapacity memory system information retained for up to 30 seconds without strategies to retain it longer loss of STM chunking grouping information into higherorder units rehearsal conscious repetition of information Let s chunk some more A stitch in time saves nine don t take any wooden nickels absence makes the heart grow fonder accidents will happen truth is stranger than fiction no rest for the wicked life s not all beer and skittles hell hath no fury like a woman scorned Working Memory Alternative approach to explaining shortterm memory Working Memory Alternative approach to explaining shortterm memory Threepart system to hold information temporarily Phonological loop briefly stores speechbased information Visuospatial working memory stores visual and spatial information central executive Longterm memory Relatively permanent memory Stores huge amounts of information for long time Explicit memory episodic memory semantic memory implicit memory procedural memory classical conditioning priming Explicit Declarative Memory Implicit nondeclarative Memory Nonconscious recollection of skills and sensory perceptions Procedural Memory memory for skills Classical Conditioning Memory for associations between stimuli Priming activation of information already in storage Memory Organization Schema preexisting mental concept or framework to organize and interpret information script schema for an event Connectionism parallel distributed processing theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons Memory Location Neurons memory located in specific sets or circuits of neurons neurotransmitters play a role in forging connection longterm potentiation Brain structures explicit memory 9hippocampus temporal lobes limbic system Implicit memory 9cerebellum temporal lobes hippocampus Memory Retrieval When information retained in memory comes out of storage Serial position effect tendency to recall items at beginning and end of lists primacy effect 9better recall for items at beginning of list recency effect 9better recall for items at end of list Memory Retrieval Factors retrieval cues retrieval task Recall memory task to retrieve previously learned information Recognition memory task to identify or recognize learned items Memory Retrieval Encoding specificity principle information present at time of learning tends to be effective as retrieval cue ContextDependent memory remembering better when attempting to recall information in same context in which it was learned Memory Retrieval Flashbulb Memory memory of emotionally significant events often recalled with vivid imagery Memory for traumatic events may contain inaccuracies or distortion in details Repressed memories defense mechanism by which person traumatized by an event forgets it and then forgets act of forgetting may be special case of motivated forgetting Eyewitness Testimony May contain errors typically memory for emotional events focus on distortion bias inaccuracy Chapter 7 The Cognitive Revolution Cognition way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering thinking and knowing Shift away from behaviorism in 1950 s computer analogy for human cognition and brain artificial intelligence Cognitive Approaches seeking to explain observable behavior by investigating mental processes and structures that cannot be directly observed Thinking Manipulating information mentally Concepts Problem solving Reasoning and decision making Thinking critically and creatively Expertise Concepts Mental categories used to group objects events and characteristics Allow generalization allow association of experiences and objects aid memory provide clues about how to react to particular object or experience Prototype model comparison of item with most typical item in category Problem Solving Finding appropriate way to attain goal which is not readily available find and frame problems develop good problemsolving strategies subgoaling algorithms and heuristics evaluate solutions rethink and redefine problems and solutions ProblemSolving Strategies Subgoaling setting intermediate goals defining intermediate problems Algorithms strategies that guarantee solution to problem heuristics shortcut strategies that suggest solution to problem Obstacles to problem solving Fixation using prior strategy Failing to look at problem from fresh new perspective Functional fixedness failure to solve problem due to fixedness on usual function of something Failure to llthink outside the box Reasoning and Decision Making Reasoning Mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions Inductive reasoningfrom specific observations to generalizations Deductive reasoningfrom general case to specific instance Decision Making Evaluating alternatives and choosing among them Biases in Decision Making Confirmation Bias tendency to search for and use information that supports ideas rather than refutes them Hindsight Bias Tendency to report falsely after the fact that outcome was accurately predicted Heuristics in Decision Making Rules of Thumb Availability Heuristic prediction about possibility of events based on recalling or imagining similar events base rate fallacy tendency to ignore information about general principles in favor of very specific but vivid information Representativeness Heuristic Tendency to make judgments about group membership based on match or group stereotype Thinking Critically Thinking reflectively and productively Evaluating Evidence Mindfulness Being alert and mentally present for everyday activities OpenMindedness Being receptive to other ways of looking at things Thinking Creatively To think about something in novelunusual ways To devise unconventional to problems Divergent Thinking Producing many solutions to same problem brainstorming Convergent Thinking Producing single best solution to problem Creative thinkers do both Intelligence Cultures vary in ways they define intelligence Allpurpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks to solve problems to learn from experience Measuring Intelligence Validity extent to which test measures what it is intended to measure Reliability Extent to which test yields consistent reproducible measure of performance Standardization Uniform procedures for administering and scoring Norms or performance standards for test IQTests Mental Age Individual s level of mental development relative to that of others Cultural Bias in IQTesting Culturally biased tests have favored people From urban rather than rural environments Of middle rather than low socioeconomic status Who are white rather than African American CultureFair tests intelligence tests intended to be culturally unbiased include questions familiar to all groups Genetic Influences on Intelligence Genetic Markers Locations for intelligence on chromosomes 4 6 and 22 Heritability Proportion of observable differences explained by genes Approximately 75 for intelligence Increases with age due to choice of environments Statistic providing information about group not individual Can change over time and across groups Environmental Influences Impact of enriched environments and opportunities on intellectual ability Flynn Effect Phenomenon of rapidly increasing IQ test scores May be due to rising levels of education or other environmental factors Intelligent behaviors always an option n I u Extremes of 39 high 39 quot39U andor superior talent in some area Product of both heredity and environment Mental Retardation Condition of limited mental ability low IQ Difficulty adaption Theories of Multiple Intelligences Sternberg s Triarchic Theory Analytical intelligence Creative Intelligence Practical Intelligence Gardner s Multiple Intelligences Verbal Mathematical Spatial Bodilykinesthetic Musical Language Form of communication based on system of symbols Infinite Generativity Ability to produce endless number of meaningful sentences Basic Properties of Language Phonology sound system Morphology rules for word formation Syntax rules for combining words into phrasessentences Semantics meaning of words and sentences Pragmatics ability of language to communicate more than said Exa m Language Development over Life Span Babbling Endlesst repeating sounds and syllables Sorting through sounds for ones with meaning First words Twoword statements Learning second language sensitive periods 54 questions Couple questions from videos REM disorder don t get paralyzed Rusty the narcoleptic dog Manifest Content list of contents of the dream Latent Content hidden meaning of unconscious Opponent process body gets ready for intake of drugs Classical Conditioning Pavlov unconditioned stimulus followed by unconditioned response US food UR salivate to food CS bell CR salivate to food Operant Conditioning Thorndike s Law of Effect if gotten a reward for behavior will repeat behavior Shaping slow steps to get subject to perform task Kid standing on chair Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Ratio every 15 tries get a reward Variable Ratio on average every 15 tries get a rewardsometimes more sometimes less Variable Interval on average every 15 minutes get a rewardsometimes more sometimes less Fixed variable every 15 minutes get a reward Reinforcement always good Punishment always bad Negative reinforcement get good grades no final Positive reinforcement get good grades get money Negative punishment be bad get toy taken away Positive punishment be bad get a spanking Episodic Memory things that happen to you Don t last very long Semantic Memory knowledge you have that doesn t directly involve you but you know from long term memory Ex mother s maiden name Chunking and Rehearsal try and get memories into long term memory Rehearsal repeat information Phone number long enough so you can make a call Chunking take lots of things and link them into one big thing Random letters into items Nbcabccbscnn NBC ABC CBS CNN String functional fixedness 2 strings apart Use pliers to swing string and tie together Nine dot Framing problem space think outside the box Connect all the dots 6 matchsticks 2 dimensional make a 3D triangle to solve it Prototype model what image comes in your head when you hear a word Exemplar same thing that deviates from your prototype but is still the same item Ex car Test 3 Nature and Nurture Nature Biological inheritance especially genes Nurture Environmental and social experiences Genotype Genetic heritage Phenotype Observable characteristics Contributions of both nature and nurtureinteraction Nature and Nurture Exposure in the womb how much exposure to male hormones did you have did your mother have a male child before you Nature Nurture and You We can develop beyond what our genetic inheritance and our environment give us seeking optimal experiences in life Life Themes Activities Social Relationships Life Goals Prenatal Development Conception zygote 9fetus Germinal Period weeks 1 amp 2 Cell divisions Attachment to uterine wall Embryonic Period weeks 3 through 8 Fetal Period T 39 r includes organ 39 39 U weight gain Threats to fetus teratogen agent that causes birth defect chemical substances nicotine heroin alcohol Certain illnesses Rubella sexually transmitted diseases HIV Preterm birth risk for development difficulties Physical Development Reflexes Genetically wired Sucking swallowing coughing blinking yawning Motor and Perceptual Skills Motor skills as a convergence of nature and nurture Motor and perceptual skills coupled and interdependent Studying Infant Perception Preferential looking technique Habituation Brain Development Infancy Branching of dendrites Myelination Childhood Increase in synaptic connections quotPruningquot of unused neural connections Rapid growth in frontal lobe areas Cognitive Development Change in thought intelligence language process Jean Piaget1896 1980 Children actively construct their cognitive world Schemamental concept framework to organizeinterpret39 39 39 quot 39 39 I 39 U new 39 39 into existing knowledge Accommodationadjusting schemas to new information Piaget s Stages Sensorimotor stage birth to age 2 Coordinating sensory experiences with motor actions Development of object permanence as objects are no longer quotout of sight out of mind Preoperational Stage ages 2 to 7 Beginning of symbolic thinking Inability to perform operations or reversible mental representations Egocentric and intuitive thinking Concrete Operational Stage ages 7 to 11 Formal Operational Stage ages 11 to 15 Thinking about things that are not concrete making predictions using logic to come up with hypotheses about future Evaluating Piaget s Theory L39 of infants C 39 39 of Attachment Close emotional bond between infant and caregiver Temperament Behavioral style characteristic way of responding Easy child positive mood regular routines easily adapts Difficult child reacts negatively irregular routines slow to adapt SlowtoWarmUp Child low activityintensity somewhat negative inflexible Also self regulation inhibition negative affectivity Erikson s Theory Theory of lifespan development four stages in childhood four stages in adolescence and adulthood Stages represent developmental tasks Erikson s Childhood Stages Trust vs Mistrust first 18 months getting needs met Autonomy vs Shame amp Doubt 1 V2 to 3 years Developing sense of independence Initiative vs Guild 3 to 5 years Assuming more responsibility for self Industry vs Inferiority 6 years to puberty Mastering knowledge and intellectual skills Parenting and Development Authoritarian Parenting Restrictive punitive style Authoritative Parenting Encouragement of independence within limits Neglectful Parenting lack of parental involvement Permissive Parenting few limits on child s behavior Divorce and Development Children vulnerable to stress during divorce Adjustment difficulties in 25 of children and adolescents in divorced families Better adjustment predicted by certain factors Harmony between divorced parents Authoritative parenting Good schools Easy rather than difficult child temperament Moral Development Kohlberg Changes in principles and values guiding behavior Pre conventional Level Based on punishments or rewards from external world Conventional Level Abiding by parental or societal standards Postconventional Level Developing personal moral code reflecting community principles or abstract principles for all humanity Gender Development Gender Social and psychological aspects of being male or female Biology Androgens Social Experience Gender Roles Gender Schema Peers Re henceinCthhoodAthytorecover onyoradapttod cuhyRe hentch dren 9capable adults Individual factors good intellectual functioning family factors close caring relationships Physical Development Pubertal Change period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation Hormonal changes testosterone in boys estradiol in girls The Brain Earlier development of amygdala emotion Later development of prefrontal cortex reasoning Socioemotional Development Erikson s Theory and Identity Development Identity vs Identity Confusion 5 h stage Marcia s Theory of Identity Status Exploration of options for career and personal values Commitment to and investment in an identity path Ethnic Identity biculturalism Emerging Adulthood Transitional period from adolescence to adulthood 18 to 25 Physical Development Early Adulthood Decline of physical skills hearing vision Biological Theories of Aging Cellular Clock Theory cells less capable of dividing with age Free Radical Theory damage done by unstable oxygen molecules in cells Hormonal Stress Theory Lowering resistance to stress increasing risk of disease Aging and the Brain New brain cells possible throughout life Aging brain s ability to grow and change Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine Health Psychology Emphasizes psychology s role in Establishing and maintaining health Preventing and treating illness Focus on behavioral and cognitive factors Behavioral medicine Interdisciplinary field to Promote health Reduce illness Focus on behavioral and biomedical knowledge Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine Bio psychosocial Model Integration of biological psychological and social factors in health Relationship between mind and body Strongly intertwined and deeply connected Psychological processes 9Health and disease Health and illness 9Psychological experience Theoretical Models of Change Health Behaviors Practices that have an impact on physical wellbeing Theory of Reasoned Action Effective change requires individuals to have specific intentions and positive attitudes about their behaviors Theory of Planned Behavior Includes theory of reasoned action Adds person s perceptions of control over outcome Stages of Change Model Describes process by which individuals give up bad habits and adopt healthier lifestyles Precontemplation Not yet genuinely thinking about changing Contemplation Acknowledge problem but not ready to commit to change PreparationDetermination Getting ready to take action ActionWillpower Commit to making real change and enact plan Maintenance avoid temptation and pursue healthy behaviors Stages of Change Model Relapse Challenge during maintenance stage Return to former unhealthy patterns Common aspect of change This occurs to MOST Evaluation of Stages of Change Model Has been applied successfully to broad range of behaviors But remains controversial Resources for Effective Life Change Motivation Social Relationships Religious Faith Personality Characteristics Motivation quotWhyquot of behavior Intrinsic vs Extrinsic motivation Control autonomy and competence associated with enhanced outcomes for health behaviors Implementation Intentions Specific strategies for dealing with challenges of making life changes Social Relationships Social ties important in predicting health Religious Faith Strongly related to Maintaining healthy lifestyle Good health Related to social support Sense of life meaning Buffer against effects of stressful life events Personality Characteristics Conscientiousness Tendency to do things that are good for health Stress and its Stages Stress Response of individuals to stressors circumstances and events that threaten them and tax their coping General Adaptation Syndrome GAS Common effects on body when demands placed on it alarm resistance exhaustion Stress and the Immune System Serious implications of chronic vs acute stress Psychoneurimmunology Explores connections among brain and immune system Stress Lowers efficiency of immune system Directly promotes diseaseproducing processes May activate dormant virus s Stress and Cancer Association of stress with poor health behaviors Coping with Stress ProblemFocused Coping Cognitive strategy of squarely facing troubles and trying to solve them Works best over long term EmotionFocused Coping Successful Coping Sense of personal control Healthy immune system Theories of Motivation Motivation as force that moves people to behave think and feel as they do Evolutionary approach role of instincts Drive Reduction Theory need drives homeostasis Optimal Arousal Theory YerkesDodson law Evolutionary Approach Ethology Study of animal behavior Instinct Innate unlearned biological pattern of behavior assumed to be universal throughout species Set in motion by a may be rooted in evolutionary past sign stimulus quotquot for sex DC Drive Reduction Theory Motivation is to reduce drives Drive aroused state that occurs due to physiological need Need Deprivation that energizes drive to reduce or eliminate that deprivation Homeostasis Body s tendency to maintain equilibrium Optimum Arousal Theory YerkesDodson Law Performance best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than low or high arousal Cannon and Washburn Hunger Classical Experiment swallowed balloon Cues for hunger Time since last food intake Fullness of stomach Blood glucose insulin levels Light headed Stomach growling contractions Cues for Stopping Eating Fullness of stomach stretch receptors How many times did you swallow or chew Glucose levels caloric content of food do we know this When are we satiated Satiety Biology of Hunger Gastric Signals Stomach contractions Cholecystokinin CCK Blood Chemistry Glucose blood sugar Insulin goes up after consuming carbohydrates Leptin released by fat cells decreases food intake Brain Processes Lateral Hypothalamus start eating center Ventromedial Hypothalamus stop eating center Internal and External cues for eating People that use more external cues tend to gain the most weight summer camp for girls and mampm s Obesity Biology of Obesity Genetic component Set point weight maintained when no effort made to gain or lose weight Psychological Factors in Hunger and Obesity Emotional state and external stimuli Time and place associations Taste preferences based on past scarcity of reliable food sources Biology of Sex Brain areas Hypothalamus Cerebral Cortex Limbic System Activated by neurotransmitters and sex hormones Sex hormones Estrogen females Androgens males Human Sexual Response Pattern Excitement Phase Begins process of erotic responsiveness Plateau Phase Continuation and heightening of arousal Orgasm Explosive discharge of neuromuscular tension Resolution Phase Return of blood vessels to normal state Refractory period in males Other Factors in Sex Cognitive Factors Cognitive capacity to think about sex and about others Sexual scripts stereotyped patters of expectancies for how people should behave sexually SensoryPerceptual Factors Touch Vision Cultural Factors Sex as normandesirable or as abnormalunappealing Sexual Behavior Kinsey Research 1948 Lots of wild sex but in nonrepresentative sample Michael s quotSex in America Survey 1994 Sexual lives more ordinary than previously believed Differences between males and females Thoughts feelings attitudes behaviors Sex Education Programs Generally more effective than abstinenceonly programs Sexual Orientation Direction of Erotic Interests Heterosexual homosexual bisexual Construct may ignore potential flexibility of human sexual attraction and behavior Combination of genetic hormonal cognitive and environmental factors Attitudes in society generally more positive Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Based on internal factors May have more positive outcomes Extrinsic Motivation Includes external incentives May diminish intrinsic motivation Successful individual may be both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated Emotion Feeling or affect that can involve Physiological arousal Conscious experience Behavioral expression Biological Factors Cognitive Factors Behavioral Factors Sociocultural Factors Biological Factors Arousal Autonomic Nervous System ANS Message tofrom body s internal organs Sympathetic Nervous System SNS involved in body s arousal Parasympathetic Nervous System PNS calms body Measuring Arousal Skin Conductance Level SCL Polygraph or lie detector Theories of Emotion JamesLange Theory Stimulus 9Physiological Reaction 9Emotion Each emotion has distinct sets of physiological changes ConnBard Theory Stimulus 9Physiological Reaction amp Emotion Different emotions could not be associated with specific physiological changes Cognitive Factors TwoFactor Theory of Emotion Schachter amp Singer 1962 Emotion Physiological Arousal Cognitive Labeling Capilano River Bridge Study Dutton 84 Akron 1974 Misinterpreted arousal intensifies emotional experiences Behavioral Factors Verbal or nonverbal Facial expressions as reflecting emotion Facial Feedback Hypothesis Facial expressions as influencing emotion Signals to brain from facial muscles to help recognize emotion being experienced Classifying Emotions Valence Whether emotion feels pleasant or unpleasant Negative affect negative emotions such as anger guilt sadness Personality Patter of enduring distinctive Thoughts Emotions Behaviors that characterize how an individual adapts to the world Psychodynamic Perspectives Emphasize that personality is primarily unconscious or beyond awareness Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory Sexual Drive most important human motivator Main determinant of personality Hysteria Physical symptoms that have no physical cause Hysterical symptoms as overdetermined or having multitude of causes in unconscious Structures of Personality d Consists of unconscious drives Reservoir of sexual energy Works according to pleasure principle Ego Deals with demands of reality Abides by reality principle Superego Evaluates morality of behavior Reflected in quotconsciousquot Defense Mechanisms Tactics ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Displacement Directs unacceptable impulses at less threatening target Repression Pushes back into mind F for all r 39 Idefense mechanisms Sublimation Transforms unconscious impulses into beneficial activities Defense Mechanisms Reaction Formation ego transforms unacceptable motive into its opposite Man who fears his own attraction to other men becomes an outspoken opponent of gay rights Projection ego attributes personal shortcomings and faults to others The biggest liar you know is constantly a calling others liars Denial ego refuses to acknowledge anxiety production realities Students claim they did not know there was a test that day even though it was announced in class and email reminders were sent Psychosexual Stages Universal stages of personality development Erogenous Zones Psychosexual Stages Oral Stage first 18 months Pleasure centers around mouth Chewing sucking biting reduce tension Anal Stage 18 to 36 months Pleasure centers around anus and urethra and their functions Toilet training Phallic Stage 3 to 6 years Phallic Stage Pleasure focuses on genitals Discovery that selfstimulation is enjoyable Oedipus Complex Boy s intense desire to replace father and enjoy affection of mother Castration Anxiety Boy s intense Psychosexual Stages Latency Period 6 years to puberty Setting aside all interest in sexuality No real development according to Freud Genital Stage puberty to adulthood Sexual Critics amp Revisionists Sexuality not pervasive force behind personality Oedipal complex not universal First five years not as powerful in shaping adult personality Ego and conscious thought more dominant Ego with separate line of development from id Sociocultural factors more important Horney s Sociocultural Approach Freud s hypotheses lacking support of observable data Sociocultural influences on personality Need for security not sex Jung s Analytical Theory Collective Unconscious Impersonal deepest layer of unconscious mind Shared by all human beings because of ancestral past Archetypes Emotionallyladen ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people Anima and Animus Mandala Persona Adler s Individual Psychology People motivated by purposes goals Perfection not pleasure as key motivator Compensation Attempt to overcome inferiorities by developing abilities Style of Life Each person s unique striving for superiority Birth order could influence success of striving for superiority Humanistic Perspectives Abraham Maslow 1908 1870 Carl Rogers 1902 1927 Maslow s Approach Humanistic psychology as quotthird forcequot Roger s Approach Unconditional positive regard Being accepted valued and treated positively Conditions of worth Standards to meet to receive positive regard from others Self concept Representation of who we are Trait Perspectives Broad enduring dispositions traits that tend to lead to characteristic response Gordon Allport 1897 1967 focus on healthy welladjusted individuals Uniqueness of each person and capacity to adapt Traits mental structures that make different situations the same FiveFactor Model Supertraits thought to describe main dimensions of personality Neuroticism quot 39 39 C Emotional Instability Extraversion Openness to r I 39 g Trait Perspectives Practical value of quot traits C between I quot traits and health ways of thinking Personological Approach Henry Murray18931988 Personology Study of the whole person llThe History of the organism is the organismquot Thematic Apperception Test TAT Measure of motives which are largely unknown Life Story Approach Dan McAdams Our life stories are our identities Life Story Approach Extraordinarin rich opportunity for researcher Criticisms Difficult and timeconsuming Social Cognitive Perspectives Emphasize conscious awareness beliefs expectations goals Incorporate principles from behaviorism Explore ability to reason Bandura s Social Cognitive Theory Reciprocal Determinism Interaction of behavior environment and personcognitive factors to create personality Observational Learning Personal Control SelfEfficacy Social Cognitive Perspective Focuses on interactions of people Biological Perspectives Hippocrates Personality based on bodily fluids or humours Freud Connection between mind and body Allport Murray Eysenck s RAS Theory Reticular Activating System Located in brain stem Plays role in wakefulness or arousal Eysenck s Theory All share optimal arousal level RAS of extraverts and introverts may differ in baseline levels of arousal with behaviors aimed at regulating arousal Gray s Reinforcement Sensitivity Behavioral approach system BAS and behavioral inhibition system BIS underlie personality Differences in sensitivity to rewards and punishers BAS sensitive to rewards Predisposition to positive emotion Underlies extraversion BIS Sensitive to punishers Role of Neurotransmitters Dopamine Function in experience of reward Factors in BAS or extraversion Behavior Genetics Study of inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics Personality Assessment Rigorous methods for measuring mental processes Self Test Moral 39 39 r Kohlberg 1 39 39 level and conventional level preconventional level is based on punishment conventional level is it s the right thing to do but society says its wrong post conventional level is based on whether its right to do something wrong if it is for a better cause Emotion focused coping is dealing with the stress by avoiding the problem problem based coping is to attack the problem Most personality is unconscious id wants fun stuff child Ego and superego are above the water superego the should harsh judge of our behaviors Ego gets the best of both Schema your idea of a word ex Someone says car and what picture pops in your head Assimilation add new things to your schema Accommodation add a new schema BAS how much arousal it takes to get a person focused BIS whether someone approaches or avoids activities Make sure to know defense mechanisms 1 to 3 weeks zygote 4 to 12 weeks embryo After 12 weeks fetus Terratogens llmonster maker chemical from mom s blood to fetus and causes mutations Test 4 Attribution Heuristics Cognitive shortcuts that allow rapid decisionmaking Can play role in social information processing Sometimes helpful but can lead to mistakes The Self as a Social Object SelfEsteem Positive or negative evaluation of self Positive Illusions Positive views of self not necessarily rooted in reality SelfServing Bias Tendency to take credit for successes and deny responsibility for failures SelfObjectification Tendency to see oneself as object in eyes of others The Self as a Social Object Stereotype Threat Fastacting selffulfilling fear of being judged on basis of negative stereotype Underperforming as living quotdownquot to expectations Social Comparison Process of evaluating thoughts feelings behaviors and abilities in relation to similar others Downward Social Comparison Comparison with inferior others Attitudes 9Behavior Attitudes Opinions and beliefs about people objects ideas Attitudes predict behavior when Attitudes are strong We show awareness of attitudes and practice them We have a vested interest Behavior 9Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance Theory Discomfort caused by inconsistent thoughts reduced by changing behavior to fit attitude attitude to fit behavior Effort Justification Rationalizing amount of effort put into something SelfPerception Theory Inferences about attitudes by perceiving behavior Altruism Bystander Effect Kitty Genovese Case Darley amp Latane 1968 Hit and Run Tendency for observer for emergency to help less when others present Due to Diffusion of responsibility Tendency to look to behavior of others for cues Persuasion Trying to change someone s attitude Elements include Communicator source Message Medium Target audience Social Behavior Altruism Emotions Happy people more likely to help Social Influence How behavior is influenced by other individuals and groups Conformity Obedience Group Influence Conformity Change in behavior to coincide with group standard Asch 1951 Line experiment using confederates Asch redone in 2007 Participants conformed to incorrect answers 35 of the time Conformity Informational Social Influence When we want to be right Depends on how confident in independent judgment wellinformed group perceived to be Normative Social Influence When we want to be liked Obedience Behavior that complies with explicit demands of authority Milgram 19651974 Electric shock experiment using confederate Majority of participants obeyed experimenter Disobedience more common when Others disobeyed Authority figure not legitimate or not close by Victim made to seem more human Group Influence Deindividuation Reduction of personal identity and erosion of personal responsibility when part of group may be due to anonymity Social Contagion Imitative behavior involving spread of behavior emotion and ideas Group Performance Social Facilitation Improvement in individual performance due to presence of others Due to effects of arousal only on welllearned tasks Running Winding fishing line etc Social Loafing Tendency to exert less effort in group due to less accountability for individual effort Decreased by increasing identifiability simplifying evaluation and making group task more attractive Group Decision Making Risky Shift Tendency for group decision to be riskier than average of individual decisions Group Polarization Solidification and strengthening of individual position as result of group discussion May result from persuasion or social comparison Group Decision Making Groupthink Conformity over accuracy Prevented if groups avoid isolation allow all sides of argument to be aired have impartial leader include outside experts Majority and Minority Influence Majority exerts informational and normative influence Minority influence ntergroup Relations Group Identity Us vs Them Social Identity Defining self in terms of group membership Crucial part of selfimage source of good feelings Ingroup vs Outgroup Minimal Groups Ethnocentrism Tendency to favor one s own ethnic group ntergroup Relations Prejudice Unjustified negative attitude based on group membership Explicit Racism Conscious and openly shared attitude Implicit Racism IAT Implicit Attitude Test Attitude on deeper hidden level ntergroup Relations Improving intergroup relations Certain types of contact Taskoriented cooperation Sherif s 1961 Robbers Cave Study Aronson s 1986 Jigsaw Classroom Close Relationships Attraction Proximity Physical closeness as strong predictor of attraction Mere Exposure Effect Encounters increase liking even without realizing it Promise of acquaintanceship Belief of meeting someone in future increases liking Abnormal Behavior Medically mental illness that affects or is manifested in the brain and can affect thinking behavior and interaction with others Deviant Atypical and culturally unacceptable Maladaptive Interferes with effective functioning Personally distressful Theoretical Approaches Biological Approach Attributes psychological disorders to organic internal causes Medical Model describes psychological disorders as medical diseases Mental illnesses of patients treated by doctors Psychological approach Emphasizes contributions of experiences thoughts emotions and personality 0 Theoretical Approaches Sociocultural approach Emphasizes social contexts in which person lives Stresses cultural influences on understanding and treatment of psychological disorders Biopsychosocial approach
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