Week 3 Lecture Notes
Week 3 Lecture Notes TXC 006
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demi Chang on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TXC 006 at University of California - Davis taught by Sun, Gang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Textiles in Textile and Apparel Management at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
TXC 006 Introduction to Textiles lecture Notes lecture 7 7quot Natural bers can be split into two groups Protein bers and Cellulose bers Protein bers derived from animals include wool a staple ber and ilk the only natural ber that is a lament Cellulose bers derived from plantbased materials include cotton and g 3 Wool Fibers can be obtained from eece of lamb or sheep and hair of Angora or Cashmere goat Fibers may include camel alpaca llama and vicuna hair Australia is the main producer of wool Speciality wools include Mohair Cashmere llama and alpaca D Macrostructure 1 Length 1515 inches making it a staple ber 2 Size 1470 pm micrometers While long ne wool called tops is commonly used for apparel long coarse wool is often made into carpeting 3 Crimp Threedimensional 4 Color brown or offwhite Offwhite cream is the most popular coloration D Microstructure 1 Scales are the main component in the cuticle there can be 7002000 scales per inch of ber 2 It has an oval elliptical crosssection and 3 A hollow canal in the center of the ber called the medulla EgtSubmicroscopic Structure 1 Epicuticle A waxlike nonprotein and thinlayered substance that covers the scales of a wool ber 2 Cortex This has countless numbers of long spindleshaped cells that form 90 of the ber39s volume The cortex consists of Orthocortex and Paracortexquot two distinct sections of the cortex that spiral around each other along the ber The spiraling also creates wool39s unique 3D crimp The irregular waviness of the ber increases the wool39s cohesiveness elasticity loft and yarn strength Orthocortex and Paracortex are considered sidebyside bicomponents where the sections are sidebyside but they have different behaviors ie different reactions to moisture and temperature 3 Cortical A brillar small slender spiral structure that is made of macro bris Each macro bril is composed of micro bris which are made of proto bris and every protofrbril has three keratin polymer chainsthat spiral around each other The spiral structure increases the ber s exibility elongation elastic recovery and tenacity D Fine Structure 1 Keratin Polymer A crosslinked protein with an orhelix structure that consists of amino acids The polymer is 2530 crystalline and 7075 amorphous in its regions making the ber more stretchy While the ber39s structure is pretty straight like packed spaghetti the orientation is low because the quotspaghettiquot or ber structure is all curved Amino acid oramino acids with a structure of amine group I carbonyl groin p A R refers to the rest of amino acid which differs with each type B Common amino acids in wool include Glutamic Acid Cystine Serine Glycine and Arginine C Intermolecular forces forces between molecules as opposed to the forces holding a molecular together in wool include hydrogen bonds and cystine linkages Hydrogen bonds contribute to the ber39s strength elasticity and its reaction to moisture Cystine is found in hairwool hair and is bound by the cystine crossink where two cystine amino acids on two adjacent chains are covalently bonded by two sulfur atoms also known as a disul de bond This is why cystine would release a sulfuric smell in a burning test 3 Peptide bond The chemical bond between the carboxyl and amino groups of neighboring amino acids This is the primary link that binds all protein structures 3 Properties of Wool DAesthetics Wool is odorless resists wrinkles in maintaining its appearance high resilience low luster low pilling unsightly fuzzy surface from wear and loft air in ber D Durability Fabric has high durability moderate abrasion resistance low tenacity and very excellent elongation exibility and elastic recovery D Com fort High heat of wetting hygroscopic excellent insulative ability poor heat conductor and low rate of bodywater evaporation D Maintenance It can easily release soils has high elongation low tenacity when wet shrinks when it is agitated by water known as felting it degrades in chlorine bleach dryclean recommended and is easily attacked by moths beetles wool is naturally biodegradable 3 Silk Fibers are strong ne laments that are made by larvae of insects like silkworms D Macrostructure 1 length Averages 328 yards but can reach a maximum of 656 yards 2 Size 12515 denier or 1230 pm 3 Crimp None straight 4 Color Translucent white known as degummed bers D Microstructure The surface shape is 1 Uneven in its diameter 2 An irregular surface 3 ultivateo sik has a triangular crosssectional shape while wildsll has a rectangular crosssectional shape 4 Contains a coating of sericin thatjoins two silk laments together D Submicroscopic Structure 1 Cultivated silk has no identi able structure while wild silk has an internal brillar structure D Fine Structure 1 Silk polymer consists of a protein polypeptide that is made of different amino acids called broin The most common amino acids in silk include Glycine Alanine and Serine 2 It has a pleated psheet structure with 7075 crystalline and 2530 amorphous regions 3 Properties of Silk EgtAesthetics Soft luster with a little sparkle after degumming because of the high crystallinity and the triangular crosssection it makes a rustling sound and medium resilience Egt Durability It has the highest tenacity of all protein bers high orientationcrystallinity medium elongation at break and elastic recovery and high toughness D Comfort Smooth soft cool hydrophilic and hygroscopic high absorbency and heat of wetting but lower than wool D Maintenance Moderate resistance to wrinkling no shrinking loses tenacity by 20 when wet degrades in mild alkaline discolorsscorches under heat dryclean recommended Mechanical Properties Wool Silk Tenacity Low Medium for breaking tenacity Elongation High Medium nitia Modulus Low Medium Elastic Recovery High Medium Flexibility High Abrasion Resistance LowMedium Medium Stiffness Low Medium Resilience High Medium Toughness Low High Sorptive Properties Wool Silk Moisture Regain High High CrossSectional Swelling Medium Medium Heat of wetting Highest High Effect on Mechanical Prop High High Oil Absorption High Ease of Oil Release High Thermal Properties Wool Silh Heat Resistance High Low Softening Melting High High Decomposition High Combustibility Low Low lecture 8 3 Cotton Fibers is a ber derived from seed that meets more than 50 of the worldwide demand for apparel ber Native to tropicalsubtropical regions this plant is produced mostly by China India and US Texas and California leads the US 5 important cotton types include Egyptian Sea Island American Pima Asiatic and Upland D Macrostructure 1 Length short staple ber Shorter bers are not suitable for textiles Longer and ner bers have better quality and are more suited to making textiles 2 Size 1620 pm micrometers 3 Crimp twisted ribbon 4 Color white or offwhite Offwhite signi es higher quality D Microstructure 1 Surface Shape at twisted ribbon A ber can have 125 twists or convolutionsper inch along the ber length 2 CrossSectional Shape Mature cotton has a kidney bean shape others may be circular or elliptical DSubmicroscopic Structure 1 Cuticle waxy layer protecting cellulose The scouring process is used to remove this layer 2 Primary Cell Wall It is a sheath of spiraling brils Each layer spirals 2030 degrees to the ber axis Mature bers have thick primary walls while immature bers have thin ones 3 Secondary Cell Wall The central layer of spiraling brils within the primary cell wall It has a higher level of orientation than the primary cell wall 4 Lumen A hollow canal along the ber39s length It accounts for V3 of the space in a cotton ber As it matures the lumen collapses inward creating the kidney bean shape D Fine Structure 1 The cellulose polymers are made of pDglucose and contains a lot of 0H hydroxyl groups 2 High Degree of Polymerization 600010000 3 More Crystalline 6570 and 3035 amorphous 4 Intermolecular Forces Hydrogen Bond links occur between the six carbon39s hydroxyl group and between the oxygen linking the two rings DipoleDipole and Van der Waals is also present 3 Properties of Cotton DAesthetics The crosssectional shape and ber twists create a low luster It has a low resilience D Durability Moderate tenacity and initial modulus and it becomes stronger when wet It also has low elongation at break and elasticity D Comfort It is extremely comfortable due to its high absorbency soft due to its naturally tapered nature of the ber39s end D Maintenance Low resilience makes it prone to wrinkling It shrinks in water vulnerable to strong acids can be ironed at a high temperature and is vulnerable to silver sh attack 3 Flax llinenl Fibers are taken from the inner bark of a plant39s stem grown in temperatesubtropic regions worldwide tinenis made from ax a fabric known for its crispy feel and irregular thickandthin surface D Macrostructure 1 length Long bers known as line and short bers are called tow 2 Crimp None 3 Size 24 times the size of cotton 4 Color Light to Gray Blond D Microstructure 1 Surface Shape cross marks called nodes 2 CrossSectional Shape polygonal cells called ultimate irregular D Submicroscopic Structure 1 Cell Wall Fibrils have cellulose spiraling at a 6 degree angle to ber axis 2 Lumen is present D Fine Structure 1 The cellulose polymers contains a lot of 0H hydroxyl groups 2 Higher Degree of Polymerization than Cotton 3 Slightly less Amorphous than cotton 4 Intermolecular Force Hydrogen Bond 3 Properties of Flax DAesthetics Naturally high luster that can be lowered by the irregular ber bundles It is stiffer harsher in comparison to cotton D Durability While Flax is stronger than cotton because of its higher degree of orientation it has poor elasticity and elongation and less exible than cotton D Comfort It has a cool feel dries very quickly and a high absorbency level D Maintenance High resistance to mildew and heat more dif cult to bleach in comparison to cotton Mechanical Properties otton Flax Tenacity Medium Medium Elongation Low Low Initial Modulus Medium Medium Elastic Recovery Low Low Flexibility Low Low Abrasion Resistance Medium Stiffness Medium Resilience Low Low Toughness Low Low Sorptive Properties otton Flax Moisture Regain High High CrossSectional Swelling Medium Medium Heat of wetting Medium Effect on Mechanical Prop High High Oil Absorption High Ease of Oil Release High
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