Psychology 1001 Week 2 Notes
Psychology 1001 Week 2 Notes PSYC 1001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Jeske on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 at University of Denver taught by Aimee Reichmann-Decker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Psychological Science in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Week 2 Notes September 21 2015 Last Week Considerations in research 0 scienti c method 0 research methods description correlation Correlation amp Causality Correlation does NOT show causality Possible hypotheses for a correlation o Directionality aka quotA causes Bquot or quotB causes A 0 Third variable quotA amp B caused by Cquot Methodology Experimentation Directly assess causeeffect relationships Manipulate 11 one thing variable to see its effect on another variable 0 Manipulate independent variable IV 0 See effect on dependent variable DV 0 Population random sample 0 After running a study you look for statistical signi cance to see if the numbers are quotdifferent enoughquot 0 Does the sample data re ect a true difference in the population 0 If statistical test is p g 05 95 chance that alcohol causes driving errors in simulator 0 If p gt 05 the differences between groups re ects chance 0 Question 0 Basic Emotion can people s disgust reaction be altered o Hypothesis repeated exposure to disgusting scenarios decreases the disgust response MechanismTheory perhaps via desensitization less arousal Directly Assess CauseEffect relationships Manipulate independent variable IV See effect on Dependent variable DV OOOO Neurons and The Brain 0 Basic unit in brain neuron o Dendrite receive information from other cells 0 Cell bodysoma important for life support information goes from dendrite to cell body Cell body has to have enough information to pass the message along o Axon Message is sent from cell body to the axon passes messages away to other neurons or muscles glands etc Differ a lot in size 0 Myalin Sheath glial cell wraps around the axon helps speed communication Not all neurons have a myelin sheath but many do 0 Axon Terminal branching pattern where the axon ends Terminal buttons at the ends of the terminal branches Neural Organization amp Communication 0 Sodium lons in ux on the dendrites on the transmitting neuron if there is enough positive charge to change the overall microvolts on that receiving membrane then the action potential will re Enough sodium ions it crosses the threshold it re You don t cross the threshold it does not More does not make a more powerful charge It s all or nothing 0 When the signal gets to the terminal buttons the action potential triggers the release of neurotransmitters to cross the synapse Neurotransmitters are a type of chemical messenger that crosses the synapse o The receiving neuron has receptor sites where the neurotransmitters bind and cause an opening of the sodium ion channels allowing for an in ux of the positively charged ions This then begins again in the next ion 0 Next the neurotransmitters are reabsorbed back into the vesicles of the axon terminal through reuptake to allow for this process to continue 0 Sodium process is electric neurotransmitters are chemical Neural Communication Myelin amp Multiple Sclerosis MS 0 Multiple Sclerosis attacks the Myelin Sheath and breaks it down causing weak muscles vision problems movement difficulties etc o What symptoms occur have to do with where in the body the Myelin Sheath is damaged Neural Communication Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine ACH Primary neurotransmitter between neurons and muscles so very important for movement Also important in helping learning and memory 0 Factors leading to too much ACH black widow venom amp some nerve gases 0 Factors leading to too little ACH Botulism toxin blocks release ofACH o Curare prevents absorption of ACH can stop your heart muscle 0 Alzheimer s Disease fever cells that can generate ACH Aging Demographics and Memory Study 0 Aged 7179 with some type of dementia 179 Americans 97 AD 0 8089 242 0 9099 374 September 23rd 2015 Last Time 0 The neuron structures and functions Neuronal Communication electricalchemical in nature Neurotransmitters ACT last week 0 Dopamine 0 Movement motivation pleasure arousal o Parkinson s disease too little dopamine Ldopa drug that mimics DA DBS deep brain stimulation 0 Schizophrenia excess dopamine Norepinephrine amp Serotonin o Norepinephrine associated with increased arousal o Serotonin associated with hunger sleep and arousal 0 Reduced sensitivity to both associated with depression mood o SSRI Selective Serotonin Reuptake lnhibitor Prozac Zoloft Paxil o SNRI Selective Serotonin amp Norepinephrine Reuptake lnhibitor Effexor Celexa o Endorphins o Blockdecrease pain 0 Agonist drugs morphine cocaine etc mimic the effect of the neurotransmitter IE morphin acts as an agonist to endorphins to decrease pain Antagonist eg Naloxone L dopa blocks neurotransmitter or blocks reuptake Peripheral Nervous System Somatic voluntary nervous system nerves that control to the body and muscles Autonomic involuntary regulates body 0 Parasympathetic calming relaxing increases digestion slows heart rate 0 Sympathetic ght or ight arousal action prep slows digestion raises heart rate 0 Enteric located in lining of gastrointestinal system regulate enzyme output Central Nervous System 0 Brain 0 Can be divided into two hemispheres right and left connected by corpus collosum thick bands of axons o Spinal Coord o Cervical nerves thoracic nerves lumbar nerves sacral nerves
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