Rational Choice and Exchange
Rational Choice and Exchange Sociology 3488
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jocelyn Rossell on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 3488 at Ohio State University taught by Paul Malackany in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociological Theory in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Rational Choice and Exchange Any relationship is an exchange by choice Rational Choice 0 Patterns of behavior re ect individual choice to maximize benefits and minimize costs 0 Economist more good at lower cost Sociologist more instrumental rationality 0 Compare different courses of action I Choices become patterns 0 Choices involve 3 things I Preferences I Possible actions I Expected outcomes Preferences 0 They are complete I Can be rank ordered I Transitive I Independent to alternatives I Form Strict only Weak gt or lt Indifferent O Do we have all the info Are we able to weigh all options Do we have the necessary time Are we always seeking max gain against min cost Social Exchange 0 Stability and change are processes of negotiated exchanges o Emergent from interaction I Relation of you and other 0 Subjective costbenefit analysis I Want best for self 0 Basic forms of interaction 0 2 actors have something of value relative to each other 0 Decide whether to and in what amounts to exchange SelfInterest 0 We want selfinterest o Other is also seeking selfinterest 0 Not negativemaintains relationship Interdependence o Reciprocal control 0 Conditioned to go into exchange Cost and Reward 0 Decision about relationships based on cost and reward I Costnegative value Leave relation I Reward positive value Keep relation I Elements of relational life 0 Condition worth and outcome I Worth how we see it Overall satisfaction I Outcome what we do about it Staying or leaving Stable relationship individuals to make some investments and advantage to each to have disproportionate share to secure continuing association Peter Blau Background 0 Focus on processes of facetoface interaction 0 Institutions and organizations emerge from exchanges between individuals 0 Interactions conditioned by I Norms I Power 0 From Simmel I Forms of interaction through which individuals pursue needs I Blau s exchange based on interplay of sacrifices and rewards I Building blocks of all social relations 0 From Weber I Power carrying out will despite resistance I Legitimate dominationquot I Blau s role of norms is authority I Significance of rewards Power 0 Mutual interdependence 0 Power and rewards 0 One has power when alone can supply rewards o Imbalanced exchange Legitimate Norms o Counters or denies dominance 0 Compliance and or obedience based on shared norms 0 Shared norms constrain responses Imbalance 0 Exchange based on shared expectations and cultural norms that legitimate them 0 Not rational choices 0 Strain towards reciprocity and imbalance o All social exchange is negotiated Types of Rewards o Rewards work to induce others and maintain association 0 Extrinsic I For something I Detached from association 0 Intrinsic I Of themselves I The reason for association Love 0 Relation of give and take 0 Interests 0 Bene t I Commitment I Power 0 Dilemma I Costbenefit exchange I Pressure to give and withhold affection James Coleman Strategic decision making in groups 0 Mostly dyad Decisions situated at group level Effects on social relations Key Assumptions 0 Rational and purposeful actors I Max rewards I Minimize costs 0 Feedbackloop I Purposive action is socially embedded Trust At group level Trustor giver and trustee receives Trustee gets advantages I Gets a power Like social betting I I change of winning is greater than loss than place bet to max out Emerges a group phenomena emergent fro rational decisions Social defined informal rights to control the actions of others Based on rational choices from repeated exchanges I Not universally shared Must forfeit some rights to control own actions Have to be quottargetquot to be the quotbeneficiaryquot Prescriptive I Encourage Proscripted I Discourage Disjoint I Beneficiaries verse targets Conjoint I Target and beneficiary Sanction and Power 0 Distribution of power determines who imposes and who is subject to sanctions More powerrules less applied Unequal power reproduces own submission I Follow rules will have less consequences FreeRider Problem O O 0 Individual and rational decision to not participate in group activity if the goals or joint goodsquot cannot be denied their supply reduced by others consuming it Not defeatism Makes sense I Still get benefits SocialLoafing O O O Ringling 1913 People pull less because group effort Rely on others because not just you and individual Solutions 0 Selective incentivesquot o Intangible benefits 0 Enforcing participation I Negative sanctions Questions 0 How can someone be fully compelled to participate if not in their best selfinterest o Dependency on group Control 0 Benefits I Social capital emerges 0 Social Capital 0 Collective benefits from mutual associations between individual and groups 0 Product of social relations I Relational I Trust and trustworthy