Psychology 1001 Week 3 Notes
Psychology 1001 Week 3 Notes PSYC 1001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Jeske on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 at University of Denver taught by Aimee Reichmann-Decker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Psychological Science in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Psychology Week 3 Notes September 28th 2015 Last Week Hierarchical organization of the nervous system Exam 1 on Mon on Weeks 13 0 9 Brain Stem o Medulla respiration heartrate hindbrain o Reticular Formation awareness alertness hindbrain o Thalamus information is routed through it from the senses except for smell forebrain o3 Hindbrain o Cerebellum precise timing amp coordinated movement balance proceduralimplicit memory 393 Midbrain o Tectum orient to environment 0 Tegmentum movement amp arousal o3 Forebrain o Limbic System Hippocampus explicit memory info about self facts Amygdala emotion especially fear Cingulate Cortex mood amp motivation response inhibition anterior portion error prevention Hypothalamus pituitary gland endocrine system maintenance ght ight sex temp etc Septal Area linked to pleasure amp reward pathway 0 Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobe executive function motor control Occipital Love vision Parietal Lobe sensation spatial recognition Temporal Love hearing language oz Historical Case Phineas Gage o 1848 explosion metal rod went through his skull amp brain 0 Language and intelligence were spared and he made a full physical recovery 0 However he couldn t organize or plan well had low inhibition control and no emotional control 0 Severe personality changes 0 quotFrontal Syndromquot oz Language Areas o Brocca s Area Frontal Lobes Expressive Aphasia speech dif culties 0 Wernicke s Area Temporal Lobes buried in ssure receptive Aphasia comprehension dif culties 0 9 Motor amp Sensory Areas 0 Motor Posterior part of frontal lobes o Sensory Front of parietal lobes O O 90 90 O O 90 9 Brain is CONTRALATERAL contralateral organization Brain receives input from opposite side of the body Cognition Memory Memory learning has persisted over time Stages of Memory Processing 0 Encoding getting information in 0 Storage retention of information Sensory information store SIS Short term store STS WORKING MEMORY Limited Capacity 7 plus or minus 2 Some limits on capacity for processing information 1956 Primacy Effect 1st words are remembered better than middle words Immediate and delayed recall Recency Effect Last words recalled better than 1st words and middle words Immediate recall only Function of the STS was in theory to hold info while transfer to LTM but more time in STS did not lead to strong LTM trace Further simply repeating something did not help maintenance vs elaborate rehearsal So the REAL ROLE of WM is organization and elaboration Long term memory LTM o Retrieval getting info out of storage Recall say the 7 dwarves names Recognition pick the dwarves name from a list 393 Chunking o Organizing bits of information into more manageable wholes 0 Computer vs Human o Encoding Computer Exactly as you input it Human attention perception experience effect it 0 Storage Computer binary Human distributed in brain as neural connections 0 Retrieval Computer displays as input Human reconstructive process 0 Conclusion Computer metaphor fails September 30th 2015 393 Last Time 0 Memory stores SIS STS WM LTM more today 0 Memory principle 1 Importance of processing 393 Memory Principle 1 o How well we remember is determined by how we process information not by how many times we rehearse it o Visualization and imagery 0 Types ofjudgement Indicates Level of Processing Physical Processing visual judgement Acoustic Processing rhyme judgement Semantic Processing judgement of meaning SelfReference Processing identity judgement o In uences on Processing Priming 0 Activation of particular associations in memory 0 Visual Imagery Encoding Use imagery to aid memory 0 Method of Loci spacial recognition 0 Link Method visualize list as linked together 393 Memory Principle 2 0 Most forgetting re ects an inability to retrieve rather than loss of information through decay transience or interference 0 Evidence of Retrieval Failure blocking Tip of the tongue phenomenon So if forgetting is due to retrieval failure memory should be helped by retrieval cues o Retrieval Cues encoding speci city Statedependent retrieval Consciousness Mood Depression 0 Physiological State Hunger ContextDependent Retrieval StudyRoom 393 Memory Principle 3 0 Memory is a constructive process we do not STORE experiences We process experiences and store the results of that processing To remember we must RECONSTRUCT the experiences Retrieval Reconstructive Nature of Memory Loftus 0 Memory Construction Elizabeth Loftus Misinformation Effect Incorporating misleading information into memory False Memory Studies for childhood events 0 Lost in a shopping mall Loftus amp Pickrell 1995 25 Spill a bowl of punch on a bride Hyman et al 1995 20 0 Role of suggestion amp Imagination 0 Imagine in accident in detail Garry eta 1996 0 About 25 will remember false event under these conditions 0 Source Amnesia attributing information to the wrong source Creating False Memories Vivid Visualization amp Misinformation Visual stimulus picture of participant in hot air balloon Wade et al 2002 0 About 50 will remember false event under these conditions 0 Increase in believing in false events with visual stimulus compared to imaginationverbal directions Recap Memory Construction Elizabeth Loftus o Misinformation Effect misattribution o Incorporating misleading information into memory 0 Source Amnesia o Forgetting the origins of memory oz Memory Stores 0 Sensory Information Store Encoding raw info copy Capacity unlimited Duration 025 sec iconic depends on sense 0 Working Memory Encoding Processed eg Chunked Capacity 7 i 2 items Duration 20 secs 0 Longterm Memory Encoding Processed eg semantic Capacity very large Duration years 393 LTM Explicit and Implicit Memories 0 Explicit semantic 3rCI president and episodic rst person you kissed Facts experience personal knowledge Hippocampus episodic o Implicit procedural how to play piano amp conditioning priming Skills conditioning effects Cerebellum in part oz Roles of the Hippocampus o Hippocampus semanticexplicit memories Critical for putting new information into LTM Less important over time for maintaining memories 0 Consolidation memories become stable 0 Reconsolidation memories vulnerable to disruption when recaHed Requiring consolidation again oz LTM Amnesia o Anterograde Amnesia HM Had both hippocampus removed had STM no LTM Recall intact prior to insult Cannot make new memories 0 Retrograde Amnesia Recall before incident lacking Able to make new memories 0 Amnesia amp Implicit Memory HM is unable to make new explicit memories but can form new implicit memories but learned the tower of Hanoi after his surgery Improves but does not remember doing this game before Also HM can be conditioned o3 Neural Basis of Memory 0 LTM involves the growth of new connections between neurons
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