Week 2 Notes - ES 101
Week 2 Notes - ES 101 ES 101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Tucker on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ES 101 at University of Oregon taught by Fujiwara L in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ethnic Studies in Social Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Discussion 2 10915 1 a To create simple groupings for complex structures To separate groups of people Connotations of races can change c Actions of habits become racialized 2 a Assumed that blacks were inferior to whites did experiments to prove they were lower b Nazi Germany took ideas from American eugenics scientists c You can t do a DNA test to find race 3 Talks about how black lesbians are different than white lesbians because they are double minorities black amp LGBTQ Rachel Dolezal why she identifies as black Language Culturally Children Spirituality History ActiVist Job opportunities Minstrel Representation stereotypes Race the Power of an Illusion 10515 Day 3 The Differences Between US What does it mean to say that race is not biologically determined What social purpose does the belief that race is biological serve for race relations Race the Power of an illusion Race idea of biology Genetic variation in human population is very small Humans are the species w most alike genetics Scientists have researched differences between African Americans amp whites found nothing different Biology is an excuse for class differences By 1920 s a single drop of blood could determine if someone was black inferior Breed best amp brightest get rid of the rest Negro was close to primitive not long ago running amp jumping was essential in the jungle We all have 35000 genes Sunlight is essential for vitamin D 1930 s American Jews dominated basketball 1992 75 of NBA black as much or more racial diversity within race than outside its race sickle cell is cause by ancestors living in places where malaria is common even greater genetic diversity in Africa than elsewhere average net worth of white American family is 8x more than a black family Key Points race is an idea that we have ascribed to biology least genetic difference of any species scientific racism has assigned hierarchies to racial expressions Racialized Society Look to racial difference as a way to explain a biological basis to race Legitimizes racial inequality Just because race isn t biological doesn t mean race is not real Attach meanings to race that are socially constructed Assumptions society makes on the nature of genes inherited Race is real amp salient Race is a biological fiction but a social fact Race is a social construct that can kill you Understanding Race What is race Historically determined amp socially constructed Race the Power of an Illusion 10515 Day 3 What Why is race Group socially categorized as a means for facilitating exploitation amp domination Difference between racism amp prejudice attitude not rooted in institution that connotes a bias ideology amp a practice system of beliefs that are impossible to question Racism as a practice Economic exploitation Political disenfranchisement amp discrimination Legal amp extralegal Violence Degradation of cultures of one race by another Racism as ideology Justifies practices of social political amp economic domination of one race conscious amp unconscious belief that people of color are inferior to Whites because of physical amp cultural traits established laws policies amp practices that systematically re ect amp produce intentionally amp unintentionally racial inequalities in American societies Racial Formation in the US MACRO Big Picture STRUCTURES laws media etc MICRO Everyday STRUCTURES walking down the street Theorizing Race Race amp Intersectionality 10715 Day 4 MACRO Big Picture STRUCTURES laws media etc MICRO Everyday STRUCTURES walking down the street Racial Formation in the US Racial Formation Theory Michael Omi amp Howard Winant White Supremacy in Context of N American colonization Religious theories framed meanings of race amp racial difference science not yet leading institution shaping dominant racial ideologies Religious doctrines legitimized conquest of native land by dehumanizing Native Americans as inferior to white humans heathens Kill the Indian save the man embedded in boarding school practices amp proselytizing Doing Gods work Age of Scientific Racism Legitimizing White Supremacy in the US Belief that racial superiority amp inferiority was due to genetic stock Eugenics Movement in US inherent notation that social problems are caused by reproduction and can be cured by population control Eugenics Promoting the Reproduction of white stock I Example Antimiscegenation laws California law banning interracial marriage not overturned until 1948 Was not ruled unconstitutional until 1967 w Loving v USA Eugenics Movement Theorizing Race Race amp Intersectionality 10715 Day 4 Prevailing reproduction of nonwhite inferior genetic shock Negative Eugenics Feeblemindedness as a category of people public charge Only free white people could be naturalized Immigration policies racebased exclusion began early 1900 s state laws legalizing forced sterilization of feebleminded inferior intelligence mentally ill Abuses poor women minorities through 1970 s Race Racial Formation Challenge to Scientific Racism or Cultural Determination Race social construction NOT biological fact Race is indeed a preeminently sociohistorical concept Racial categories and the meaning of race are given concrete expression by the specific social relations and historical context in which they are embedded l l Racial Formation The meaning of race is defined and contested throughout society in both collective action and personal practice In the process racial categories themselves are formed transformed destroyed and reformed refer to the process by which social economic and political forces determined the content and importance of racial categories and by which they are in turn shaped by racial meanings Racialization Verb act of constructing racial categories and the value we ascribe to them in different historical movements Becoming white Many Southern Europeans Irish amp Jews were considered nonwhite until mid 20th Century Extension of racial meaning to a previously racially unclassified relationship social practice or group Race as an unstable amp decentered complex of social meanings constantly being transformed by political struggle Ideological process an historically specific one Emerges from struggles of competing political projects amp ideas Race is an ideology Theorizing Race Race amp Intersectionality 10715 Day 4 when common sense assumptions about race are not questioned Complicating Racial Formation Examines race on a single basis Racial experience position is largely shaped by gender amp social class as well Meanwhile feminist movement amp scholarship was largely centered around the white woman as the universal woman Multiracial Feminism An Approach Zinn amp Dell Difference Complicating a false universalism woman Embedded in structures of domination Institutions Power Relations that accompany difference race as a basic social division a structure of power a focus of political struggle and hence a fundamental force in shaping women s and men s lives 105 our lives are affected by our locations in multiple hierarchies Matrix of Domination Simultaneity of systems Intersecting Nature of hierarchies Tension between Social Structure amp Agency Primary Organizing Principles Race Class Ability Age Gender Sexuality Citizenship Intersectionality Structure amp Power People experience race class gender amp sexuality differently depending upon their Intersecting forms of domination produce both oppression amp opportunity interplay between social structure amp agency Audre Lorde Kimberle Crenshaw AL 1934 1992 Age Race Class amp Sex Women Redefining Difference written in 1984 Example Combahee River Collective Black Feminist Statement 1983 Formed their collective in response to racism in the white women s movement amp sexism heterosexism in the Black power movement Theorizing Race Race amp Intersectionality Day 4 10715 Argue Interlocking simultaneous systems of oppression We believe that sexual politics under patriarchy is as pervasive in Black women s lives as are the politics of class and race We are not just trying to fight oppression on one front or even two but instead to address a whole range of oppressions Hacking the Black White Binary Audre Lourde already critiquing binary thinking in 1984 Jump to 2015 Still binary thinking Have we become more intersectional Do we still think amp operate on single axis issue agendas Cooper amp Rhee We see theoretical concepts such as intersectionality ass technological and as critical interventions we must continue to stay in conversation with and rebuild upon Cooper amp Rhee Intersectionality The complex interplay of categories of race gender class sexuality and even new debates on intersectionality as a way to resist the obscurantist thrust of an uncritical invocation of black white racial frameworks Feminist Hacking Current antiracist movements must be hacked through a digital lens as well Technology communication amp visibility have reshaped the means amp the mode of consciousness amp mobilization We build upon this formulation of race as a tool together with a desire to hack the binary to ask how feminists of color critique utilize reshape and creates new technologies to combat the dehumanizing effect of racism in our digital age Kimberle Crenshaw Law prof Columbia U amp UCLA Cofounder of African American Policy Forum amp the Center For Intersectionality amp Social Policy Studies Columbia U Intersectionality Can t Wait KC coined this term simultaneous interlocking systems of oppression privilege Theorizing Race Race amp Intersectionality 10715 Day 4 Term emerged from a discrimination case w GM Black women not hired for women s jobs because Black amp not hired for Black jobs because women Double discrimination that had no name or conceptualization in the courts judge ruled black women couldn t sue based upon two simultaneous identities Because the court believed that black women should not be permitted to combine their race and gender claims into one Because they could not prove that what happened to them was just like what happened to white women or black men the discrimination that happened to these black women fell through the cracks BlackGirlsMatter first established in the AAPF in response to Pres Obama s My Brother s Keeper Say Her Name on Twitter Confronting the Meaning of Race Case of Rachel Dolezal Racialization Analyzing Dolezal from a Racial Formation amp Intersectionality Approach What is at stake How is race being constructed here Something she can choose went there Something she can perform hair skin Who is able to do this amp how was she able to do this Why does this upset some folks Racial appropriation