Chapter 1 Textbook Notes
Chapter 1 Textbook Notes PSYCH 1001 - 01
U of M
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sorensen on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1001 - 01 at U of M taught by Kathleen Briggs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at U of M.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Chapter 1 Psychology and Scienti c Thinking in Psychology Scienti c study of mind brain and behavior Levels of analysis 0 Lower levers tied to biological in uences 0 Higher levels tied to social in uences Multiply Determined Produced by many factors Individual Differences Variations among people in their thinking emotion personality and behavior Reciprocal Determinism Mutual in uence on each other39s behavior Five challenges to studying psychology Most actions are multiply determined Psychological in uences are rarely independent of each other Individual differences Reciprocal determinism 0 Behavior shaped by culture Na39ive Realism Belief that we see the world exactly as it is Science Systematic approach to evidence Empiricism Knowledge should be initially acquired through observation Scienti c Theory Explanation for large number of ndings in natural world Hypothesis Testable prediction Con rmation Bias Tendency to seek out information that supports our beliefs and denies dismisses or distorts information that contradicts them Belief Perseverance Tendency to stick to initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them Metaphysical Claims Assertions about the world that can39t be tested Prescription for Humility Not claiming to prove theories Pseudoscience Set of claims that seem scienti c but are not Ad Hoc lmmunizing Hypothesis Loophole that is used by defenders of a theory to protect their theory from falsi cation Signs of Pseudoscience o Overuse of Ad Hoc lmmunizing Hypothesis Exaggerated claims Over reliance on anecdotes Absence of connectivity to other research Lack of peer review review by other scholars or replication by independent labs Lack of selfcorrection when contrary evidence is published 0 Meaningless psychobabble that uses fancy scienti csounding terms that don39t make sense 0 Talk of proof instead of evidence Patternicity Tendency to detect meaningful patterns in random stimuli Terror Management Theory Awareness of death leaves one with an underlying sense of terror which we cope with by adopting reassuring cultural world views Fallacies o Emotional Reasoning Fallacy Error of using emotions as guides for evaluation the validity of a claim affect heuristic o Bandwagon Fallacy Error of assuming that a claim is correct because many people believe it 0000 0000 O 0 Not Me Fallacy Error of believing that one is immune from an error in thinking that affects others 0 EitherorFallacy Error of framing a question so that it can only be answered in one of two extremes 0 Appeal to Authority Fallacy Error of accepting a claim because an authority gure endorses it 0 Genetic Fallacy Error of confusing the correctness of a belief with its origin 0 Argument of Antiquity Fallacy Error of assuming that a belief is valid because it has been around for a long time o Arguments from Adverse Consequences Fallacy Error of confusing the validity of an idea with its potential real world consequences 0 Appeal of Ignorance Fallacy Error of assuming that a claim is true because no one has shown it to be false 0 Naturalistic Fallacy Error of drawing a conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence 0 Circular Reasoning Fallacy Error of basing a claim on the same claim rewarded in slightly different terms Bias Blind Spot People unaware of their biases but aware of them in others Costs of Pseudoscience o Opportunity Cost What39s given up 0 Direct harm o Inability to think scienti cally as citizens Scienti c skeptism approach to evaluating claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them 0 Willingness to keep an open mind to all claims 0 Willingness to accept claims only after researchers subjected them to tests Critical Thinking Set of skills for evaluation all claims openmindedly Scienti c Thinking Principles 0 Ruling out rival hypothesis 0 CorrelationCausation Fallacy Error of assuming that because one thing is associated with another it must cause the other 0 Fasi abiity Capable of being disproved o Replicability Study39s ndings can be duplicated ideay by independent investigators o Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence 0 Occam39s Razor When two explanations t evidence we the simpler one should generally be chosen Decline Effect Fact that the size of certain psychological ndings appears to be shrinking over time Introspection Method trained observes use to re ect and report on mental expe ences 5Theoretical Frameworks of psychology 0 Structuralism The elements of the mind Structuralism School of psychology that aimed to identify the basic element of psychological experience Edward Bradford Titchener Failed because introspectionists disagreed on outcomes Oswald Kupe showed that people engage in meaningless thought thinking without conscious experience 0 Functionalism Psychology meets Darwinism School of psychology aimed at understanding adaptive purposes of psychological characteristics William James In uenced by natural selection 0 Behaviorism Laws of Learners Black Box Psychology School of Psychology that focuses on uncovering the laws of learning by looking at observable behavior John B Watson 0 Cognitivism Opening the Black Box School of Psychology that proposes thinking is central to understanding behavior Cognitive Neuroscience Relation between brain functioning and thinking 0 Psychoanalysis Depth of Consciousness Sigmund Freud School of Psychology focusing on internal psychological processes of which we are unaware More emphasis on infant and child experiences NatureNurture Debate Behaviors attributed to genes or environment Evolutionary Psychology Applies Darwin39s theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior Free Will Determinism To what extent are behaviors freely selected rather than caused by factors outside out control Basic Research Examining how the mind works Applied Research Using basic research to solve real world problems
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