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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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What is Karma?
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Date Created: 03/22/16
03-15-16 Early child development, relied on Piaget’s efforts (methoclinico) Four principles of thought o Animism: inanimate objects are alive o Artificialism: all natural things are man made o Egocentrism: failure to distinguish their perspective from another’s o Realism: subjective from objective phenomena Conservation: realization sometimes the change in appearance does not mean a change in matter Seriation: would show children a series of sticks and say please put these in order of size o Ability to place objects in terms of magnitude o Children could do multiple sticks at a time but could not order just by looking at all the sticks. Relations: Paul has a brother named Bob, does Bob have a brother? o Age 4-5 19% answer correctly o Age 6-7 24% answer correctly o Age 8-9 55% answer correctly o Age 10-11 87% answer correctly Perception of Time: asked Pam (4 yrs. 6 months.) about age o I am older because I am bigger but cannot predict if Erika or her will be older (size) 4 yr. 9 months o Cannot discern if mother or grandmother is older and same with father and grandfather Dour 7 yr. 8 months o Kid has done the math friend is 12 and I am 7 he is 5 yrs. Older Think about it you know age so is there no way of finding out if he was born before or after you Can tell the difference in age but not the sequence Tasks can be used to measure time perception o Two mechanical snails, both start same time and same place Snail 1 travels 5 feet in 20 seconds Snail 2 travels 4 feet in 30 seconds o Child watches then asked which snail stops first Answer snail 2 stops first because a shorter distance Young children fall prey to simple lab exercises Pre-logical operations Read portion of Winnie the Pooh o Why do certain stories or movies get passed from one generation to the next. o Scientist analyses the passage in terms of Piaget 2 Buzzing noise must mean something, someone must be making it, must be making it if bee, if bee must be making honey for me Exhibits egocentrism and artificialism Pooh rolls in mud to be a cloud and deceive the bees to get honey Animism North pole must be a pole since it’s called a pole and this must be it to stick in ground Realism o Likely more often than not there will be elements of Piaget’s principles of thought in catchy movies/stories Read “Dear God” letter from children o Who does what you do when you are vacation o Thanks for the baby brother but I prayed for a puppy. Do children passively adopt the moral rules they are taught? Do you know it’s bad to lie? o What does a lie mean to the child? Refer to Piaget’s Stories: Boy (girl) goes for walk in street meet a big scary dog. Goes home and tells mom e saw a dog as big as a cow. A child comes home from school and tells mother the teacher gave good remarks but was not true. Teacher gave no remarks then mother rewarded. o Which would you punish more? 3 o Which child lied more Found girl/boy with the dog as big as a cow is worse Child with no marks had a reason o Child found a lie anything from the truth or the language is funny The bigger the departure the bigger the lie o Child may say something that may be a lie but not perceived as a lie Second test guess how old research assistance is o The response that is further from the truth is the bigger lie Piaget says 27, child says 30, assistant is 32 Moral Judgements of Children: Moral Realism- Immanent justice Piaget’s stories: stimulus is number of broken cups o GEO (6) Moral realism: belief Immanent Justice o 6 yrs. old. Serves him right, karma o 6 yr. old #2 one goes to jail and one drowns o 6 yr. old bridge cracked because he ate apple o 6 yr. old serves right because he stole Table 1932 o Age 6 Decline in IJ Jose, 1991 re done study 4 o Age 5 63% Some cultures in numerous How do children? Freud o Origins of conscience (between ages 3-5 yrs.) Increasing attraction to the opposite sex parent Daddy’s girl/Momma’s boy Increasing number of constraints on child’s time with opposite sex parent Child resents interference with opposite sex parent Child wishes same sex parent was gone (death wish) Child worries the parent knows the wish (egocentrism) Child fears punishment Castration Child adopts strategy: “if you can’t beat them join them” Identification Anti-smoking advertisement chucks a stone boy copies, kick a stone sone does same, dad lights up son pretends with twig Morality as a consequence of everything before 5 EXAM DELAYED 03-17-2016 Split brain research How do ppl develop morality Skinner if you reward behavior then it will be repeated and if not then won’t o Not all behaviors rewarded so how does it work Table on projector Freud: Origins of Conscience (between ages 3-5) 1. Increasing attraction to opposite sex parent (OSP) 2. Increase number of constraints on child’s time with OSP 3. Child resents interference with OSP 4. Child wishes same sex parent gone 5. Child worries that parent knows wish (egocentricism) 6. Child fears punishment a. Castration research found this is false as punishment b. Punishment in girls: girls don’t develop the same level of morality 7. Child adopts strategy: “If you can’t beat them join them” 8. Identification Why couldn’t Freud jump to 8. Instead of postulating everything else 6 o Children identify with their parents and that’s how morality is learned Freud says child subconsciously think about these things Controversial: castration (what if child a girl) as punishment, idealizing sex with parent, so on Had to show some measure of process instead of just an observation o What motivates the identification o Why? Oedipal concept: Oedipus Rex o King told by prophet he will be killed by son Servants couldn’t kill baby so they sent it to far village Unknown he is a prince o Travels to Thebes: meets king and minions Has altercation and kills father o Plague destroying Thebes: Oedipus knows answer Made king, sleeps with mother, realizes the truth and gouges out eyes Freud outlines theme in this Greek tragedy Star Wars is an example of feud between father and son o Why, Freud asks this Anecdote is not evidence: many parents have anecdotes that son close to mother or daughter with father during these ages Pre-operational stage so stating “I wish you were gone/dead” may not have same meaning Freud has different theory of single parent/women 7 o Women don’t have the same moral level as men o Piaget found girls determine morality before boys o Children in single parent homes have less identification Author Kathleen Burger (Developmental textbook): excerpt about Freud’s theory of moral development o Experiences with 3 daughters and the intent to marry Daddy. Gender Development Gender often defines our roles, expectations, and relationships o How do children acquire concept Teacher asking Lisa if she is a boy or girl? I am a girl but tomorrow will be a boy. Joshua 4 yrs. playing with 2 caterpillars Says one is a boy and one a girl How do you know? The boy is the one that has more fuzzy hair Alicia 33 months of age explaining how one child hit another at school Misheard her oh Andrea hit Vanessa No, girls don’t hit boys do Gender typing: identifying things and activities Gender identity: Know own gender Gender constancy: recognizing whatever the gender it will remain the same (realized between 4-9 yrs. of age) 8 Gender roles: Gender stereotypes: shared beliefs Gender socialization: Timeline By age 2 (24 months) a child can: o Identify other individuals gender fairly accurately, but not themselves o Know some gender related words: mommy, brother, so on o gender appropriate objects: necktie goes with male (Daddy) o Difficulty with pronouns: she, he, so on o Select gender appropriate toys fairly accurately Age 3 o Do know own sex o Label photos of others as boy or girls Seems that boy or girl just a label though o Core of gender identity has developed Showed 4, 5, 6 yrs. of age (up to 9 yrs. In some cases) children gender dolls varied in hair length, genitals, breast, so on. Then asked to give an appropriate name, clothes, and determine if going to be a mommy or daddy o Children determined gender by hair length If masculine build no breast but long hair- still seen as female to be a mommy Parenthood Does parenting style matter? 9 Diana Baumrind research: University of California at Berkley o Permissive: non-punishing, accepting of child’s impulses and actions, permit child to regulate own activities, my child will never learn from mistake unless they make it, trying to encourage autonomy through reasoning. Children: low in self reliance, low in achievement orientation, lacking in self control, quicker to anger than other children and recover o Authoritarian: Exact opposite of permissive, demand obedience, favor punitive means of control behavior, restricting autonomy, complete household chores instead of play. Children: more likely to be fearful, moody, easily annoyed o Authoritative: seeks to guide behavior in rational issue oriented ways, encourages verbal give and take, value both autonomy and conformity, mixture of both permissive and authoritarian Children: most self reliant, most self controlled, most cheerful, able to cope with stress better, more cooperative with adults Spanking: o Old sayings: o Trouble with most children today is they have everything but discipline o Father that fails to have the upper hand on his children fails to lower his o The parent that does not punish cannot persuade 10 o Many a wayward child has been set straight when bent over o A disciplinarian can train a child to do anything but run into their arms when they come home Study with mother’s and 14 month old children Placed out toys and watched mother child interaction Found the mothers that smacked the child’s hand most interacted the least Study showed teachers that are the least punitive had the most respect Found respect not a result of discipline. Showed graphs and findings of spanking/physical corporal punishment frequency o Decline from 1975 to 1985 due to change Statistics More than 2000 children die a year due to care provider/parent 1 mil to 1.5 mil badly beaten or abused a year Only 10% of abusive parents suffer from mental distress Estimated 50% of reported cases of child abuse begin as instance of corporal punishment that gets out of control One predictor is unrealistic expectations of what child can do. How do you discipline child? Time-out: o Skinner’s idea of reinforcement 11 Scolding can be reinforcement: child wants attention o Like a freeze frame not going to scold, encourage, punish child and place in a neutral environment where he/she can calm down until there is a behavior worthy of reinforcement Time-out should not be used as punishment Question: Can you remember something from when you were 17? …16? …6? …4? …3? …2? ….1? …coming down the fallopian tube? Infantile Amnesia: Declines about 3.5 yrs. o Why? Retrieval failure Inadequate storage Disrupted storage Autobiographical self not present Hippocampus not fully myelinated 12