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by: Gigi

Learning PSY150A1

GPA 4.0
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz

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About this Document

These are the lecture notes from Chapter 6: Learning.
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gigi on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1) in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
mg Learning Relatively permanent change in thought amp behavior due to expedence The heart of adaptability Conditioning Process of learning associations mentalpairings between events Classical Conditioning Stimulus A becomes associated with stimulus B o If stimulus A causes an automatic re exive behavior response then stimulus B produces that same behavior by itself lvan Pavlor Russian physiologist digestive processes 0 Dogs salivated at sight of food dish amp person who brought it 0 Turned attention to studying learning Conditioned learned unconditioned automatic 0 Food unconditioned stimulus caused salivation unconditioned response Unconditioned Stimulus US Stimulus that automatically elicits a response Unconditioned Response UR Automatic re exive response to the US Conditioned Stimulus CS Originally neutral stimulus like tone of voice that gains signi cance through pairings with US Conditioned Response CR Learned response salivation due to tone to the CS Stimulus Generalization Tendency for CR salivation to be elicited by stimuli that are similar to the CS tone but no identical Ex don t cross the street if the car is coming generalized to trucks busses bikes Very adaptive Stimulus Discrimination Ability to distinguish among similar stimuli and respond only to actual CS Aso very adaptive Attitude Positive negative evaluation of something likesdislikes Olson amp Fazio 2001 Pok mon Study Stream of words images Pok mon characters 2 other characters appeared with positive negative wordsimages After task they are asked who they like better Pairings made when they saw things with certain images Conditioned emotional response Emotional response elicited by a CS Can lead to phobias Little Albert Watson amp Rayner 1920 11 month old orphan allowed to play with white rat no fear of rat but he hated loud noises Can we condition fear Loud noiseUS Crying for noise UK White rat CS Crying for rate CR Soon he hated the rat amp didn t want to touch it because every time he tried to touch it a loud noise was played He developed a phobia of rats amp also things that are white amp uffy Taste aversion Classically conditioned avoidance of a certain food taste that made you sick ExUncUon Connection or paring is broken Garcia amp Koelling 1966 Discovery of taste aversion Studied effects of radiation on rats 0 Drank less water in radiation chamber plastic bottle than in home cage glass bottle 0 IV drinking water followed by no radiation mild radiation strong 0 Then given the choice to drink sugar water or regular water Rats who got radiation didn t want the sugar water anymore 0 Taste aversion can occur with a single pairing of taste CS and illness URUS Medical uses of classical conditioning Ex Conditioning the immune system Ader amp Cohen 1975 How long does taste aversion last in rats Paired sugar water with cyclophos phomide drug used for organ transplant surgery which suppresses the immune system 0 Side effect nausea Taste aversion then exUncUon All the rats were dead because the taste of sweetened water associated with suppressed immune system even in the absence of the immune suppressing drug Systematic desensitization Therapy technique for phobiasfears that associates relaxation with presence of feared objectsituation Gradually exposing person to feared stimulus to rid of phobia Operant conditioning Conditioning in which behavior is associated with consequences rewards amp punishments Edward Thorndike Puzzle Box 0 Once cats gure out to push level for escape they do so faster amp faster 0 Law ofEffect Law of Effect Rewarded behaviors more likely to be repeated BF Skinner Most in uential and controversial of behaviorists o Developed principles of operant conditioning o Skinner Box aka operant chamber Floor electric grid to shock lever that when pushed dispenses food Shaping Gradual process of reinforcing organism for behavior that gets closer amp closer to the desired behavior successive approximations Reinforcement Reinforcer Something that comes after a behavior ncreases likelihood of preforming behavior again Best reinforcers depend on the organism circumstances etc Positive reinforcement You add something Desired reinforce given after a behavior increases future behavior Skinner box food pellet electrical stimulation of hypothalamus Human attention approval money Negative reinforcement You take something away still good Unpeasant stimulus removed following desired behavior increases future behavior Skinner box removal of shock when push the lever Human taking aspirin for headache fastening seatbelt dinging noise Primary vs secondary Primary natural reinforcers don t need to be learned aid survival Water food sleep air Secondary stimulus that is paired with primary reinforce becomes reinforce itself Money grades praise animal clickers Timing of reinforcement More immediate more learning More delay less learning Ex speeding tickets getting pulled over vs getting tickets in the mail Struggle for selfcontrol Preference for immediate reinforcement But often need to delay grati cation Mische 1989 4 year olds given choice small amount of candy now or large amount later Choosing to wait social competence higher achievement in adolescence better SAT scores Schedules of reinforcement Continuous reinforcementfast learning Partia reinforcement slower learning but slower extinction Partial Reinforcement Four schedules of partial reinforcement lnterva Schedules time Rati0 Schedules of desired behaviors Fixed interval schedule Reinforcement for desired behavior after a certain interval of m Skinner box reward for lever press after 5 min don t reward behavior until another 5 min passes Human typical student s study schedule paychecks Behavior slows down after reinforcement picks up right before reinforcement scalloped pattern Skinner Fl schedule lazy Variable interval schedule Reinforcement given for behavior after changing interval of time Skinner box lever reward after 2 min 8 min 5 min Human pop quizzes students continually study rather than cramming Slow but steady behavior Fixed ratio schedule Reinforcement after set number of behaviors Skinner box food pellet after every 10th lever press Human worker paid for every 10 products made frequent yer programs Stepwise pattern of behavior quick bursts then lulls of activity Variable ratio schedule Reinforcement after a variable number of responses Skinner box food pellet after 6 lever presses then 14 then 2 etc Human slot machines commission sales Highest rate of responding most resistant to extinction don t know when you ll be reinforced Punishment Unpleasant event that occurs as a consequence of an undesired behavior Decreases the likelihood of behavior in the future Positive punishment Adding something Undesired behavior leads to introduction of an unpleasant stimulus Negative punishment Taking something away Removal of a pleasant stimulus following undesired behavior Biggest problem with Punishment Tells you what not to do rather than what to do Punishment alone is much less effective than punishment reinforcement but reinforcement is good Mirror neurons Neurons that re when preforming certain actions or when observing someone else engaging in those acUons Why have mirror neurons 1 Understanding others intentions recreating others experiences understand goals behavior Fogassi2005 Monkeys watch researcher do 1 of 2 acts that have different mirror systems We incorporate others goals in our own mirrored recreations Mimicry learning Ability to copy others and use their ideas and make social connchons how we learn language Empathy Recreating others physical and emotional states Theory of mind being able to infer someone else s mental state Keysers 2006 Self reported empathy positively correlated with mirror system activity SelfAwareness Can mirror neurons be turned inward Representations of earlier neural activity Neura basis for introspection


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