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Week 8

by: Victoria Notetaker
Victoria Notetaker

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Lecture notes for 03-15 and 03-17
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Al Dahwi
Class Notes
BIOL 2311
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2311 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Al Dahwi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 03/22/16
Chapter 6: Bones and Skeletal Tissues Announcements:  Passed back scantrons  Grades not as great as the first exam  Be cautious of your study methods Refer to Figure 6.4 The structure of long bone (humerus of arm) pg. 178  Bone will not be an easy material due to some areas requiring memorization!  Will be sending an email about ossification handout/paper  Have two major types of bone o Compact: potion of bone tissue that is solid, dense bone tissue o Spongy: network of flat pieces (needle-like structures) connected to each other leaving spaces between the flat pieces, places where the bone marrow is found  Long bones: look for the regions of the bones for the details o Diaphysis: middle bracket of the figure  Body or shaft of bone  Most scientific word diaphysis  Cylindrical shape-makes up the long axis of bone  Made of layer of compact bone, runs around the circumference  Compact done covers central cavity  Central cavity usually contains the marrow o Epiphyses: 2 ends  Proximal  Distal  Structurally the same: very thin layer of compact bone covering spongy bone  Does not have central cavity  At the junction of the epiphyses and the diaphysis: metaphysis= epiphyseal plate or epiphyseal line  Epiphyseal line is remnant of epiphyseal plate: disk like structure made up of preexisting hyaline cartilage during infancy and childhood  Embryonic life: skeleton mostly hyaline cartilage o After birth most skeleton will be bone o Hyaline cartilage change to bone controlled by sex hormones (Females: 18/Males: 21) o Some areas stay as hyaline cartilage like costal cartilage  The portion persisting in infancy and childhood in the epiphyseal plate due to the growth of the bone o Adulthood and on the plate becomes bone= epiphyseal line o Membranes: 2 membranes 2  Periosteum: double layer membrane covering the external surfaces of bone  Outer layer: fibrous layer o dense connective tissue o nutrition  Inner layer: osteogenic layer o contact with surface of bone tissue o made of osteogenic cells= stem cells  makes all bone cells EXCEPT osteoclast  bone lining cell (not responsible for this material)  Endosteum: double layer membrane covering internal surfaces of bone and strabiculy of spongy bone  Bone marrow: 2 types o Red bone marrow: infancy and childhood  Central Cavity=Marrow cavity o Yellow bone marrow: adulthood on, yellow fatty tissue  Central cavity=Medullary cavity  Short, irregular, flat bones: share similar design o Similar because bones made of short act o Diploe: spongy bone squeezed/sandwiched between compact bone Refer to Figure 6.3 pg. 177  Short, irregular, flat bones: do not have central cavity or bone ends 3 REFER TO RECORDING Hematopoietic tissue: Red Bone Marrow  Infants o Red bone marrow in marrow cavity of diaphysis o Red bone marrow in all areas of spongy bone (including epiphyses of ALL long bones  Adults: o Yellow bone marrow in medullary cavity of diaphysis o Red bone marrow in heads of femur and humerus (red bone marrow in long bone transitioning to yellow bone marrow) o Red bone marrow in diploe of flat bones (sternum) and irregular bones (hipbones)  Summary of the above—Typical location: o Trabecular cavities of spongy bone of long bones>>epiphyses o Diploe of the flat bones  Hematopoietic stem cell is the resident stem cell not found in the blood but in the bone o Production of all blood cells: red and white o Hematopoietic stem cell found in bone for protection  Bone is the toughest tissue in the body Microscopic anatomy of the bone (cells): Refer to Figure 6.5 Comparison of different types of bone cells (pg. 179)  Osteogenic cells-stem cells 4 o Found in osteogenic layer of periosteum and endosteum o Will produce all cells EXCEPT osteoclast  Osteoblast-immature resident cell type of bone o Synthesis and release of the osteoid  Osteoid-unmineralized bone matrix  Osteocyte: mature resident cell type of bone o Maintains the health of the bone tissue o Found in lacunae o Sensing and monitoring different needs of growing or building of the bone  Signals osteoblast for growth  Signals osteoclast to breakdown bone  Osteoclasts-bone absorbing cells o Degrades bone matrix  Cannot afford to loose the calcium salts in bone during degradation  Calcium gets held in osteoclast and released in the interstitial fluid o Does not arise from osteogenic cells  Arises from same stem cells that produces macrophages  Macrophages are monocytes o Multi-nuclei o Very active cell o Ruffled border comes in contact with material of bone matrix 5  Reabsorption bay PG 180 Refer to Figure 6.7 Microscopic anatomy of compact bone (pg. 181)  Top of figure: long bone o Looking at section of diaphysis- layer of compact bone covering central cavity  Repeated units make up the structure of compact bone: structural unit of compact bone o Osteon  Cylindrical shaped structure made up of tubes  One outside of another Refer to figure 6.6 a single osteon (pg. 180)  All mad up of bone matrix  Lamellae- tube made up of bone matrix  Bone matrix is made up of ground substance and collagen fibers o Collagen fibers of each individual tube is running in same direction o However, the tubes alternate fiber direction  Provides resistance to the twisting of bone  Twisting resisters o Calcium salt crystals are usually running between the collagen fibers and in the same direction as the fibers in the specific tube  Reinforce the power of twit resistance 6 Chapter 6: Bones and Skeletal Tissues Announcements:  Dr. Al-Dawhi was going to provide a paper for extra points BUT due to the high number absences 03-17- 2016 decided not to.  Not every exam is going to be open book  Those in attendance advised not to help those that are absent Refer to Figure 6.7 Microscopic anatomy of compact bone (a) (pg. 181)  Top of figure: long bone o Looking at section of diaphysis- layer of compact bone covering central cavity  Repeated units make up the structure of compact bone: structural unit of compact bone o Osteon: Harversian system  Cylindrical shaped structure made up of tubes  One outside of another Refer to figure 6.6 a single osteon (pg. 180)  All made up of bone matrix  Lamellae- hollow tube made up of bone matrix (compact bone-lamellae bone)  Bone matrix is made up of ground substance and collagen fibers and another feature (calcium salts) o Collagen fibers of each individual tube is running in same direction 7  However, the tubes alternate fiber direction  Next tube will have collagen tubes running the opposite direction  Provides resistance to the twisting of bone  Twisting resisters o Calcium salts in the form of crystal  Usually running between the collagen fibers and in the same direction as the fibers in the specific tube  Reinforce the power of twist resistance-due to strength of solid crystals  Core of the osteon: central canal o Central canal: Harversian canal CORE OF OSTEON (HAVERSIAN SYSTEM)  Blood vessels: supply nutrition  Refer to Figure 6.7 Microscopic anatomy of compact bone (b) (pg. 181) o Osteocytes: found in lacuna  Lacuna with form to the shape of the osteocytes (cytoplasmic extensions: star- shaped)  Located at the junction of the lamellae o Canaliculi: link osteocytes through the lamellae  Provides communication between osteocytes  Exchange of nutrition and waste material  NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FORMATION OF CANALICULI o Perforating canals: Volkmann’s canals 8  Connect the osteon central canals  Provide connection of blood vessels of osteon to the blood vessels of the central cavity of the diaphysis o Interstitial lamellae: incomplete lamellae  Found in the gap between the forming osteons o Circumferential lamellae: extend around the entire circumference of the diaphysis (outside rings in figure) Refer to figure 6.3 Flat bones consist of a layer of spongy bone sandwiched between two thin layers of compact bone (pg. 177)  Spongy bone: Trabeculae o Bone matrix is simply referred to as the lamellae (not necessarily a tube shape)  Ex. Interstitial lamellae and circumferential lamellae  Could be filling spaces, covering circumference  Irregularly arranged lamellae in the spongy bone  Irregularly arranged bone matrix o Osteocytes present o Canaliculi between the osteocytes o Main source of nutrients from the endosteum  Refer to description of endosteum from 03-15- 2016 lecture Diagram drawn by Dr. Al-Dawhi Organic 9 Bone Inorgani c  Osteoid: unmineralized organic bone matrix o Produced by the osteoblasts  Inorganic: Hydroxyapatites (Mineral salts) o Calcium Phosphate (Calcium Salts)  Aligned along the collagen fibers  Ossification: Osteogenesis o Look at bone formation in terms of age o Embryo:  Skeleton made of hyaline cartilage and connective tissue membranes  About week 8 the skeleton begins to change to the boney skeleton through: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification Refer to figure 6.9 Intramembranous ossification (pg. 185) o Intramembranous ossification: Takes place at the 8 week of embryo life  Flat bones of skull and clavicle  Flat bones: Goal to form spongy bone sandwiched between compact bone  #1 in figure is the formation of the ossification center o Mesenchymal cells cluster and differentiate osteogenic cells which differentiate into osteoblasts 10  Mesenchymal cells cluster because all connective tissue cells derive from mesenchymal cells  #2 Secretion/release of osteoid and calcification (deposit of calcium) o Osteoblast responsible for the synthesis and release of the organic unmineralized matrix= ground fibers and collagen fibers o Surrounded osteoblasts become osteocytes (lacuna surrounded)  #3 Arrangement of spongy bone and formation of periosteum o Osteoid laid down (secreted) between the mesenchymal blood vessels o Very vascularized mesenchymal condensation forms the periosteum  #4 Formation of the compact bone and red bone marrow o Deep to the periosteum layer of bone becomes thick- compact bone  NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR BONE MARROW FORMATION Refer to figure 6.8 Endochondral ossification in a long bone (pg. 184) Dr. Al-Dawhi will send the figure she used and summary of text associated with the figure o Endochondral ossification: within the cartilage models that make up the embryonic skeleton  Why do we have bone formation process in the connective tissue membranes and cartilage and not from day one? 11 o Connective tissue and cartilage allow space for mitotic division and thus allow the growth to occur in the fetus  Starting with cartilage model and growth then the conversion to future bone o Mesenchymal cells cluster where bone will form  Differentiate into chondrogenic cells which differentiate to chondroblasts  Chondroblasts with synthesize and release the  Chondroblast with get surrounded by chondral matrix and become chondrocytes  Hypertrophy- increase in size of cells  Some hypertrophy chondrocytes will burst and release contents—release of material will trigger change of pH inside cartilage model o pH change- factor that promotes calcification  Hypertrophied chondrocytes that don’t burst will die due to lack of nutrition  Creates lacunae  Lacunae will merge together to form cavity in middle of cartilage model- cavitation of cartilage model  Formation of primary ossification center:  After cavitation- nutrient artery will penetrate the cartilage model in the middle 12 o The perichondrium triggered to changes to periosteum (source for osteoblasts)  Osteogenic cells in periosteum will differentiate into osteoblasts: synthesize and release thin bone matrix on the periosteum collar  Osteoclasts will breakdown trabeculae to form central canal o After birth: looking at growth in length and circumference in bone o After adulthood: bone formations limited to bone deposits and breakdown of bone  Bone reabsorption 13


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