Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes PSYCH 1001 - 01
U of M
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sorensen on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1001 - 01 at U of M taught by Kathleen Briggs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at U of M.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Chapter 2 Research Methods Ii Facilitated Communication Facilitator helps children with Infantile Autism type 0 Disorder is a motor de cit not mental 0 Studies showed that facilitators subconsciously typed for children 39Ell Prefrontal Lobotomy Surgical procedure that severs bers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus 0 Thought to cure schizophrenia a With both of these methods systematic research was not conducted only cinica observation was used In The same psychological process that works well in most situations also predisposes us to errors in thinking a Two modes of thinking 0 System one Intuitive Snap quick gut 0 System two Analytical Slow re ective I Heuristic Mental shortcut or rule of thumb that helps streamline thinking and make sense of the world a Naturalistic Observation 0 Advantages High in external validity o Disadvantages Low in internal validity Does not allow for inferred causation a Case Studies 0 Advantages Can provide existence proofs Aow study of rare and unusual phenomenon Can offer insight for later systematic testing 0 Disadvantages Typically anecdotal Cannot aow inferred causation a Correlational Designs 0 Advantages Can hep predict behavior 0 Disadvantages Doesn39t aow inferred causation 4 Experimental Design 0 Advantages Infer causation High in internal validity o Disadvantages Sometimes low in external validity Ii Naturalistic Observation Watching behavior in the real world without trying to manipulate the situation a External Validity Extent to which cause and affect inferences can be drawn from a study Il Case Study Research design that examines one person or a small group of people in depth often for an extended period of time i Existence Proofs Demonstrations that a given psychological phenomenon can occur Random Selection Procedure that ensures every person in the population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate Reliability Consistency of measurements Test to Retest Reliability Yields similar scores over time Interrogator Reliability Extent to which different people who conduct an interview or make behavioral observations agree on the characteristics that they are observing Validity Extent to which a measure assess what it claims to measure Phrasing of a question is important Reliability is necessary for validity Advantages of selfreport measure 0 Easy to administer 0 Work reasonable well for personality traits and behaviors Disadvantages of selfreport measure 0 Tendency of participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items 0 Tendency to make oneself appear psychologically disturbed with the aim of achieving a clearcut personal goal Rating Data Asking others who know the target subject well about the target 0 Disadvantages Halo Effect Tendency of ratings of one positive characteristic to in uence the ratings of other positive characteristics 0 Advantages Observers don39t have blind spots Correlational Design Research design that examines the extent to which two variables are associated 0 Positive Correlation As one variable changes the other goes in the same direction 0 Zero Correlation Variables don39t go together at all 0 Negative Correlation As one variable changes the other goes in the opposite direction 0 Correlational Coefficient Statistics psychologist use to measure correlations Range from 10 to 10 Values less than 1 are a less than perfect correlational coef cient To nd strength of a correlational coef cient look at the absolute value Scatterplot Grouping of points on a two dimensional graph where each dot represents are person s data Psychology is the science of exceptions Illusory Correlation Perception that a statistical association between variables exists when it does not 0 Form superstitions o The way we look at the great fourfold table of life can affect this Mind is bad at detecting nonevents TI a Experimental designs permit cause and effect inferences because researchers manipulate data 0 Differences in experiment created 0 Difference in correlation measured Components of an experiment 0 Random assignments of participants to conditions Experimental and control group 0 Manipulation of independent variable Experimental group receives manipulation Control group does not receive manipulation Random selection is not the same as random assignment 0 Selection is allowing every person equal chance of participation 0 Assignment is how participants are grouped after selection Independent Variable Experimenter manipulator Dependent Variable Experimenter measures Operational De nition Working de nition of what a researcher is measuring For an experiment to have adequate internal validity the ability to draw cause and effect inferences the independent variable must be the only difference between the groups Confounding Variable Variable that differs between experimental and control group other than the independent variable Problems with experimental design 0 Placebo Effect Improvement resulting from the expectation of improvement Patients must remain blind not knowing if they are receiving the placebo or the medicine 0 Nocebo Effect Harm resulting from expectation of harm Experimenter Expectancy Effect Rosenthal Effect Researcher s hypothesis lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study Double Blind Neither the researchers or participants know who is in the experimental or control group Demand Characteristics Cues that participants pick up that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher s hypothesis Statistics Application of mathematics to describe and analyze data Descriptive Statistics Numerical characterizations that describe data 0 Central Tendency Measure of central scores in a data set or where the group tends to cluster Mean Average Median Middle score in data set Mode Most frequent score in a data set Outliers Score way outside of the others 0 Variability Dispersion measure of how loosely or tightly bunched scores are Range Difference between the highest and lowest score Standard Deviation Measure of variability that accounts for how far each data point is from the mean lnferential Statistics Mathematical method that determines whether something can be generalized from a sample to the whole population Statistically Signi cant Finding occurred by chance less than 5 in 100 times a Practical Signi cance Real world signi cance