Lecture Week 2
U of M
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sorensen on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1001 - 01 at U of M taught by Kathleen Briggs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at U of M.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Lecture Scienti c Thinking and Psychology 91415 Characteristics of science that work against human tendencies Scienti c Knowledge Tentative and open to revision Scientists strive for humility Scientists are skeptical Scienti c explanations cannot be opinion they must be supported by evidence 0 Scienti c thinking applies to everyday life Theory in Psychology 0 Theory Idea that explains an observation 0 Theories account for existing data and generate predictions about how new data that has not been observed yet will turn out o Heuristically Purpose of a Theory 0 Organize observations 0 Understand the nature of phenomenon 0 Explain relationships 0 Make Predictions Theory A system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations 0 Logical system of constructs and hypotheses based on observations 0 Constructs are variables in theories 0 Hypotheses connect constructs and account for relationships Construct Inferred cause of measurable events of processes 0 Should have effects IogicaIIy related to it 0 Effects should be IogicaIIy related to each other 0 A way to think about the cause and effect relationship when the cause cannot be seen 6 Principles of scienti c thinking 0 Ruling out rival hypothesis Correlation v Causation Falsi ability RepHcathy Extraordinary Claims Occam39s Razor Simple explanation 0000 00000 Lecture From Description to Correlation 92315 Goals of Science 0 Description Accurate measurement important 0 Prediction Based on our descriptions 0 Control Using our descriptions and ability to predict to create better environments Basic Approaches to studying human behavior 0 Descriptive Describing the world as it is Identifying key variables CorrelationaI Methods Using statistics to explore connections between characters and events 0 Experimental Manipulating events to determine cause and effect relationships 0 Types of descriptive methods 0 Naturalistic Observation Watching behavior unfold in the real world 0 Case Studies Finding out things about an individual helps to understand some issues or characteristics 0 Surveys Using questionnaires and other means to determine attributes Used primarily to understand groups Help understand the relationships between group variables Basically large scale interviews 0 Types of Observational Research 0 Covert Researcher unknown to subject 0 Overt Subject is aware researcher is observing 0 Participation Researcher takes part in subjects activities and records observations 0 Correlation Exists when two variables are related to each other 0 Correlations range from 10 to 10 0 The greater the correlational coef cient is from 0 the stronger the relationship Correlational Study One that utilizes the correlation coef cient to show a relationship between variables Unknowns with correlation o Direction of causality Which causes which 0 If a third variable causes both Lecture Research Methods From Individual Differences to Experimentation 92515 4 Examine Individual Differences What differences are meaningful How do differences relate to one another How do we characterize differences We use measurements procedures quantify observations on psychological variables to study individual differences 0 Test construction Ii Normal Distribution Normal curve or bell curve Many human attributes and behaviors when measured take the form of a normal distribution a Experiments Psychology s Ultimate Tool 0 Manipulate variable cause to determine the results effects 0 Done under controlled conditions 0 Determine cause and effect relationships 0 Likely to occur after we have gathered information via the other research methods a Elements of a Classic Experiment 0 Test a hypothesis 0 Experimental group 0 Control Group 0 Random Assignment Equate groups OOOO 0 Independent Variable The condition or event that the experimenter varies considered to be a cause 0 Dependent Variable The result that is measured considered to be the effect 1 Construct An inferred cause of measurable effects or processes a Two basic requirements for an experiments 0 Random assignment of participants to conditions 0 Manipulation of Independent Variable