Week 3 Lecture Notes
Week 3 Lecture Notes PSYCH 1001 - 01
U of M
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sorensen on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1001 - 01 at U of M taught by Kathleen Briggs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at U of M.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Lecture Biological Psychology 91615 4i Biological Psychology Study of neural substrates of behavior and mental processes 0 Meaning and relationship between behavior and mental processes 0 Includes perception memory emotion feeling language etc In Fundamental Assumption Human brains and brains of other animals are homologous producing some similarities in behavioral patterns 1 Other species provide a model not replica of relationship between human nervous system and human behavior a Why study animals 0 Allow for more invasive procedures with strict ethical guidelines 0 Provide a simpli ed mode simpler brain simpler behavior m Neurons Building blocks of nervous system a Neurons are cells 0 Similarities Cell Membranes Nucleus Organelles 0 Differences Long processes dendrites and axon Conduct electrical signals Commemorate through synapses in Neurons Dramatic variations in morphology shape a Nervous System 0 Central Nervous System CNS Brain Spinal Cord 0 Peripheral Nervous System PNS Autonomic Sympathetic Parasympathetic Somatic a Simple Re ex Pathway Sense organ gt Sensory neuron gt lnterneurons gt Motor neuron gt Muscle a Autonomic Nervous System 0 Regulates basic bodily functions The Four F39s Flight 0 Fight Feeding Reproductive Behaviors Parasympathetic Rest energy storage Sympathetic Action energy mobilization a Functional Organization Phrenology a Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex o Occipital Vision 0 Temporal Object recognition 0 Parietal Spacial attention o Frontal Executive functions Occipital Lobe Visual Cortex 0 Primary Visual Cortex First destination in cortex for visual information 0 Visual scene broken down into simplest element dark light edges of speci c orientations Temporal Lobes Object recognition longterm memory primary auditory cortex language comprehension emotions 0 Object Recognition Elements of visual scene are put back together into a whole with attached names 0 Temporal Lobe Disorders Agnosia De cit in ability to recognize objects Prosopagnosia De cit in ability to recognize faces caused by damage to Fusiform Gyrus face area Informed Consent Informing research participants about what is involved in the study before asking them to participate 0 Participants should be fully informed about the purpose duration potential risks discomfort or adverse advents 0 Participants enter study voluntarily and informed that they have the right to withdraw from the study at any time 0 Given a contact with information on who can answer questions about the research and the participant39s rights Deception Researchers deliberately mislead participants about the design and purpose of the study 0 Researchers inform participation what study was about after completion American Psychological Association asserts deception is only acceptable when 0 Researchers are unable to perform the study without deception 0 Scienti c knowledge gained outweighs costs Lecture Biological Psychology Day 2 91815 Parietal Lobe Somatosensory Cortex special attention 0 Representation of how the body is arranged In a topographical map Conservation of constituent parts Changes relative to size and position Much great proportion of brain space dedicated to certain body parts face and hands than to others Plasticity Brain39s capacity to change aspects of its structure or function based on experience or in response to injury Neglect Syndrome Neglect of half of space following injury to parietal cortex on one side of the brain Spatial Attention Rapid unconscious processing of visual information in the peripheral visual eld even before eye movements can occur 0 Functions Draws conscious attention to things that may be important Allows for rapid response 0 Superb at detecting and recognizing the natural movements of people and animals Frontal Lobe Executive function planning reasoning sequencing shortterm memory language production 0 O 0 Executive Function Selecting and sequencing responses Selecting appropriate response Suppressing inappropriate responses Frontal lobe patients have dif culty in suppressing inappropriate responses Nerve lmpulse Probe Test Conduction speed is very rapid Magnitude is all or nothing lmpulse Frequency Intensity of neuronal activation Day three 92115 Synapse O O 0 Clearance of neurotransmitters can happen in two ways Recycling or repackaging Enzyme breakdown Summary Nerve impulses arrive at synapse Neurotransmitter molecules released Neurotransmitter molecules bend to receptor molecules Channel molecules open up let positively or negatively charged ions in Neurotransmitter molecules degraded or recaptured by a presynaptic cell Small synaptic currents translated into new nerve impulse in postsynaptic cell through the summation of synaptic currents If the sum of synaptic currents exceeds the threshold nerve impulses are generated Neurotransmitters act on multiple receptors difference affects depending on the receptor 0 Drugs work by decreasing or increasing the effectiveness of neurotransmitters Mental illnesses associated with imbalances in speci c neurotransmitter systems 0 Depression is imbalances ln serotonin or norepinephrine How antidepressants work 0 00000 lncrease neurotransmitter release MAlOs Block neurotransmitter clearance Triglycerides SSRls Activate receptor Agonist Decrease neurotransmitter release Block receptor Antagonist Block channel Hebb39s Rule When an atom of cell A excites cell B and repeatedly and persistently takes part in ring it some growth processes or metabolic changes take place in one or both cells so that A39s ef ciency as one of the cells ring B is enhanced 0 Simpli ed Cells that re together wire together LongTerm Potentiation Cellular phenomenon high frequency stimulation increases the ability of cell A to activate cell B 0 Two Stages Induction and maintenance 0 ln longterm maintenance of LTP Growth of dendrites neuronal branches Enlargement of dendrite spines Increase in number of excitatory receptors Location of Memory Cognitive and behavioral functions are localized in speci c brain regions 0 Hippocampus in rats and mice contain place cells cell that produce high frequency nerve impulses when the animal is situated In a certain place Long Term Potentiation and Long Term Memory 0 When LTP is blocked in the cells of mice new memory formation is blocked 0 When LTP is enhanced in the cells of mice formation of memories is enhanced LTP in Hippocampus is important for memory 0 Don t know how to improve memory yet
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