Week of Notes 10/5-10/9
Week of Notes 10/5-10/9 CH 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rani Vance on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Chem 101 Week of Notes 105109 Stable Electron Arrangements and Ion Charges Metals form cations lost electrons to get the same electron configuration as the previous noble gas nonmetals form anions by gaining electrons to get the same electron configuration as the next noble gas x Octet Rule When atoms bond they tend to gain lose or share electrons to result in eight valence electrons n2 np6 Exceptions He Li Be B attain an electron configuration like He Lewis Symbols can be used to represent the transfer of electrons from metal atom to nonmetal atoms resulting in ions that are attracted to each other and therefore bond l E N Lewis Theory predicts the number of electrons a metal atom should lose or a nonmetal atom should gain in order to attain a stable electron arrangement octet rule Predicting Ionic Formulas electrons transferred when metal loses all its valence electrons electron and the nonmetal has an octet Ionic Bonding in solid state ionic compounds tend to form crystals held together by electrostatic interactions breaking down crystal Ionic Compounds to conduct electricity a material must have charged particles that are able to ow through the material ionic compounds dissolve in water solution conducts Chapter 5 Lewis Diagrams for Covalent Compounds nonmetals have relatively high ionization energy so it is difficult to remove electrons from them nonmetals bond together by sharing electrons sharing holds atoms together potential energy lowest between two atoms Clicker Question How many valence electrons do main group elements want to obtain Answer 8 valence electrons Lewis Theory of Covalent Bonding atoms can achieve octet of valence electrons by sharing their valence electrons with one another sharecovalent bonding 1 to l m b izoldiS law mgant m rumurn r UNA quotquot1 8 lfrg Wf m a 111 MNWHS mm 73 A 6 ant V W H 45 W W WWJ panning ramm Omaggz gm mm 39 a mt Wt MW awwlmrq wmmr m l W M 6 LS 6w l 0jz or mm pm c flitIiiquot l 34 c39 quot398 396 Lewis think valence electrons Diagrams of Covalent Bonding When two atoms share 1 pair of electrons it is called a single covalent in a double covalent bond two atoms share two pairs of electrons share 4 electrons in double covalent triple covalent three atoms share two pairs of electrons share 6 electrons in triple covalent atoms do not always have the same number of lone pair electrons they had before bonding Covalent bonding the more electrons two atoms share the shorter the bond should be 9higher bond ordershorter bond Lewis Theory Predicts that the more electrons two atoms share the stronger the bond should be triple bonds require lots of energy to break them double bonds require a medium amount of energy to break them single bonds require less energy to break thme Lewis theory implies that some combinations should be stable whereas others should not because stable combinations result in octets or duets Lewis theory of covalent bonding implies that the attractions between atoms are directional interactions between bonding is strong but interactions between molecules is weaker Predicts melting and boiling points Melting point generally lt 300 degrees C molecular compounds are found in all 3 states at room temperature Covalent bonding neither molecular solids nor liquids conduct electricity no charged particles around all material to conduct 109 Naming Ionic Compounds How to Name Ionic Compounds remember ionic compounds form as a result of the attraction between cations and anions compounds are neutral Write formula of a compound 1 write the symbol for the metal cation and its charge 2 write the symbol for the nonmetal cation and its charge 3 charge without sign becomes subscript for other ion 4 reduce to smallest whole number ratio Naming ionic compounds binary ionic compounds containing a metla that forms one type of cation are simple to name NaC19 cation is same as element name of anion ide suffix sodium chloride Metals that can form two types of cations Chromium Cr2 Chromium II Cr3 Chromium 111 Iron Fe2 Iron 11 Ferrous Fe3 Iron III Ferric Tin Sn2 Tin II stannous Sn4 Tin IV stanic Copper Cu1 Copper 1 cuprous Cu2 Copper 11 cupric Patterns of Polyatomic Ions 1 Elements in same column form similar polyatomic ions 2 if polyatomic ions start With W H add hydrogen Naming Ionic Compounds Na2 SO4 1 Identify the ions 2 name the cation sodium 3 name the anion sulfate 4 sodium sulfate Polyatomic Ions ate9 chlorate ate ions 1 0 9 same charge per prefix ate ion 1 0 9 same charge ite suffix ate ion 2 0 9 same charge hypo prefix ite suffix Hydrated Ionic Compounds many ionic compounds form hydrates Naming Molecular Compounds prefix name of 1st element prefix base name of second element ide