Week 1 lecture notes
Week 1 lecture notes History 112
Popular in History 112: 1865 to present
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by JamesH on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Dr. Sklaroff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see History 112: 1865 to present in History at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
History 112 Week one 825828 Post Civil War 1865 Reconstruction in the south Reconstruction era Main Focus Reconstruction Transition Political interests Economic transformations Four million slaves were freed between the years of 1861 1865 Abraham Lincoln is assassinated in 1865 Andrew Johnson of the Democratic Party becomes president until 1869 Creation of a New South after the civil war Slowly transitions the south from a system of slavery to a system of freedom for former slaves The north has a lot of interest in the south during reconstruction Sharecropping becomes the dominate form of labor many former slaves begin to own land after being granted freedom This gives many former slaves a type of autonomy during the reconstruction era 0 Sharecropping is when an individual leases out a portion of land to a tenant or tenants The tenants then grows crop on that land and pays a percentage of the crop to the land lord Both blacks and whites sharecrop dominate crop is cotton Most laborers are typically poor Large cycle of debt begins to grow when profit is owed to merchants and planters Planters cannot grow enough crop merchants buy less crops at same price with promise that the loss will be covered with a greater portion of the farmer s goods however the farmer has less to support themMerchants take out a lien on the farmers land Also Politics during Reconstruction Slavery was abolished however black codes were established 0 Black codes are not a legalized system of slavery but they limit the amount of freedom African Americans have Black codes are around for a very short time The President is generous to confederates after the war pardons many former confederate soldiers Andrew Johnson does not do much to help former slaves This pushes Presidential Reconstruction This was when new reforms in the government changed the balance of power and affected the laws that were passed Many old republicans push for more equality in the south 0 Freedman s Bureau is established in 1867 designed to help former slaves Radical Republicans in the south and north pushed for equality this is known as radical reconstruction Reconstruction pushed by radicals 0 People like Charles Sumner reduced the power of eX confederates while people like Thaddeus Stevens rallied more radical republicans in the south Radical Reconstruction starts in 1867 and ends in various years depending on the state Radical Republicans then split the south into five military zones and help draft the 14th amendment abolishing slavery This puts a lot of power in the hands of the republicans at this time Also during this time the Democratic Party is formed 827 Notes from the lecture Main Points Black rights and resources during the civil war and Southern economy and political factions groups Construction of the new south was in uenced by many groups Republicans in the south 0 Blacks 0 Carpet baggers aka northerners in the south 0 Scalawags white southerners loyal to the north in favor of reconstruction against confederates Andrew Jackson had to face radical republicans when trying push his democratic agenda This shows how much power republicans had gained Later on the fifth tenth amendment was passed this prevents states from baring voters because of race but not because of gender Black communities make much progress because of the laws that were passed During reconstruction over two thousand African Americans serve public office fourteen serve in the House and two serve in the senate The Carpet Baggers in uenced the political system to a degree during reconstruction These people were normally well educated middle class citizens Economy and Infrastructure The civil war had left much of the south destroyed or badly damaged Reconstruction slowly rebuilt many schools banks hospitals railroads etc However schools were segregated during this time Reconstruction also help sharecropping become the dominate form of labor but high amounts of debt peonage stunted much of the laborers Fall of Reconstruction Even though reconstruction removed most of the power from old confederates and slave owners there were still people who were against reconstruction and wanted to return the south to the old ways In fact many old southemers ignored the laws meant to help blacks 0 One way that the south tried to stop reconstruction was through the Planters counter revolution which led to the formation of the KKK 0 The KKK served as a response to try and redeem the south Led by Nathan B Forest the KKK served as the military arm of the Democratic Party They used Violence and intimidation to scare off blacks and whites in favor of reconstruction 0 Force facts and the act of 1871 are implemented to stop the Klan However by the 1870 s the north s interest in the south begins to wane Republicans conservative and moderate begin going to the Democratic Party By 1874 the Democratic Party vastly grows in power During the presidential race between Rutherford B Hayes Republican and Samuel Tilden Democrat fight to secure votes in the south Race becomes grid locked and a few key states were disputed ie OR SC LA FL The two parties then come to a compromise The deal states that Hayes can become president if southern reconstruction is ended Republicans take the deal and Hayes becomes president in 1877 effectively ended reconstruction and black progress in the south This is known as the compromise of 1877 End