Memory and Attention
Memory and Attention PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camila Perez on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Gayle Fraught, Callie Gibson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see intro to psychology 101 in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Memory and Attention Visual Attentionworks selectively and serially We have to be able to make selectively based on version properties Auditory Attention Evidence that we weakly process some unattended information we can attend to more than one message at a time but we cannot do this well Selective Attention we lter incoming information Nervous Systems capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge I remember how to walk breath etc memory enables organism to take information form experiences and store it for retrieval at a later time Why we need Memory s to retain useful skills tso recognize familiar people and places to build our capacity to use language to sustain culture Processing of Information Encodingthe info that gets into our brains that allows it to be stored Storage the info is held in a way that allows it to later be retrieved Retrievalreactivating and recalling the info producing it in a form similar to the way it was encoded Implicit and Explicit Implicitremembering something unattended can be brought back by Priming can do it while doing other things ExplicitDeclarativedeliberate and conscious is divided into two parts Eg g t c ae tt quotke dates Modifying the Model AtikinsonShifferin Model1986 More goes on in short term memory besides rehearsal this is now called working memory Some information seems to go straight from sensory experience into longterm memory this is automatic processing Dnmnmknrinn uuknn Nowaw pue sasuas Jl lO liq papJoan aJe mung AJosuas Aueuq men Jauum Mowaw passaDOJd s uoneuuoiu sluJ JO awos UJJalILJOLlS SJ 9L3J ubnOJuJ papoaua JS UJOJJ SBAOUJ UOHQUJJOJU o IUOUJBIN UJJal5U0 J31 paAamaJ aq uegj Stimulus to Sensory to Working to ShortTerm Memory Short Term Memory is made up of a number of components or subsystems Working Memory active part of STM carries out on going tasks does not just hold information passively rehearsing it moves it to short term memory Short Term Memory stores information for about 18 Seconds Millers magic number for short term memory s 7 Items can we works number sentences Chunkingputting elements in meaningful group short term memory is like a scratch pad Long Term Memoryis relatively permanent put memories in reserve for later retrieval limitless Shallow Processing Structural Encoding attention to how something looks Phonemic Encoding attention to how something sounds Deep Processing Semantic Encoding plays attending to the meaning or what it brings up Serial Position Effect items presented earl or later are remember better that those in the middle Primacy Effect Better memory for things presented at the beginning Regency Effect Better memories for things presented at the end Memory based on Meaning maintenance rehearsal involves repetition eaborative rehearsal involves encoding information more meaningfully basis of semantic meaning is more effective than maintenance rehearsal Storing Memories Schemas unit of knowledge cognitive structure that helps a person perceive organize and process information Purpose of schemas help us make sense of the world very quickly Probems with schemas is you can be prejudice self reference effect Forgetting and Memory Distortion Amnesia is a de cit in LTM that results from disease brain injury or psychological trauma Retrograde amnesia condition in which people lose part memories such as memories for events facts people or even personal information Anterograde amnesia condition in which people lose ability to form new memories Consolidation of Memories process by which immediate memories become lasting memories remembering something seen or heard involves reactivating cortical circuits involved in initial seeing or hearing Seep may play an important role in the consolidation of memories Reconsolidation of Memoires neural processes involved when memories recalled and then stores again for later retrieval why our memories sucks once memoires activated need to be consolidated again to be stored back in memory it repeats itself each time a memory is activated and placed back in storage EE 1 Transience Forgetting Reduced memory over Forgetting the plot of a movie time 2 Blocking Forgetting Inability to remember Failing to recall the name of a needed information person you meet on the street 3 Absentmind Forgetting Reduced memory due to Losing your keys or forgetting a edness failing to pay attention lunch date 4 Persistence Undesirable The resurgence of Remembering an embarrassing unwanted or disturbing faux pas memories that we would like to forget 5 Misattribution Distortion Assigning a memory to the Falser thinking that Richard wrong source Shiffrin is famous because his name is well known 6 Bias Distortion Influence of current Remembering past attitudes as knowledge on our memory similar to current attitudes even for past events though they have changed 7 Suggestibility Distortion Altering a memory because Developing false memories for of misleading information events that did not happen Forgettingthe inability to retrieve information from LTM abiity to forget is as important as ability to remember method of saving forgetting occurs rapidly over rst few days but then levels off 1 Transience Proactive interference prior information inhibits ability to remember new info Retroactive interference new information inhibits ability to remember old information a terfrerence lbl matters39an Rewo active Study Sway psyzztfogy Sggf 39ioagnZESStimpaired interference psychology anthropology test by study of anthropology Psychiofogical Sciencei Me Figure 722 2013 W W Norton 8t Company Inc 2 Blocking is temporary inability to retrieve speci c information like when you have something on the tip of your tongue 3 Absentmindedness caused by shallow encoding which occurs when people fail to pay suf cient attention 4 Persistence is the recurrence of unwanted memories like PTSD PTSD is commonly trigger by events that threaten people or those close to them 5 Source Misattribution amp Amnesia Source Mlsattribtution memory distortion that occurs when people misremember times place person or circumstances involved with a memory Source Amnesia type od amnesia that occurs when person shows memory for event but cannot remember where information was encountered 6 Memory Bias changing of memories over times so they become consistent with current beliefs or attitudes people tend to recall their past beliefs and attitudes as being consistent with their current ones most societies histories downplay past behaviors that were unsavory immoral and even murderous 7 Suggestibility and Misinformation Suggestibiltydevelopment of biased memories from misleading information Eyewitnesses might inadvertently develop stronger memories for inaccurate details due to reconsolidation why people make bad eye witnesses Flashbulb Memories vivid episodic memories for circumstances in which people rst learned of a surprising consequential or emotionally arousing events can have biased or inaccurate memoires surprising and important events generate strongest ashbulb memories Flash Memoires might remember an incident even if it did not happen memories can be distorted by false information imagining an even might lead to confusion of mental image with a real memory chidren are particularly susceptible to false memories Repressed Memories egitimacy of repressed memoires debated
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