Life Cycle Development - Week7 Notes
Life Cycle Development - Week7 Notes PSYC 2310
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristina Saiz on Monday October 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Week 7 Life Cycle Development Timeline Mental Representation 018 months early forms of mental representation Evidence crossmodal transfer facial imitation 18 months capacity for hypothetical representations amp explosion in vocabulary acquisition 2236 months pretend play 28 months increase in use of some mental state terms knowing is a mental state 36 months capacity for dual representation 35 years growth in understanding of false beliefs amp representation change theories of mind child begins to think about what s in your head Dual representation symbol is a representation Judy DeLoache dual representation study of ages 25 watched as mini toy was hidden as a doll house 80 at age 3 were able to find the mini tennis racket but only 20 of children who were 2 12 were able to find the mini toy hypothesis maybe children have difficulty representing an object in two ways as a toy amp as a symbol of representation testing this hypothesis with quotshrinking troll doll they showed kids a room with normal sized items and toys and told them that there was a shrinking machine to make the toys smaller or something like that and had them locate the troll doll in the normal sized room then they took the kids out of the room and quotshrunkquot the room and everything in it and asked them again to find the troll doll which would be in the same place as in the original big room Theory of Mind normal adults attribute to one another and to themselves unobservable mental states such as goals thoughts feelings and use these to explain and predict behavior This human capacity for reasoning about mental causes of action is called a theory of mind 3 year old amp 8 month protocol a kid was shown a box The kid knows what the box is and gets excited because he says they re Smarties candies The experimenter opens the box to reveal small pencils inside the box kid is surprised to see there are pencils in there experimenter puts the small pencils back in the box and asks the kid quotwhat did you first think was in the box the kid replies he thought there were pencils in the box which isn t true because he excitedly thought they were Smarties and when he was asked what his friend will think is in the box he says quothe ll say there are pencils in the box this is similar to the sponge rock he showed us in class It looks like a rock and sounded like a rock when he hit it against the table but when he tossed it at someone it was actually a squishy sponge Children 34 years old have great difficulty guiding their actions by rules held in mind that require acting contrary to their inclinations such as with the Simon says game you re only supposed to do what Simon says but when they say a command without saying quotSimon says before it it s difficult for them not to do the task example there was a study where children were told to say night when they saw a picture of the sun and say quotdayquot when they saw a picture of the stars their quick first response saying daynight 65 got it correct when they told the kids to sing a few words from a song they taught them before answering daynight 91 of children got it correct 4 Properties of Thought 1 Artificialism 2 Egocentrism 3 Animism 4 Realism Piaget asking a child s conception of a dream interviews with kids one of them said dreams are just thinking while you sleep and come from the soul He interviewed a lot of kids and tried to determine if there was a pattern to their answers 1 Artificialism refers to the belief that all natural objects are made by people 2 Egocentrism failure to distinguish your own point of view from someone else s 3 Animism belief that inanimate objects are alive 4 m failure to distinguish objective from subjective reality Children s Perception of Conservation of Liquid children 36 years old shown two glasses with water and asked how much is in the glasses equal or different amounts One glass gets poured into a different glass such as a graduated cylinder tall but think glass and they asked again if they had equal or different amounts and the kids said the cylinder has more Period of Concrete Operations Conservation Seriation capacity to order such as giving a command quotdon t do that PartWhole Relations we skipped PerspectiveTaking also skipped Moral Judgements of Children Moral Realism Immanent Judgement immanent meaning something is a part of nature not to be confused with imminent like impending doom kids were told a story about 2 boys stealing apples from a tree or something They were caught by some authority figure and both ran off in different directions One of them went over a rickety old bridge to get away but fell through and died After being told this story experimenter asked if the boy would still have fallen through if he hadn t stolen the apples Piaget study 1932 of percent displaying immanent justice reasoning age 69 86 age 789 73 age 9109 54 age 1112 34 Jose study redone in 1991 the numbers were different but the pattern was similar Moral Development Behaviorist Explanations Reinforcement Skinner rewards punishment timeout Modeling Bandura Bobo study quotif I watch someone else s behavior I will adopt this same behavior Bobo Doll hit with mallet kicked and knocked down with a punch the child who was watching did the exact same thing to the doll Freud Origins of Conscience between ages 35 1 Increasing attraction to opposite sex parent like to sit in their lap and be read to by this parent 2 Increasing number of constraints on child s time with opposite sex parent 3 Child resents interference with opposite sex parent