Introduction to Film Aesthetics and Analysis
Introduction to Film Aesthetics and Analysis CNPH 10100
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Isidro Wolff on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CNPH 10100 at Ithaca College taught by Patricia Zimmermann in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/222282/cnph-10100-ithaca-college in Cinema And Media Studies at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Introduction to Film Aesthetics and Analysis SoundImage Relationships Primary terms Synchronoussound that has a visible onscreen source exp lips moving to dialogue Asynchronoussound that doesn t have a visible onscreen source exp Voiceover Synchronizationthe visible coordination of the voice with the body from which it is emanating Voice offvoice that originates from a speaker who can be inferred to be present in the scene but who is not currently visible Voiceovercharacters within the diegesis cannot hear this voice Onscreensee synchronous sound Offscreensee asynchronous sound Diegeticsound emerging from the ctional world on or o screen can be sfx or voices Non diegeticsound not from the characters world Internal diegetic soundvoiceovers that can be construed as the thoughts of a character but heard by the viewer Parallelismwhen the soundtrack and image say the same thing exp Voice over about animals with animal footage Counterpoint contrapuntal soundtwo different means are implied by soundtrack and image exp Voiceover talking about death while a calm scene is played Source musicdiegetic music such as a shot of a band performing at a party or characters listening to music Background musicunderscoringputs more emphasis on what is happening dramatically Cuea piece ofmusic composed for a particular place in a lm MotifsMotivesrefers to a recurrent thematic element in a lm that is repeated in a significant way or pattern examples of motifs a symbol stylistic device image object word spoken phrase line or sentence within a lm that points to a theme Fidelitythe extent to which the sound is faithful to the source as conceived by the audience Sound bridgewhen a sound carries over a visual transition in a lm Sound perspectivethe apparent distance of a sound source this usually remains close Audio dissolveeffectively overlaps two clips for the duration of the effect Overlapping quot quotquot 39 a mixin 39 speech 39 quot y Sound effectssounds that appear unmanufactured even accidental give a sense of naturalness Ambient soundsound pressure level at a given location Silent film lm without sound however they had musicians and live orchestras that added music to the movie Genrea category or classi cation of a group of movie in which the individual lms share similar subject matter and similar ways of organizing the subject through narrative and stylistic patterns The musicaltype of lm that uses music and spectacle together to tell the narrative Rhythm Denotative music tells what it is Connotativemusic helps put the story in a context but doesn t tell the story Secondary terms Diegesisthe world of the lm s story including not only what is shown but also what is implied to have taken place Melodrama music drama originally designated a theatrical genre that combined spoken text with music Allowed theatric spectacles in England and came to dominate American stage Drew strongly on emotion that music conveys Backstage musicalusing the backstage story as an integral part of the musical Singin In the Rain is the best example ofthis Foley artistsmembers of the sound crew who watch the projected lm and simultaneously generate live sound effects Postsynchronous soundsound recorded after the fact and then synchronized with onscreen sources Automated dialogue replacement adractors watch the lm footage and rerecord their lines to be dubbed into the soundtrack Room tonethe aural properties of a location when nothing is happening Sound mixingrerecording an important stage in the postproduction of the lm can only occur when the image track including credits is complete Sound on filmanother method of synchronizing sound with moving pictures inspired by modern electrotechnics did away with the discs and recorded sound directly on lm prevailed and became the standard of the international lm industry in the 1930s Sound on discthe oldest method of synchronizing sound with moving images linking a phonograph to a lm projector Talking headson camera interviews Talkiessound lms Stingerssounds that force us to notice the signi cance of something onscreen such as the ominous chord struck when the villain s presence is made known Mickey mousingoverillustrating the action through the score such as accompanying a character walking on tiptoe with plucked strings Cinematography Primary terms CinematographyMotionpicture photography literally writing in motion F ramingThe portion of the lmed subject that appears within the borders of the frame it correlates with camera distance eg Long shot or medium closeup Aspect ratioThe widthtoheight ratio of the lm frame as it appears on a movie screen or television monitor MasksAttachments to the camera or devices added optically that cut off portions of the frame so that part of the image is black Onscreen space Space visible within the frame of the image Offscreen spacea term used to distinguish diegetic sounds related to the action but whose source is not visible on the screen Canted angleFraming that is not level creating an unbalanced appearance Overhead shota shot that depicts the action from above generally looking directly down on the subject the camera may be mounted on a crane Point of View shotA subjective shot that reproduces a character s optical point of view often preceded and or followed by shots of the character looking Depth of eldThe range or distance before and behind the main focus of a shot within which obj ects remain relatively sharp and clear Deep focusA focus in which multiple plans in the shot are all in focus simultaneously usually achieved with a wideangle lens Shallow focusA shot in which only a narrow range of the field is in focus Rack pulled focusA dramatic change in focus from one object to another ReframingThe process of moving the frame from one position to another within a single continuous shot PanA left or right rotation of the camera whose tripod or mount remains in a fixed position that produces a horizontal movement onscreen Filterstransparent sheets of glass or gels placed in front of the lens to create various effects Special effects a variety of illusions created during the filmmaking process through mechanical means such as the building of models or onset explosions or with the camera such as slow motion color filters process shots and matte shots Sometimes used interchangeably with visual effects which more often denotes digital effects added in postproduction Long takean uninterrupted shot in a film which lasts much longer than the conventional editing pace either of the film itself or of films in general usually lasting several minutes Sequence shotinvolves both a long take and sophisticated camera movement allows for realistic and dramatically significant background and middle ground activity camera shifts focus form one plane of depth to another Tatami shotthe camera is placed at low height supposedly at the eye level of a person kneeling on a tatami mat American shota mediumlong film shot of a group of characters who are arranged so that all are visible to the camera Zoom inzoom out zoom shotstraverse space but do so by changing the focal length of the zooms lens other then moving the camera Camera distance Extreme close upspresent only part of the face or an object Close upsfill the screen with an object or figure of significance Medium Close shotspresent the human figure from the midchest up Medium shotspresent the human figure from the waist up Medium long shotsbegin to isolate one or more figures The body is visible from the ankles or knee up Long shotsrenders the central characters as small figures relative to their surroundings Establishing shotsa long shot that provides an overview of the scene often locating the action in a larger context Camera angle high anglepresent a point of view directed at a downward angle on individuals or a scene low angleview the subject from a position lower than it is Camera level Camera heightmany shots are taken from eye level but can vary Balanced angle Dependent camera movement Independent camera movement Secondary terms Film stockunexposed lm consisting of a exible backing or base and a light sensitive emulsion Film speedThe rate at which moving images are recorded and later projected standardized for 35mm sound lm at twentyfour frames per second fps also a measure of lm stocks sensitivity to light Focal lengthThe distance from the center of the lens to the point where light rays meet in sharp focus Wide angle lensA lens with a short focal length typically less then 35mm that allows cinematographers to explore a depth of eld that can simultaneously show foreground and background objects or events in focus Telephoto lensa lens with a focal length of at least 75mm capable of magnifying and attening distant objects Widescreen ratiothe wider rectangular aspect ratio of typically 1851 or 2351 Letterboxa format for video or DVD viewing that maintains the widescreen ratio of theatrical projection by masking the top and bottom of the frame with black bars Split screena visible division of the screen traditionally in half but also in several simultaneous images rupturing the illusion that the screen s fame is a seamless view of reality similar to that of the human eye Grainthe random optical texture of processed lm due to presence of small grains of metallic silver developed from silver halide that have received enough protons Gaugea physical property of lm stock which de nes its width usages are 8 mm 16 mm 35 mm and 6570 mm Normal lensa lens that reproduces perspective that generally looks natural to a human observer under normal viewing conditions Contrastvisual difference in appearance of two or more parts of a eld seen simultaneously or successively 39 quot to T 39 of Film AIMquot sis39 StarGenreStudioInternational Alt Cinema Primary terms International Art Cinemaa cinema of interiority mental states and style more than of exteriority physical action and plot Art cinema originates with the stylistic movements of the 1920s 30s and 40s such as the Soviet silent cinema German expressionism and Italian neorealism The inner thoughts and feelings of characters take precedence over dramatic action making for generally slower more ambiguous results ShotA continuous point of view or continuously exposed piece of lm that may move forward or backward up or down but not change break or cut to another point of view or image Avant garde Aesthetically challenging 39 39 lms that If 39 39J re ect on how human senses and consciousness work or explore and experiment with lm forms and techniques Avantgarde cinema thrived in Europe in the 1920s and in the United States after World War II ExperimentalFilms that explore lm form and subject matters in new and unconventional ways ranging from abstract image and sound patterns to dreamlike worlds GenreA category or classi cation 00f a group of movies in which the individual lms share similar subject matter and similar ways of organizing the subject through na1rative and stylistic patterns Studio systemThe industrial practices of the large production and until 1948 distribution companies responsible for the kinds and quality of movies made in Hollywood or other lm industries During the Hollywood studio era extending from the late 1920s to the 1950s the ve major studios were MGM Paramount RKO Twentieth Century Fox and Warner Bros Star SystemEmploying one or more wellknown actors stars whose appearance in movies builds on audience expectations and promotes the movie In a studio system or a national lm industry the star system will often have a speci c economic organization of contracts publicity and vehicles Visual motif Theme Myth Frame within the frame Rhyme Parallel Thematic echo Contrast Similarity Repetition Difference Variation Found footage Secondary Terms AuteurThe French term for author the individual credited with the creative vision de ning a lm implies a director whose unique style is apparent across his or her body of work Editing I Continuity Editing Primary terms EditingThe processing of selecting and joining lm footage and shots The individual responsible for this process is the editor ShotA continuous point of view or continuously exposed piece of lm that may move forward or backward up or down but not change break or cut to another point of view or image CutIn the editing process the join or splice between two pieces of lm in the nished lm an editing transition between two separate shots or scenes achieved without optical effects Also used to describe a version of the edited lm as in rough cut nal cut or director s cut MontageThe French word for editing It can be used to signify any joining of images but it has come to indicate a style that emphasizes the breaks and contrasts between images joined by a cut following Soviet silentera lmmakers use of the term also designates rapid sequences in Hollywood lms used for descriptive purposes or to show the rapid passage of time Intellectual montage was de ned by Sergei Eisenstein as an intentional juxtaposition of two images in order to generate ideas Cross cuttingan editing technique that cuts back and forth between actions in separate spaces often implying simultaneity also called parallel editing DissolveAn optical effect that brie y superimposes one shot over the next One image fades out as another images fades in and takes its place sometimes called a lap dissolve because two images overlap in the printing process WipeA transition used to join two shots by moving a vertical horizontal or sometimes diagonal line across one image to replace it with a second image that follows the line across the frame Fade outan optical effect in which a black screen gradually brightens to a full picture often used after a fadeout to create a transition between scenes Fade inan optical effect in which an image gradually darkens to black often ending a scene or a film Iris outan optical effect used as an editing transition that begins by masking the comers of the frame in black and gradually reduces the image to a small circle It is infrequently used in modern cinema Iris inan optical effect used as an editing transition that begins by masking the comers of the frame in black and gradually reduces the image to a small circle It is infrequently used in modern cinema Continuity editingThe institutionalized system of Hollywood editing that uses cuts and other transitions to establish verisimilitude to construct a coherent time and space and to tell stories clearly and efficiently Continuity editing follows the basic principle that each shot or scene has a continuous relationship to the next sometimes called invisible editing Establishing shotGenerally an initial long shot that establishes the location and setting and that orients the viewer in space to a clear view of the action Two shotA shot depicting two characters Reestablishing shotA shot during an editing sequence that returns to an establishing shot to restore a seemingly objective view to the spectator 180 degree ruleA central convention of continuity editing that restricts possible camera setups to the 180degree area on one side of an imaginary line the axis of action drawn between the characters or figures of a scene If the camera were to cross the line to film from within the 180 degree field on the other side onscreen figure positions would be reversed Axis of ActionAn imaginary line bisecting a scene corresponding to the 180degree rule in continuity editing 30 degree ruleA cinematography and editing rule that speci es that a shot should only be followed by another shot taken from a position greater than 30 degrees from that of the first Eyeline matchA principle in continuity editing that calls for following a shot of a character looking offscreen with a shot of a subject whose screen position matches the gaze of the character in the rst shot Point of View shotA subjective shot that reproduces a character s optical point of view often preceded and or followed by shots of the character looking Reaction shotA shot that depicts a character s response to something shown in a previous shot Match 0n actionA cut between two shots featuring a similar visual action such as when a shot in which a character opening a door cuts to a shot depicting the continuation of that action or when a shot of a train moving left to right cuts to a character running in the same direction FlashbackA sequence that follows images set in the present with images set in the past it may be introduced with a dissolve conveying a character s subjective memory or with a voiceover in which a character narrates the past FlashforwardA sequence that connects an image set in the present with one or more future images and that leaps ahead of the normal causeandeffect order Temporal ellipsis Long takeA framing that places considerable distance between the camera and the scene or person so that the object or person is recognizable but de ned bby the large space and background Sequence shotA shot in which an entire scene is played out in one continuous take Graphic editinga style of editing creating formal patterns of shapes masses colors lines an dlighting patterns through links between shots Graphic matchan edit in which a dominant shape or line in one shot provides a visual transition to a similar shape or line in the next shot Rhythmic editingThe organization of editing according to different paces or tempos determined by how quickly cuts are made Gaze a relationship between offering and demanding a gaze the indirect gaze is the spectators offer wherein the spectator initiates viewing the subject who is unaware of being viewed the direct gaze is the subject s demand to be viewed Scopophilia pleasures often considered pathological and other unconscious processes occurring in spectators when they watch films In camera editing the technique in filmmaking of shooting your shots in the exact sequence that they will be seen on screen This means planning in advance what shots will tell the desired story and then shooting only those shots in that order as opposed to the usual filmmaking technique of shooting multiple takes out of sequence then editing them into order to tell the story Reverse shot a film technique where one character is shown looking at another character often offscreen and then the other character is shown looking back at the first character Since the characters are shown facing in opposite directions the viewer assumes that they are looking at each other Secondary terms Analytical editingContinuity editing that establishes spatial and temporal clarity by breaking down a scene often using progressively tighter framings that maintain consistent spatial relations SutureA term that refers to our sense of being inserted in a specific place in the film from which to look at its fictional world through editing and point of view Disjunctive editingA variety of alternative editing practices that call attention to the cut through spatial tension temporal jumps or rhythmic or graphic pattern so as to affect viscerally disorient or intellectually engage the viewer Also called visible editing Surrealismone of most in uential of the avantgarde movements surrealist films confronted middleclass assumptions about normality using the powers of film to manipulate time space and material objects according to a dreamlike logic PsychoanalysisThe therapeutic method innovated by Sigmund Freud based on his attribution of unconscious motives to human actions desires and symptoms theoretical tenets developed by literary and film critics to facilitate the cultural study ofteth and the interaction between viewers and texts Crime lmfilms which focus on the lives of criminals The stylistic approach to a crime film varies from realistic portrayals of reallife criminal figures to the farfetched evil doings of imaginary archvillains Criminal acts are almost always glorified in these movies lVIise En Scene Primary terms Mise en sceneA French theatrical term meaning literally put on stage used in lm studies to refer to all the elements of a movie scene that are organized often by the director to be lmed and that are later visible onscreen They include the scenic elements of a movie such as actors lighting sets costumes makeup and other features of the image that exist independently of the camera and the processes of lming and editing A naturalistic miseenscene appears realistic and recognizable to viewer while a theatrical miseenscene emphasizes the arti cial or constructed nature of its world SettingA ctional or real place where the action and events of the lm occur SetStrictly speaking a constructed setting often on a studio soundstage but both the setting and the set can combine natural and constructed elements Propsobjects that function as a part of the set or as tools used by the actors ActorAn individual who embodies and performs a lm character through gestures and movements PerformanceAn actor s use of language physical expression and gesture to bring a character to life and to communicate important dimensions of that character to the audience Figure expression and movement BlockingThe arrangement and movement of actors in relation to each other within the miseen scene Costumeshow the actors are dressed for the part LightingSources of illumination both natural light and electrical lamps used to present shade and accentuate gures objects spaces or miseenscene Lighting is primarily the responsibility of the director of photography and the lighting crew Natural lightingLight derived from a natural source in a scene or setting such as the illumination of the daylight sun or relight Set lightingThe distribution of an evenly diffused illumination through a scene as a kind of lightingbase Key lightingthe main source of nonnatural lighting in a scene Fill lightinga lighting technique using secondary ll lights to balance the key lighting by removing shadows or to emphasize other spaces and objects in the scene BacklightingA highlighting technique that illuminates the person or object from behind tending to silhouette the subject sometimes called edgelighting Three point lightingA lighting technique common in Hollywood that combines key lighting ll lighting and backlighting to blend the distribution of light in a scene Directional lightingLighting that may appear to emanate from a natural source and de nes and shapes the object area or person being illuminated Frontal lightingTechniques used to illuminate the subject from the front sidelighting underlighting top lighting SidelightingUsed to illuminate the subject from the side UnderlightingUsed to illuminate the subject from below Top lightingUsed to illuminate the subject from above High key lightingEven lighting the ratio between key and ll lighting is high Low key lightingShows strong contrast the ratio between key and ll lighting is low Hard lightinga highcontrast lighting style that creates hard edges distrinctive shadows and a harsh effect especially when lming people Soft lightingDiffused low contrast lighting that reduces or eliminates hard edges and shadow and can be more attering when lming people HighlightingUsing lighting to brighten or emphasize specific characters or objects Chiaroscuro lightingA term that describes dramatic highcontrast lighting that emphasizes shadows and the contrast between light and dark frequently used in German expressionist cinema and lm noir Make upsubstances used to enhance the appearance of the human body Compositionthe placement or arrangement of visual elements or ingredients in a work of art as distinct from the subject of a work Interior locationslocations in the setting that take place inside Exterior locationslocations in the setting that take place outside Planes of action Foregroundbackground Depth deep and shallow space Shadingthe use of shadows to shape or draw attention to certain features Secondary Terms FantasyThe fantastic Representation Tableau styleearly cinema shot camera kept stationary particularly in exterior shots with only occasional reframing to follow the action and interventions through such devices as editing or lighting were infrequent Trick lm Weimar RealismAn artwork s truthful picture of a society person or some other dimension of everyday life an artistic movement that aims to achieve verisimilitude German ExpressionismFilm movement drawing on painting and theatrical developments that emerged in Germany between 1918 and 1929 expressionism depicted the ark fringes of human experience through the use of dramatic lighting and set and costume design to represent irrational forces Framing storyemploys a narrative technique whereby an introductory main story is composed at least in part for the purpose of setting the stage for a fictive narrative or organizing a set of shorter stories each of which is a story within a story The frame story leads readers from the first story into the smaller one within it Pro lmic eventClearly what can be seen must exist before it can be filmed this is the pro filmic event Usually this event will consist of actors performing in a setting Movement and Movements Primary terms AuteurThe French term for author the individual credited with the creative vision defining a lm implies a director whose unique style is apparent across his or her body of work auteur theory is an approach to cinema that emphasized the role of the director as the expressive force behind a film and saw a director s body of work as united by common themes or formal strategies French New WaveA film movement that came to promienece in the late 1950s and 1960s in France in opposition to the conventional studio system designates films by a group of young writer directors involved as critics with the journal Cahier du Cinema made with low budgets and young actors and shot on location The films often used unconventional sound and editing patterns or addressed the struggle for personal expression Jump cutan edit that interrupts a particular action and intentionally or unintentionally creates discontinuities in the spatial or temporal developments of shots National cinemaa term sometimes used in lm theory and lm criticism to describe the lms associated with a speci c country A lm may be considered to be part of the quotnational cinemaquot of a country based on a number of factors such as the country that provided the nancing for the lm the language spoken in the lm the nationalities or dress of the characters and the setting music or cultural elements present in the lm To de ne a national cinema some scholars emphasize the structure of the lm industry and the roles played by quotmarket forces government support and cultural transfers Iranian cinemaa ourishing lm industry with a long history Many popular commercial lms are annually made in Iran and Iranian art lms win praise around the world Film festivals that honor Iranian lms are held annually around the globe Along with China Iran has been lauded as one of the best exporters of cinema in the 1990s Some critics now rank Iran as the world39s most important national cinema artistically with a signi cance that invites comparison to Italian neorealism and similar movements in past decades Worldrenowned Austrian lmmaker Michael Haneke and German lmmaker Werner Herzog along with many lm critics from around the world have praised Iranian cinema as one of the world s most important artistic cinemas Film movements Secondary terms Globalization Diaspora Street lms Soviet silent filmsprovided a major break with the entertainment history of movies This movement developed out of the Russian Revolution of 1917 which suggests its distance from the assumptions and aims of the capitalist economics of Hollywood resulting in an emphasis on documentary and historical subjects and a political concept of cinema centered on audience response French poetic realism lms are quotrecreated realismquot stylized and studio bound rather than approaching the quotsociorealism of the documentaryquot They usually have a fatalistic view of life with their characters living on the margins of society either as unemployed members of the working class or as criminals After a life of disappointment the characters get a last chance at love but are ultimately disappointed again and the lms frequently end with disillusionment or death The overall tone often resembles nostalgia and bitterness They are quotpoeticquot because of a heightened aestheticism that sometimes draws attention to the representational aspects of the lms German expressionist cinemaFilm movement drawing on painting and theatrical developments that emerged in Germany between 1918 and 1929 expressionism depicted the ark fringes of human experience through the use of dramatic lighting and set and costume design to represent irrational forces French impressionist cinemaThe rst of a series of radical experiments with lm form between 1920 and 1939 This movement aimed to destabilize familiar or objective ways os seeing and to revitalize the dynamics of human perception Italian neorealism A lm movement that began in Italy during WWII and lasted until approximately 1952 depicting everyday social realities using location shooting and amateur actors in opposition to glossy studio formulas New German cinemaA lm movement launched in West Germany in 1962 when a group of young lmmakers declared a new agenda for German lm in a lm festival document called the Oberhausen Manifesto These lms were known for their confrontation of Germany s Nazi and postwar past and their emphasis on the distinctive often maverick visions of directors whose creativity earned the movement the designation of autoren lm within Germany Third cinemaA term coined in the late 1960s in Latin America to echo the phrase and concept of Third World Third Cinema opposed commercial and auterist cinemas with a political populist aesthetic and united lms from a number of countries and contexts Hong Kong New WaveA movement in Chinese cinema led by producerdirector Tsui Hard which introduced sophisticated style lucrative production methods and a canny use of Western elements to the genre Color Primary terms Dominant colora color that is very prevalent and most common throughout a lm Color palette nite set of colors for the management of images Hueone of the main properties of a color de ned technically as the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red green blue and yellow the unique hues Saturation the attribute of a color that enables an observer to judge its proportion of pure chromatic color Intensitythe strength or sharpness of color Monochromaticcreate a more realistic or at background against which a single color becomes more meaningful Color harmonyColors seen together to produce a pleasing affective response are said to be in harmon Color contrastthe difference in visual properties that makes an object or its representation in an image distinguishable from other objects and the background Color temperature the temperature of an ideal blackbody radiator that radiates light of comparable hue to that light source Color schemethe collection of colors in the lm or video the clothes the backgrounds the props the makeup the locations etc Secondary terms Dian ying xi electronic shadow plays Flashing is a method of contrast enhancement that takes advantage of the natural physical properties of lm stock to bring out detail in darker areas of the print Filtersa device tted to the camera lens to change the tones of the lmed image TechnicolorColor processing that uses three strips of lm to transfer colors directly onto a single image developed between 1926 and 1932 Color timerGrader the process of altering and enhancing the color of a motion picture or television image either electronically photochemically or digitally Day for night cinematographic techniques used to simulate a night scene such as using tungstenbalanced rather than daylightbalanced lm stock or with special blue lters and also underexposing the shot usually in postproduction to create the illusion of darkness or moonlight Gray scale an image in which the value of each pixel is a single sample that is it carries only intensity information Images of this sort also known as blackandwhite are composed exclusively of shades of gray varying from black at the weakest intensity to white at the strongest Cultural Revolutiononly ten Chinese lms were made during this period All of them had to adhere to the very strict rules and lmic guidelines Strongly didactic and stylized these lms propagated the myth of the perfect class hero and heroine Many lmmakers were sent to prison or to workcamps Fifth Generationwork produced by a movement of young lmmakers graduates of the Beijing Film Academy after it reopened in 1978 Their lms were considered elliptical and were accused of elitism and they were not successful with audiences They remain however as a testimony to a moment of lm language experimentation and modernization A few Fifth Generation lmmakers went on to produce more accessible lms scar lmsalso called wound lms they were lms exposing the unjusti ed persecution that took place during the Cultural Revolution
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