Principles of Biology
Principles of Biology BIOL 12100
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Tod Bartoletti on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 12100 at Ithaca College taught by Andrew Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/222288/biol-12100-ithaca-college in Biology at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Name Principles of Biology Problem Set 2 Fall 10 Due Friday Oct 1 at 400pm 1 A Mature red blood cells lack nuclei They have nuclei as they grow but once they mature the nucleus degenerates Would you expect red blood cells to have normal amounts of other organelles or would it be likely that they would lack other organelles Explain your answer If you said that it would lack other organelles suggest which ones 2 B What do you think the consequences are for red blood cells given that they lack nuclei 1 C As the red blood cell went from immature with nucleus to mature without do you think the relative amounts of different types of macromolecules in the cell would change as well Explain 2 2 Membrane transport of charged and polar molecules usually occurs through protein channels These proteins are highly selective 7 a Na channel only lets Na through for the most part and a Cl channel only lets Cl through If a mutation in a Cl channel changed several amino acids on the part of the protein lining the pore from serine into aspartic acid do you think that would affect Cl transport Explain your answer should refer to the structure of the amino acids in question 2 3 In fish gills a thin epithelium separates the blood from the surrounding water This allows rapid gas exchange between the water and blood as the fish breathes It also means that osmosis and diffusion present serious difficulties Consider a freshwater fish with a total solute concentration in their blood of 032 M This is made up of 016M Na negligible amounts of K and 016 M Cl Freshwater has essentially no Na K or Cl The epithelium lining the gills is completely permeable to water and slightly permeable to all ions A What would happen under these conditions if the fish did nothing to compensate Consider all solute and water movements 2 B Aplant might have solute concentrations of 0 1M Na 01M Cl and 01M K If you put it in saltwater roughly 05M Na 05M Cl and 001M K what would happen Consider water and all ions 2 C The nerve cells of squid are often studied because they are so large The major ions in the cytoplasm are K 400 mM and Na 50 mM The major ions in the surrounding body uid are Na 450 mM and K 20 mM Would anything happen if the membrane was permeable to sodium but not potassium 2 4 Suppose you puri ed the chloroplasts from a plant s leaves and studied them in vitro A Ifyou kept the chloroplast in the dark and made the thylakoid space more acidic than the stroma but did nothing else what would happen to glucose oxygen and ATP levels in the chloroplast 3 B If you kept the chloroplast in the light and exposed it to the electron acceptor DCMU used in the photosynthesis lab what would you predict would happen to glucose oxygen and ATP levels in the chloroplast Note that DCMU would outcompete NADP for electrons 3 C If you kept the chloroplast in the light but blocked Rubisco with the competitive inhibitor CarboxyD arabitinol 1phosphate CA1 P What would happen to glucose oxygen and ATP levels in the chloroplast 2 5 For each pair of molecules circle the one that stores more energy Explain Why for each 5 pts total H C0 co l CHOH H 2 0 A CHZOH CHzioi cnzio CH2OH o H H H H H H OH H Ho OH H OH I B H OH H OH c NADPH NADP D ATP glucose 139 H H n C on H C H Il OH R R Il Z OH H H H H Name Lab Instructor Principles of Biology Problem Set I BioChemistry Answer all of the following questions and turn in to your lab instructor by Thursday 99 4pm sharp You are welcome and encouraged to work in groups to learn but you must turn in your own work N You have just ordered some 15N ammonium sulfate a good nitrogen source that you can feed to bacteria so that they will incorporate 15N in their proteins You wish to conduct experiments using 15N isotopically labeled proteins that can be detected by an instrument called NMR for structural studies a How many protons neutrons and electrons does 15N have b Compare this to the more common N c Do you predict 13N to be a radioisotope Why or why not d Do you think the bonding properties of 15N will be the same or different than common 14N Brie y explain in one sentence 4pts Magnesium chloride is a common reagent that molecular biologists add to their reactions in order to synthesize DNA such as a PCR reaction polymerase chain reaction We will be running PCR reactions in a few weeks in lab The magnesium is important for stabilizing the reactants nucleotides a Draw the electron shell diagram for magnesium and an electron shell diagram for chlorine b Based on the electron properties how many bonds does magnesium like to make Write out magnesium chloride s chemical formula c Do you think that this compound will be soluble in water Brie y explain in one sentence 3pts 3 Draw a water molecule and a molecule of ammonia NH3 Indicate the small positive and negative charges in each molecule Draw an arrow showing the direction of the polarity for each molecule pointing toward the small negative charge Draw a hydrogen bonding interaction using dotted lines between these molecules 3pts 4 Use the following electronegativity values to answer the questions below 5pts H 21 Na 09 i Indicate whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar a through e 12 pt each carbon dioxide chloroform O C 0 III 0 CI A CI CI V39 methane CI H H H methanol glucose CHgoH Fl39 Ho HCOH I HO OH H OH ii Brie y explain how you determined the polarity of each molecule 2 pt each Using the same electronegativity table on the previous page brie y describe What type of chemical bonds link each of the following molecules together eg covalent polar covalent or ionic 1 pt each 5pts Note Electronegativity differences greater than 2 are generally considered to de ne ionic bonds 1 H20 be 2 a 393 6 The pH in most organisms is kept relatively constant by buffers which minimize changes in pH The buffering system below using the following weak acid and weak base help to regulate the pH of blood 5pm Fquot 0 3 1 D H2C03 lt gt HCO339 Ht Which molecule is an acid Why 1 pt If your blood pH drops the H concentration in the blood begins to increase describe what will happen to the weak acid and weak base in this buffering system to compensate 1 pt Ifthe pH of your blood changed from pH 7 to pH 6 did the H increase or decrease and by how much 1 pt H2C03 is formed by addition of carbon dioxide to your blood C0 H20 H H2C03 What would happen to the pH if there was an increase in the concentration of C02 1 pt If you were to hyperventilate ie exhale large amounts of C02 explain what happens to H in your blood lpt Name Problem Set I Principles of Biology Fall 2010 Due Friday 115 4pm to your lab instructor NO late submissions accepted 1 Draw a diploid cell with 6 total chromosomes for example a mosquito Aedes aegypti cell in anaphase of mitosis Show one nondisjunction event Label one pair of homologous chromosomes and one pair of sister chromatids 3 pts 2 A Draw a diploid cell with 6 totalchromosomes 2n6 undergoing meiosis in metaphase lof meiosis Using different colors show 1 crossing over events for 1 of the chromosomes Draw all resulting daughter cells 2 pts B Draw 2 different diploid cells with 4 total chromosomes 2n4 undergoing meiosis in metaphase and metaphase Using different colors illustrate independent assortment of the 2 chromosomes 2 pts 3 Achondroplasia is a form of dwarfism controlled by one gene with two alleles Two achondroplastic dwarfs marry and have a dwarf child and later have a second child who if of normal size Based on this a Is achondroplasia a recessive or a dominant phenotype 1 pt b What are the genotypes of the two parents 1 pt c Ethics thought question Suppose you are a genetic counselor and an expecting couple that are both dwarf height come to you because they want to genetically test their unborn fetus for dwarfism You learn they wish to selectively choose to have their child only if it is also a dwarf What will you advise 4 One in 25 people of European descent is a carrier of Cystic Fibrosis disease One in 30 people of Ashkenazi Jew Louisiana Cajun and French Canadian descent is a carrier for Tay Sachs disease a metabolic disease A If you are a carrier for both of these diseases what is your genotype Use C and T for the dominant normal allele and c and t for the recessive disease alleles lpt B If you were to mate and produce offspring with a person who is also a carrier of both of these diseases unbeknownst to either of you show your gametes produced and draw a punnett square for your offspring combinations At what frequency will your children have Cystic Fibrosis At what frequency will your children have Tay Sachs At what frequency will your children have both Cystic Fibrosis and Tay Sachs 4pts C Ethics thought question Would you want to be tested to learn your carrier status of these diseases Why or why not 5 You re the director of Cayuga Medical Center s maternity ward and you have four mixed up babies with blood types of O A B and AB The four sets of desperate parents are threatening to sue you if they don t get their babies back You know the blood types phenotypes of the parents are a ABand O b Aand O c Aand AB d Oand 0 You also know that each set of parents has only one child no sets of twins that is Match each baby with its parents 4pts 6 A boy whose parents and grandparents have normal vision is red green colorblind Given that red green coorbindness is a recessive trait that is inherited on the X chromosome or sex linked give the genotypes for his mother and both of his maternal grandparents Use XC for the dominant normal condition and Xc for the recessive colorblind condition 3pts 7 These people are muggles not wizards or witches Filch the caretaker both parents are wizards Unexpected Harry s maternal aunt Mrs Dursley both parents are muggles Harry s cousin Dudley Dursley both parents are muggles These people are wizards or witches Ron Weasley both parents are wizards Neville Longbottom both parents are wizards but Neveille has poor wizarding skills Draco Malfoy both parents are wizards Hermione both parents are muggles Seamus one parents is a wizard and one muggle Harry Potter both parents are wizards but the rest of his mother s family are muggles Lord Voldemort mother was witch father muggle Based on letter from Craig J Dow R and Aitken M Nature Vol 436 776 2005 Given the individuals listed above with their phenotypes and family backgrounds a Determine the pattern of inheritance of wizardswitches Use W or w for the dominant and recessive alleles lpt b Draw the pedigree for Harry s family See p 276 in your text for how to draw a pedigree Show genotypes and indicating phenotypes of each individual Zpt c Note any anomalies and provide possible explanations lpt Name Pmblem 531 Fall 2mm adjacempxdure Shaw me a resume system ufan Ddupus me xp am y what makes Wu Lhmk ach seleded urgan has39he funcnun Wu pmpuse andUr what mm mammcs n mgm have gven that funmlun 4 3 When looking at tissue sections under the microscope how can you distinguish epithelial tissues from connective tissues 2 4 Drugs often work by binding to and inhibiting speci c enzymes or other proteins Imagine you are trying to design a drug to affect muscle function Describe two ways that a drug could affect muscle contraction by binding to and inhibiting a protein For each case state specifically what type of protein the drug inhibits and what impact that would have on muscle function Be sure that your two potential actions are sufficiently distinct from each other 2 5 The kidneys control the composition of your blood Consider the following things in your blood amino acids bacterial cells and a bacterial toxin based on a three carbon chain Which of these will likely show up in the urine For each give a one sentence explanation of why 3 6 Saltwater fish face serious problems due to osmosis The concentration of seawater is 1000 mOsm while fish body uids are typically around 300 mOsm The primary adaptations involved in maintaining their normal body uid concentration likely involve which of the four tissue types Explain your answer and state which types of proteins are likely to be most important 3 7 How are tracheas structurally different from alveoli and why are they different Be specific 2 8 When people substantially change their diet gene expression in the gut tissues can substantially change as well For an extreme case consider a switch from a diet containing primarily fat to a diet that is primarily carbohydrate For example the Inuit people of North America traditionally ate diets containing 5075 fat mostly from seals Nowadays this has changed drastically due to a move away from hunting and more reliance on our and sugarbased foods imported from the south A Considering only digestion and absorption what changes in gene expression might you predict for the digestive systems of people undergoing such a diet change 2 B Changes in gene expression might not be sufficient for extreme diet changes For example wood consists largely of the polysaccharide cellulose and the crosslinked polymer lignin which we normally get no energy from Ifyou tried to eat only wood you would get little energy from it no matter how much you chewed it and no change in gene expression would help Why do you think this is true Be as specific as possible 1 9 Changes in your blood pH can make you dizzy and disoriented This occurs because nerve cells don t work properly Given the mechanism by which neurons function and the molecules that are typically involved why do you think pH interferes with nerve function 2
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