Biological Anthropology ANTH 10300
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Primates 10252011 25600 PM PELIIVIHT39ES P39I ChSiI39 i IE 15111t111 c221tlcu1113 Piatjmhines Catam39lines LEIIHJI li39CI IHHS Tal11t1 mv lm world QM WEE LEEME LD SE S T313191 Cehoids lenmpi mccaids chI39nintzids IIIJew World 3111 in rm apes and M o 11121333 I Mcnkeysj 1111311 Hominoids longer back limbs than front limbs humans only exception Longer fingers humans longest thumbs Meniscus in wrist increases flexability Suspensory clinbers suspend from branches not on top Classification of hominoids a lot in past only 3 now o Lesser apes o Gibbons amp Siamangs Arborial Brachiators hand over hand swinging Really long finers and O O O O o Great apes No sexual dimorphism mf are about the same size Monogamous mate for life Enviroment South asia Constant rainfall Eat fruits and leaves 0 Orangutans Redish brown hair Sexual dimorphism Males have large pads of fat on faces Agile climbershangers Climb with arms and legs in slow cautios manner Young orngs may brachiate Largely arboreal males usually travel on ground by fist walkingknuckle walking Produce offspring very slowly Birth interval 77 years Same 210 day gestation length as humans Neither humans or oranges have estrus Ora ng uta n enviroments Found only in borneo and Sumatra Live in tropical rain forest 60 of diet is fruit climactic change and human involvement have reduced the oranges to their present restricted range used to be in asia not any more O O Gorillas Largest living primates Found in equilateral Africa Males have larger canines and have large crest bone Largely terrestrial Knuckle walkers muscles and joints developed to support weight on knuckles arms are longer than legs enviroment vegitarian 85 of diet is leaves live in forested areas of Africa o ChimIpanzees O O O O O 0 Found in Africa rain forests Eat 70 fruit but will eat anything will hunt for small animals Powerful neck and arms terrestrial and arboreal knuckle walkers sometimes walk on two feet o Bonobo pygmy chimps O 0 longer legs higher center of gravity walk bipedialy than other chimps really long legs smaller heads and less body hair very human like very flat faced o frequent knuckle walkers o environment 0 less than 10 thousand in the Wild 0 eat only fruit and plants and very little animal protein 0 do not hunt o multimale female groups c we are closest to bonobos genectically closest to great apes 98 identical o Human Primate behavior o Incredible diversity of primates social behaviors mirroring physical diversity o All for Enhancing survival and reproduction Primates are expressive o Vocalization lipsmacking greetings o Touching grooming hugging mounting kissing Complex organization o Recognize Kinship relations social rankings age and sex demographics Alliances based upon groupings Relationships for the long term Residence Patterns o How they live together Food availability o Divided based on the number of adult males and females present in the group o Onemale multifemale polygynous o Howler monkeys some langurs OW monkeys geladas o Onefemale multimale polyandrous 0 NW monkeys extremely rare the Na o Multimale multifemale o Ow monkeys some nw monkeys and chimpanzees o AllMale 0 Typically temporary and eventually join multimulti baboons o One male one female monogamous o Gibbons siamangs ceboids and only a few prosimians o Solitary o Orangutangs and some prosimians Females expend more energy in order to reproduce than males o Females do the sexual selection males compete more aggressively among themselves for Sexual dimorphism o Body size and canine size o Gorillas greatest sexual dimorphismonly silverbacks mate with females Reproductive strategy male o Males complete for access to females 0 Infanticide male will take over troop and kill all babies to mate w females and pass on Female Strategy o Females compete with each other for resources to support young which can directly affect social behaviors o 0 Ways to deal with competition for resources involve complex social dominance hierarchies o 0 Rank is usually passed from mother to daughter with younger sisters ranking higher than older sisters The younger daughter has more reproductive potential because of youth Higher you rank the more food you get the faster you mature the more babies you can have The higher your rank the more access to resources such as food o This increase in food allows for higher ranked females to have more offspring 0 Studies have shown that higher ranked females are actually physiologically able to reproduce earlier than lower ranked ones Bonobo Society o se sex to alleviate tensions and resolve conflict o 0 Females tend to be dominant deciding where and when to forage o 0 Male bonobos inherit their status from their mothers Altruism group well being rather than self selfless behavior 0 So while we see an incredible amount of competition we also observe a lot of cooperative behaviors as well 0 These include Alarm calls giving away you re location large birds of prey biggest predator Grooming Food sharing Caregiving c We see these types of behaviors between relatives who share genetic material 0 Hamilton s kin selection hypothesis predicts that animals are more likely to behave altruistically towards their relatives than towards unrelated members of their species Moreover it predicts that the degree of altruism will be greater the closer the relationship People who are related to each other are going to be nicer to each other more often He s family we re gonna give it to him anyway o These types of behaviors are seen the most often among Cercopithecoids such as baboons and macaques where females live in the natal group or among chimpanzees where males live in the natal group Food Acguisition o o Foraging for food occupies over 50 of a primate s waking hours maintaining optimal condition foraging increases with the size of primate o 0 Especially high are the nutritional needs of females with offspring o 0 Quality distribution and availability all affect a female s success at foraging Culture o o In the past the notion of nonhuman culture was extremely controversial o 0 Jane Goodall was the first to assert that chimpanzees possessed material culture 0 What they use how they use it and when they use it eg Tools 0 Other researchers have now also seen related behaviors Use and alteration of objects as a form of material culture MatherInfant Band H W39s exuerrrhehted wnh babv rhesus mnnkEvs bv rerhwmu them rrarh therr mDmS THEV were mated wrth tWD surrugate mums One was bare wrre rhesh the timer suftterrv c nth Bum msuehsed rhuk mmaHV we 39mnm39 deniessmn sexunlly men snclnl Isnlnunn fenvful quotmuseum mmhe cnmfuvung luck nf clumsily cngnluve de cits Inl cnmnelence cngnluve cnmnelence Cummumcatmn emune anates Emma s have a farm er cummunmatmn Thmk abnut dues eats hrrds 2t Nunhuma Dnmates have same er the must mmcate rheehs er cummumcatmg wrth Each ether Vocalizations shrikes Gestures the way you sit or move Facial expressions Scents to know when females are receptive Sounds Postures the way you situate self communication is key when you live in a social setting Most nonhuman primates live in troops in which communication is necessary for Individuals to display feelings To recognize the intentions and moods of others so that they can react appropriately To express the established hierarchy of dominance and submission To stay in contact when moving through the community territory To promote mating behavior and motherinfant relationships 0 As far as its understood today apes and monkeys cannot communicate through phonetic codes ie actual words 0 They also cannot seem to refer to the past or future via their signals However thereare examples of sound vocalizations in some species of having very specific meanings 0 Ex African vervet monkeys have three alarm calls 0 Chitter snake Chirp ground dwelling carnivore rraup birds of prey It has been observed that young vervets sometimes make mistakes in giving alarm calls and as they grow up they improve their abilities to make the right warning calls This suggests that alarm calls are actually learned behavior Ex 2 Rhesus macaques have five acoustically different scream vocalizations that they give when attacked or threatened These screams are meant to recruit help from other macaques Particular screams have been found to be used depending on the identity of the opponent kin or nonkin dominant or subordinate and the severity of the fight Chapter 8 fossils 10252011 25600 PM Living biological reduced to rock Fissile dug up the remains of organisms which are chemically changed into rock Fossilization the process by which organic compounds are replaced by minerals such as iron and silica Paleontology the study of fossil remains and biology of organisms that lived in the past Teeth easiest to preseve Also shelled organisms Usually near current or past water sources and caves prey to caves caves also have controlled temperatures taphonomy anything that happens to remains after death weathering water sediment covering etc Specific conditions for fossilization Burial soon after death avoid scavangers Oxygen free enviroment anoxic avoid bacterial activity soilnot scidic cold and dry best intense ground pressure and geological activity fossilses found in diffent rocks o sedimentary o obsidian o volcanic limitations o snap shot o maybe capturing an anomaly key stages from the evolutionary past are missing due to o only some places have been adequately searched for fossils o fossils preseverd in some places and not others o rock sequences containing fossils are not complete in all places The fayum in Egypt Dating tequniques o Estimate age based on elation of deposits to other deposit o Est a sequence of objects or layers form oldest to youngest Relative Dating o Chemical dating measures how much fluorine is absorbed from the soil on an INDIVIDUAL SITE not crosssite soil specific and used for newer stuff Biostratigraphicfaunal dating compares different fossile forms based on the first appearance of an organism through it s extinction Index Species used to date other materials found in the same layers Cultural dating uses changes in material culture9 such as stone tools to estab date Typology ordering based on morphologycharacteristics o Serrations regionally specific a chronological sequence has been established Absolutezchronometric Dating attempts to determine the actual numerical age of a specimen or source deposit o Dendrochronology gating by tree rings 0 Growth rings indicate environmental conditions 0 Lighterings indicate periods of growth o Radio carbon dating measuring the amount carbon isotope that has broken down into nitrogen useful between 500070000 years ago o Wht you are dating bust contain carbon 0 wood 0 charcoal 0 bone collagen After death C14 beaks down into nitrogen at a costant rate 0 Halflife Radiopotassiom dating 0 Estimates the age of volcanic materials igneous rock and tektites glass like rocks thought to be caused by meteorite events 0 Similar to Radiocarbon since it uses halflife 0 Potassium O has a very long halflife before it 0 breaks down into Argon 0 Can date things older 0 than 200000 years ago o Fission Tracking Dating 0 o A method of dating rocks from tracks left by the spontaneous splitting of uranium238 atoms in half over time o 0 Used to date volcanic ash and glass millions of years old o o Obsidian is often used as the dating material o Electron Spin Resonance ESR and Thermoluminescence TL m o o Tests for changes in crystal structures caused by radiation damage from natural sources like uranium and thorium o 0 Both methods stimulate a samples electrons such that the energy when they are released is measurable either by light emission or machines 0 Thermoluminescense is usually used to date things between 50 20000 yrs old with a margin of error of 7 o 0 Electron Spin Resonance is used to date things up to 90000 ya o Amino Acid Racemization o o All organisms have Lamino acids in their proteins 0 0 After death these Lamino acids except for glycine undergo racemization and become D amino acids 0 Different amino acids will change forms at different rates 0 0 Useful for fossils up to 200000 years old and in some cases up to 1 mya o Paleomagnetic dating 0 0 Looks at global sequences of events of the changing of the earth s magnetic field s direction and intensity 0 o Essentially the polarity of the earth reverses such that the direction our compass points would change from North to South O O 0 Must have sediments that contain magnetically charged particles 0 Useful for crossdating sites o Genetic Dating The Molecular Clock 0 O 0 Measures mutations in DNA over time o More related species should have more similar DNA than less closely related species 0 Used to examine the timing of the splits in primate and human evolution o Paleoenvironment O O o In addition to constructing time scales researchers also try to reconstruct ancient environments 0 They attempt to determine temperature and climate in addition to past ecology of extinct animals and their diets o Temperature 0 Temperature naturally drives climate 0 0 So when the earth is colder more water is tied up in glaciers such that the climate becomes drier c When the earth is warmer the sea levels rise and we see a more temperate climate 0 Atmospheric temperature directly affects the amount of 180 present in water there are three Oxygen isotopes Ancient temperatures can be reconstructed through study of ocean dwelling organisms called foraminifera that store this 180 isotope So these organisms record ancient temps depending on how much 180 is present 0 When temps are cold more 180 is present when they are warmer there is less 180 o Reconstructing Past Diets and Habitats O 0 Chemical analysis of bones and teeth can reconstruct diets and habitats based on plants the animals ate 0 Different environments are associated with different types of carbon dioxide 0 C3 plants trees bushes and shrubs associated with a relatively wet wooded environment 0 C4 plants open grassland plants typical of tropical savanna 0 Time space habitat and diet are important factors in the interpretation of the fossil record Early Hominids Chapter 10 10252011 25600 PM Early Hominids Chapter 10 What is a Hominid Ape s o Caninepremolar honing complex 0 Prognathism o Smaller brains Hominins Nonhoning chewing Skeletalmodification for bipedalism Flatfaces Extremelylargebrains Fullyopposable thumbs We became bipedial before we got large brains Origins of Bipedalism o o Bipedalism is the single most critical defining factor of hominids o 0 Nothing preceding the adaption of bipedalism is considered to be a hominid o o Evolved BEFORE large brain size in hominids Foramen Magnum on bottom of skull Foramen Magnum on bottom of skull Home 55pm Pan troglodytes 1quot Norm 56pmquot Pan troglud vs Pelvis Humans broad Apes more narrow Compausan anmmn Lucm A Compsmun DfHuman Lucy am Emmian Sacnmvi and Chimps123 Sacmms Pan troglodytes Ilia long and wide human long and narrow ape Femur head and neck Femur mom Angle ofme lamm shaft In three taxi Ham Gonlla A afarensm Hands and Fingers More curvature more time in trees 39 More curvature also less fine motor skills and hampers precision gript Arm length relative to leg length Humerus Hylubatidea Homo sapiens 139 Gibbon Feet and Toes double arch and big toe is not opposable Gonila and Human Pom morphningy Dursa If Nonhoning Chewing This changes the way that the mouth processes food from slicing to grinding crushing Projecting canines and diastema disappear This causes the tips of a hominid s canines to wear instead of the backs When grinding more pressure is placed on the front portion of the chewing muscles This allows there to be more vertical force to crush food Hominids tend to have thicker enamel quotmm comm Origins of Bipedalism Tool Use ModelHuming Hypothesis bipedalism small canines and large brains were linked and evolved simultaneously as a consequence of increased reliance on tool use in the face of a changing environment We become bipedial because of the need to use tools reliance on tool use Tools and Bipedalism 39 This model was first proposed by Darwin and later by Washhurn in the 19605 and 705 39 Unlike Darwin Washburn felt that apes first used tools before they became hominids based on observing wild chimpanzee material culture remember that okay chrmpe haye beeh eyoiyhg tor millions of years too so why hayeh39t they bipedialized Use of tools requires learning and intelligence 39 Chimps in the wild have been observed passing skills on to their young sticks to obtain termites etc 39 Tool use in hominids shifted from being an optimal strategy to an essential strategy as the Tools and Bipedalism 39 The more important tool use became the higher the selection for enhanced learning abilities intelligence and larger brains would be favored The more we need to learn the more time we need to develop which leads to longer infant dependency Tools would then be even more important to survival If correct the Tool Use ModelHunting Hypothesis affected brain size increase which in turn affected tool use in a feed back type loopt Other factors also fit in Upright walking freed hands for carrying tools Also frees hands for carrying food and weapons Weapons allow ability to fend off predators large canines no longer necessary The more tools used for defense the more selection for bipedalism and larger brains The Tool Use ModelHunting Hypothesis predicts that four major hominid characteristics evolved at the same time Predicts gradual change in these four characters from large canines to small canines small brain to large brain no bipedalism to bipedalism and no tools to tools Problems with Hunting Hypothesis Fossil record shows bipedalism arose first over 4 my before tool use and increase in brain size Bpedalism allows tool use but did not evolve because of it Patchy Forest Hypothesis The late Mioceneearly Pliocene in Africa was characterized by a diverse habitat and dramatic shifts in climateshabitats Environmental cycles hottercolder wetterdryer and the accompanying habitat shifts moreless forest woodland savanna would have created challenging conditions for our ancestors mixed locomotion both arboreal and terrestrial resources Predator Avoidance 39 When hominids left the woodlands and moved to the savanna they were in danger from predators 39 Two legs would allow hominids to stand and see over savanna to spot predators mp uaH m allowstt and gr r ease m transportmg food Lovejoy39s Prowsioning Hypothesm Bipedalism allows for more efficient transport of babies and greater ease in transporting food Lovejoy 1981 argued that this led to increased fitness reproductive success Allows more offspring through overlapping births since more than one infant can be cared for at a timer Overlapping births greater fertility and population growth Caring for infants reduces mothers mobility so monogamous pJIr bonded males would carry food back potentially in exchange for sex More sex led to loss of estrus cycle Problems with Lovejoys Model Sexual behavior leaves no fossil evidence Social structure also hard to discern from fossil evidence Monogamy is relatively rare among hominids today Can t prove overlapping births or reproductive success either Can t really test the hypothesis Problems with Lovejoys Model Cann and Wilson suggest Bipedalism does not require monogamy and the mother infant bond is more important as in all primate societies Evolutionary Cost of Bipedality Potential exposure to predators 39 Back injury arthritis hernias and slipped intervertebral disks 39 Increase burden on circulatory system Varicose veins Great efficiency at walking not so much when running Hurting one foot screwed The PreAustra lopithecines The Great Paulina Tectonic in bpml ai Rift Valley 535mm m1on Runs from Northern Syria to Mozambique Why do you think this is where we are finding fossils The tectonic plams Anoxic Sahelanthrogus tchadensis a ihey liked to be by wamr o Also known as Toumai meaning hope of lifequot 776 mya found in chad I This same sim has also produced numerous oiher fossils ranging from of crocodiles m elephaan I Indicates that it lived in a forest by a lake I Par alcranium Back of skull resembles an ape Small brain Face does not protrude but has a massive brow ridge 350 cc brain Small canines 0 Position of foramen suggests bipedal locomotion leg and hip also indicators Orrorin tugenensis originalman TugenhillsKenya 6mya At least five individuals Estimated height less than 4 ft Weight 66 lbs magic fro preaustrlopithecines Teeth suggest hominid small canines not extreem Small human in shape thick molar enamel hard foods nonhoning premolar honing complex 0 Fossils are mostly dentition with leg and arm remains Femur indicates bipedal traveling to resources Large spherical head Elongated neck Curved finger bones partially arborealmixed locomotion continues to help against predators evidence that it still spent time in trees Complete bone Pan Ardipithecus kadabba 0 Found in Ethiopia dating between 5856 mya o 19 pcs found 6 teeth indicating a new species 0 Lower incisor less apelike canines are still ape likediastima 0 Upper canines show interlocking upper and lowerjaws 0 Thin enamel Curved foot phalanges still in trees 0 Overall very similar to Orrorin and Sahelanthropus Ardipithecus ramidus a rtie Found in Ethiopia 44mya Estimated to be around 33 ft tall 66lbs Teeth not interlocking Canines lower and blunter than apes more like incisors Thin enamelon caninesand molars Nonhoning fit together nicely and still kinda large but not like kadaba Virtually human elbow but fingers still curved so arborial have primitive and derived Fragmentary crania also showed apelike and primitive features location of the foramen magnum at the base of the skull may reflect bipedalism No buttress bones so not a knuckle walker o At 44 mya it is one of the oldest hominids ever found but is likely a side branch that died out 0 FIRST TRUE HOMINID Africa 0 First hominids only being found in Africa supports Darwin s idea that Africa was the birthplace of modern hominids 0 Limit to Africa means limit to environments Mostly tropical grasslands South African sites found first East African sites more recently East African sites associated with volcanic tufts that allow potassiumargon dating GRACILE Australopithecus anamensis Found by Meave Leakey in 1995 at the African sites of Kanapoi and Allia Bay in Kenya by Lake Turkana 4 mya 21 specimens recovered to date from the 2 sites Dental remains skull fragments and pieces of upper arm bone and lower leg bone Australoplthecus anamensis Leg bone indicates bipedalism Teeth jaws and skulls display primitive apelike characteristics large wwwm canines paralleltooth row Weight estimated at Y v l 104128 4lt virtually the same as humans 0 Elbow anatomy similar to modern humans indicating no knuckle walking 0 Curved hand phalanx 0 Teeth Thick enamel Large lower canines may suggest extreme sexual dimorphism o primitive apelike and derived bipedalism features are mixed 0 These mixed features show that they did not all arise at the same time o A anamensis may be in a direct line to later hominids Australopithecus afa rensis o 3530 mya 0 Found in Ethiopia Kenya and Tanzania 0 Donald Johanson discovered Lucy 40 compete skeleton at Hadar Ethiopia in the 1970s dating from 3529 mya 0 Mary Leakey found additional fossils from Laetoli Tanzania dating to 375 mya o Primitive Australopithicine o More apelike cranial features than later species 0 Had skeletal evidence that walked as a biped Closeknee stance Similar pelvis Angle of femur 100 bipedial 0 Lucy was female because of wider more rounded pelvis opening 0 Third molar teeth were erupted so it was an adult 0 Small about 3 4 and 66 o Laetoli footprints 375 mya show bipedal characteristics of nondivergent big toe heel strike and well developed arch associated with bipedalism o Bipedalism hominid Still had considerable climbing ability due to long arms curved fingers and toe bones o 470 cc braincase Range of 375 540cc 0 Teeth Ushaped tooth row parallel Canines are large like apes but more nonprojecting like humans Upperjaw has diastema like apes but it is small 0 No evidence for tool manufacture Might have had perishable wood tools that we cannot expect to recover Dental variation reveals a wide range in size suggesting extensive sexual dimorphism 0 Sexual dimorphism in modern apes is associated with polygamous social structure 1 adult male and several adult females 0 Hadar had 13 individuals that were interpreted as a family group that perished at about the same time 0 Found together due to animal scavenging Australopithecus Kenyanthropus platyops 35 mya Found in Lake Turkana region of Kenya Distorted fossilized skull 400500 cc brain case via endocast Has small upper molars and thick molar enamel getting to be more human like 0 Primitive features Small brain Projecting lower face Small ear hole 0 Derived features Flat face at the top Tall cheek region Gracile and Robust o Temperatures in East Africa dropped 25 mya reducing woodlands and increasing open grasslands o Hominids split into Robust and Gracile forms 0 Some give the robust form a new Genus name of Paranthropus Named robust due to large back teeth jaws and face 0 Robust forms lived from 125 mya then went extinct Not thought ot be our ancestors Gracile Australopithecines 0 Mostly found in East Africa 0 Gracile means slender not robust haha 0 5 Species of Australopithecines A anamensis before split A afarensis before split A africanus A garhi A sediba Gracile Australopithecines 0 These Australopithecines lived from 3824 mya The gracile forms are thought to the be the most likely common ancestor to the robust species Most likely to humas Their pelvic structure and feet are almost indistinguishable when compared to modern humans Austalopithecus africa nus 3 2 mya in South Africa Gracile form Reduced canines large faces 450 cc brain Teeth differ from robust forms in that the front teeth are not so much smaller than the back in comparison Back teeth though larger than modern humans are smaller than the robust forms teeth No projecting canine Descendent of A afarensis as are the robust forms 0 A africanus may be ancestral to Homo Teeth getting more human like 0 First discovered Australopithecine skeleton was the Taung child by Ramond Dart in 1924 in South Africa which he called dubbed Australopithecus africanus o Died between ages 34 0 Small canines had a full set of deciduous teeth 0 Position of foramen magnum suggested bipedalism Australopithecus garhi o 25 mya o Gracile form 0 Found in Ethiopia 0 Partial crania and upperjaw Prognathic lower face Ushaped maxillary row Small sagittal crest o 450 cc brain 0 Similar to A Afarensis 0 Post cranial remains were also found at the site arm and leg pieces and one toe bone 0 These are tentatively linked to the cranial elements 0 These post cranial elements appear more modern Lengthening of femur Still relatively long arms Stone Tools 0 No actual stone tools were found at site with A garhi however Antelope fossils excavated from the same site and time period as A garhi show cut marks made by a stone tool The earliest stone tools thought to be 26 million years old so around the same time as garhi were found nearby in Gona Ethiopia 0 These tools belong to the Oldowan Complex Australopithecus sediba 2018 mya Gracile form Found in South Africa Two partial skeletons found an adult female and juvenile 420 cc brain 0 Overall the face and jaws appear very gracile 0 Teeth Small overall Equal size cusps on 3rd premolars Australopithecus sediba The phalanges are not curved indicating more dedicated to being terrestrial However still had long r I m arms a I 1quot Pelvis indicates v i I 1 bipedal locomotion I 7 ax Some argue that I a l potentially sediba should i l l be in the genus Homo rl 39 Robust Australopithecines o Robust does not mean large in overall body size 45 feet tall males 100 females 75 brain size 410530 cc roughly the same size as the gracile forms 0 3 species of Robust Australopithecines Australopithecus aethiopicus Australopithecus boisei Australopithecus robustus Large back teeth and relatively small front teeth 0 Structure is human with nonprojecting canines no diastema and bicuspid lower molars however size of teeth is very different 0 Skulls and large back teeth reflect HEAVY chewing 0 They have a sagittal crest ridge running down the center of the top of the skull to anchor the chewing muscles Two muscles are responsible for closing the mouth during chewing Masseter runs form the back of the jaw to the forward part of the zygomatic arch the bone on the side of the skull connecting the zygomatic and temporal bones Temporalis runs from the jaw up under the zygomatic arch and attaches to the sides and top of the skull at the sagittal crest Australopithecus aethiopicus Oldest robust form 25 mya shows primitive cranial traits also linking it with A afarensis Found in Ethiopia and Kenya 410 cc brain case Low forehead low vaulted braincase almost flat Large sagittal crest Megadont jaw massive back teeth likely for grinding big teeth Australopithecus boisei 2312 mya Robust form Found in East Africa Ethiopia Kenya Tanzania and Malawi more robust Originally called Zinjanthropus boisei o AllthreeRobust Australopithecines were extinct by 1 mya so none are considered ancestral to modern humans 0 Female estimated to be 41 ft tall 7588 lbs 0 Male estimated to be 45 ft tall 108176 lbs 0 Mean average brains size of 510 cc 0 Skull characterized by Sagittal crest Low forehead Low vaulted brain case Anterior location of foramen magnum Australopithecus boisei 0 Teeth Parabolic tooth row Small incisors and canines Huge grinding teeth Lower premolars usually have 3 or more cusps Australopithecus boisei Australopithecus robustus 215 mya Robust form Found in South Africa by Broome in the 1938 Estimated height F 36 ft M 43 ft Weight F 7188 M 88176 lbs 530 cc braincase Skull 0 Short flat face 0 Has sagittal crest 0 Low vaulted braincase Australopithecus robustus 0 Teeth Parabolic tooth row Short canines Small front teeth No diastema Very large back grinding teeth megadontia Genus Homo 10252011 25600 PM The Genus Homo Nonhoning complex and bipedal Homo Habilis able man 2316 mya Not projecting like aferensis Ananmensi59 aferensise habilis First genus homo to appear Found in Kenya SA and Tanzania Tools Potential first tools Garhi 509674 cc brain case 612 much larger than australopithecines and smaller teeth and more human teeth same type of morphology as humans not a robust species at all no big large teeth w small in front still have long arms o May have spent time in trees o Still short f71 m82lbs c not curved fingers or footbones o less if not any brow ridg than erectus Skull KNMER 1813 homo habilis 510cc An adult specimen ER 1470 752 cc homo rudolfensis o Larger brain o Sufficiently diff to be a new species o 752810 cc brain case homo habilis using tools and increasing intelligence advantageous to be smarter stronger at making tools o hands human like fantastic hand eye coordination o finner motor skillsm higher selected for o obligate tool user cant survive wo tool usage o tooth morphology suggests a more diverse dietary variety oldowan tools o used lava and quarts o used to cut animal flesh off bone o takes a lot of skill and knowledge o must know and use right materials needs a lot of intentionality o cant make mistakes or could injure self Could use tools to make other tools Homo erectus Java manquot Arms are still long but not as long as aferensis Eugene Dubois skull cap 3rd molar and femur Fossilized femur Peking Man Sinanthropus pekinsis First time outside of Africa In large s loads of remains from all over the old world Turkana boy similar hight to moderday humans 880cc likely 909 by adulthood 17 in south east Europe and oldiwan tools SUPER HUMAN LIKE they were probably following food Don t go higher north they didn t like the cold 183500 years ago homo florencisis some over lap with homo habilis erectus and ergaster Asiatic vs African species sagital keel more pronounced in Asiatic post cranial anatomine homohabilis 3ft tall erectus is Much taller narrower pelvis constrained brain growth Less sexual dimorphism more human like Platycephalic flat headed not much of a forehead Thick boned less rounded at the bottom compared to modern humans homo erectus still have post orbital constriction has to do with frontal lobe getting bigger same with lack of forehead Still have a brow ridge in erectus o Depends on whats being eaten o evolved oldowandiversity in tools and functions oldowan chopper to achulean hand ax Anatomically modern human510252011 25600 PM 2000000 years ago Locations of early modern human sites Throughout the world oldest in south and east frica 90195kya BP sites in the middle east date back to 92 kya BP 1St find was in France CroMagnon 5 anatomically modern human skeletons dating back to 30000 ya Heard animals sea food coast and good hunting grounds other sites in Europe in valleys w great resources dating back 1535000 yBP Africa has earliest dates 20000 6000 yBP AFRICAN SITES Herto Ethiopia 160000 yBP Small occipital bun Forehead high cranium still have brow ridges Aduma Awash Valley and Oma oldest 195000 ya no occipital bun Asian and middle east Skul tebun Amud Kabara They ve got a chins Skill and cranium Did we evolve from Neanderthals why only in Europe Same area at diffent times we don t know if they interacted ESSAY QUESTION How modern humans came about Multiregionalism or regional Continuity o Wolpoff thorn and brace o Homoerectusl left aftrica and spread to Europe asia etc and some stayed in o All the same species just came from different homo erectus populations 0 Gene flow sia and African some how met up out of Africa Mitochondrial eve Replace ment hypothesis o cann Stoneking Rightmire and stringer O h erectusleft Africa 1mya o sapiens left around 100kya and replace all other archaic species 0 oldest root in Africa mitochondrial eve o trsces back deepest roots from Africa annd only in Africa 0 deep time root most diversity amongst ppl in Africa 0 Cranial metrics more diversity in Africa for skull measurements 0 More genetic diversity in the y cromosome in Africa 0 Explinations assimilation Time populations in Africa are the oldest relethfordthe population in Africa is great therefore greater diversity than in the rest of the world antient pop size usually no larger than 1000 ppl how can 10 k spread out and gene flow poke hole in 1St theory most likely due to age rather than large pop o fred smith erik trinkaus svante paabo admixtureinterbreeding overlap in dates btwn homosapians and Neanderthals paablo on bones from neanders 14 of nuclear dna is shared w neanders and eutruscans africans don t appear to share nuclear DNA w mneanders 0 after AMHS left Africa 0 Neanderthal features are still present today AMHS No Ocipital bun ingeneral Rounded back skill Vertical fore head Canine fossadip underneath his eyenot present in Neanderthals Small brow ridges Reduced prognathism String chin present 1450 modern brain size8 smaller than neanders 10 bigger than homo Smaller dentition than neander Psostcranial body more gracile than previous species Neanderthal chest is much wider thicker bodyies and stockier AMHS CULTURE moderns behavior and cultural transitions in AFRICS FIRST WOO o fishing painting o Tools and personal adornment o At Katanda Africa catfish remains date to same time 75000yBP TOOL TECHNOLOGY o Lower Paleolithic Middle o neanderthals o And upper o increadible diversity across the board hundreds at sites Blades twice as long as it is wide o Very sharp precise tools o Extreamly Burins whittle chisel Cave art its Symbolic o A lot of mental processing to do this abstract thought o have time to do something other than get food o Hunting usually depicted o Anatomically correct 0 Not for survival fun Venus figurines o Godess Toy o Fertility Oyther cultutral advaces Solutrean laurel leaf blades large what are they for Control of fire and the abilty to mske fire with iron pyrate Development of the atlatlacurate bow trowing Bone needles Fishing stuffs Homo floresiensis minippl 9 individuals 380 cc brain loks like erectus around at the same time as odern humans Island dwarfism Gian storks and mini elephants and giant rats GEOGRAPHIC EXPANSION in the new world by 12 kya or as early as 30 kya The Agricultural transition The root of EViI10252011 25600 PM we were hunters and gathers The agricultural Transition took place over many many years around the world Neolithic ppl began to raise animals and plants Previous to this 10000 ya Holocene period our period V Gordon Childe Sedentism societies become Domestication manipulate for our own benefit Envirometal manipulation Delelopment of ceramics as a tool New building techs more permanent Ritual or spiritual complexity Domestication process of artificial selection manipulation of a speciesanimal or plant To become accustomed to human Rachis attaches curnal to stalks 0 Not d o D rachis is so tough we have to beat the seeds off we have to plant it Glumeouter husk protective outer part c More delicate in domestication o Domesticated species have 6 rows of kernals vs wild 2 Legumes and grains Animal domestication o 1St dog b4 agriculture o cattle sheep goat pigs o dogs as hunting tools or pack animals Animal domestication o Reduction in body size o Shortening in facial bones reduced prognathism in dentition and horn size o Lowered age in sexual maturity o Increasingly docile o Increased fecundity through later litters o Changes in dominant color alleles are present o Changes in frequency and or seasonality occur in reproductive timing The agricultural transition Agree when and where shit took place but why o Environmental change to cooler condition o Increase in human population Archaeological evidence suggests 200000 years ago at the Kebaran site in the levant were becoming more sedentary Evidence of grin usage and large concentrations of wild gazellehunting one species or hearding wild animals We don t see a ll changes ayt once like Neolithic rev proposes The younger Dryas 10800 and 9500 BCE cold climate period Game moved we would ve had an expansion of grassland and game in different areas follow game or collect grains Did ppl move to Europe or was itjust the idea of farming traveling cros culturally REGIONAL VARIATION The levant Intense harvesting of wheat and barley o Evidence of mortar and pestals o Ppl were semi Fetile cresent by 8000 yBP o Jordan valley First Cities Jericho7500600 yBP CatalhoyUk in turkey Domestication of rice and millet date back to 100000 yBP Domesticated in china and in east india and in west Africa Accounts for 20 of all human calories consumed today Population growth After domestication more foodmore people people become more sedentary more complex inneractions and complex societies to share knowledge and technology Adaptive trade off Dramatic increase in population density earliest settlements living with each other and livestock sanitations was poor more infectious illness exorbitant rise in morbidity Enviromental degradation Diet changed our face o Reduced prog and jaw we have the smallest teeth Height and diet linked o Masticatoryfunctional Hypothesis 0 Craniofacial shape change during the Holocene was related to the consumption of softer foods 0 Way too much crowding in ourjaws teeth hasn t caught up to jaw size Nutritional implication of Agriculture 0 Hunter gatherer diet was high in good lean protine and good fats 0 Low in carbs o drastic decrease in the amount of necessary nutrients
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