CH 1010- Chapter 6 Notes
CH 1010- Chapter 6 Notes General Chemistry 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jomary Arias on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to General Chemistry 1010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Ava Kreider-Mueller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
CH 1010: General Chemistry Dr. Ava Kreider-Mueller Chapter 6: Intermolecular Forces Attractions Between Particles Terms Topics [Key Terms] Gases - particles are independent of one another, feel little attractive force, and are free to move about randomly. Liquids- particles are strongly held together by attractive forces which are strong enough to hold the particles in close contact while letting them slide over one another. Solids- the particles are held by attractive forces which hold the particles in place. Intermolecular forces- act between molecules to hold them together at certain temperatures Van der Waals forces- several different types of intermolecular forces, including dipole-dipole forces, London dispersion forces, & hydrogen bonds. Contain partial charges. Ion-dipole forces- act b/w ions and molecules Net Force- sum of many individual interactions Viscosity- measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow Surface Tension- resistance of a liquid to spread out & increase its surface area Solvent- component of solution that is present in the larger # of moles. Ex) water Solute- component in a solution other than the solvent. A solution may contain one or more solutes. Ex) NaCl Solubility- maximum quantity of a substance that can dissolve in a given volume of solution [Ion- Dipole Force] - NOT one of the Van der Waals forces - Result from interactions b/w an ion & the polar charges of a polar molecule - Contain full charges and the ion-ion attraction is so strong that they create an ionic bon [3 Types of Intermolecular Forces] 1. London Dispersion 2. Dipole-Dipole Forces 3. Hydrogen Bonds [London Dispersion] - Present in ALL atoms & molecules, regardless of structure - WEAK attractive forces - Magnitude of force depends on the ease with which a molecule’s e- cloud can be distorted by a nearby electric field CH 1010: General Chemistry Dr. Ava Kreider-Mueller Chapter 6: Intermolecular Forces Attractions Between Particles - Temporary dipoles are created as the nuclei & electron clouds interact - Shape contributes to the strength - More spread-out shape (longer Hydrocarbon chains) allow greater contract b/w molecules & give rise to higher dispersion forces - Chain length ↑, the Boiling Point ↑ - The LESS compact the molecule, HIGHER the boiling point. Chains vs. Spherical shapes allow greater contact b/w molecules and give rise to higher dispersion forces Lighter atoms Heavier atoms -Less polarizable -More polarizable - Contains only a few tightly held electrons -Contains many electrons, some less tightly held -Smaller dispersion forces and farther from the nucleus -Smaller molecules -Larger dispersion forces -Larger dispersion forces [Dipole-Dipole Forces] -Experienced by NEUTRAL, but polar molecules b/c of electrical interactions among dipoles of neighboring molecules -Forces can be ATTRACTIVE or REPULSIVE, depending on orientation -Polar molecules ATTRACT, when they orient w/ UNLIKE charges close together -Polar molecules REPEL, when they orient w/ LIKE charges close together -Net force is the sum of many individual interactions. Strength depends on the size of the dipole moments involved. The more polar the substance, the greater the strength of its dipole-dipole interaction - The larger the dipole moment-> the stronger the intermolecular forces the greater the boiling point - WEAKER than ion-dipole forces [Hydrogen Bonds] Attractive interaction b/w hydrogen atoms bonded to a very electronegative atom ex) O, N, F and an electron- rich region elsewhere in the same molecules or in a different molecules O-H, N-H, and F-H are highly polar with a partial (+) charge on the hydrogen, and has a partial (-) charge on the electronegative atom Hydrogen has NO CORE e- to shield the nucleus, & it has a small size so it can be approached closely by other molecules CH 1010: General Chemistry Dr. Ava Kreider-Mueller Chapter 6: Intermolecular Forces Attractions Between Particles Dipole-dipole interaction b/w hydrogen & unshared electron pair on a nearby atom is unusually strong Is the primary intermolecular force that holds large molecules together Boiling point ↑ w/ molecular weight or as you move down a group, exceptions: NH 3, H2O, and HF [Viscosity] Ease in which individual molecules move around when intermolecular forces are present Temperature dependent Small nonpolar molecules experience only weak intermolecular forces, & have low viscosities Larger polar substances have stronger intermolecular forces, & have higher viscosities Stronger intermolecular forces have higher boiling and melting points [Surface Tension] Resistance of a liquid to spread out & increase its surface area, caused by the difference in intermolecular forces Temperature dependent Molecules at the surface experience attractive forces only on one side Molecules in the interior are surrounded and are pulled equally in all directions Surface tension is higher in liquids that have stronger intermolecular forces. Ex) Mercury Miscible Immiscible Liquids that are mutually soluble in any Liquids that have limited solubility in each other, proportion, completely dissolves won’t dissolve “LIKE dissolved LIKE” POLAR solutes tend to dissolve in POLAR solvents NON-POLAR solutes tend to dissolve in NON-POLAR solvents
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