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Organizational Behavior and Management

by: Nicolas Mertz

Organizational Behavior and Management MGMT 20600

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Business, management > MGMT 20600 > Organizational Behavior and Management
Nicolas Mertz
GPA 3.74

Susan Rosenthal

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About this Document

Susan Rosenthal
Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicolas Mertz on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 20600 at Ithaca College taught by Susan Rosenthal in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see /class/222298/mgmt-20600-ithaca-college in Business, management at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
programmed decision nonprogrammed decision Chapter 10 Chapter 10 effective decision rationality Chapter 10 Chapter 10 bounded rationality satisfice Chapter 10 Chapter 10 heuristics escalation of commitment Chapter 10 Chapter 10 cognitive style risk aversion Chapter 10 Chapter 10 A new complex decision that requires a creative solution Chapter 10 A simple routine matter for which a manager has an established decision rule Chapter 10 A logical stepbystep approach to decision making with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences Chapter 10 A timely decision that meets a desired objective and is acceptable to those individuals affected by it Chapter 10 To select the first alternative that is good enough because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimize Chapter 10 A theory that suggests that there are limits to how rational a decision maker can actually e Chapter 10 The tendency to continue to support a failing course of action Chapter 10 Shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity Chapter 10 The tendency to choose options that entail fewer risks and less uncertainty Chapter 10 An individual s preference for gathering information and evaluating alternatives Chapter 10 intuition creativity Chapter 10 Chapter 10 synergy social decision schemes Chapter 10 Chapter 10 groupthink group polarization Chapter 10 Chapter 10 brainstorming nominal group technique NGT Chapter 10 Chapter 10 devil s advocacy dialectical inquiry Chapter 10 Chapter 10 A process influenced by individual and organizational factors that results in the production of novel and useful ideas products or both Chapter 10 A fast positive force in decision making that is utilized at a level below consciousness and involves learned patterns of information Chapter 10 Simple rules used to determine final group decisions Chapter 10 A positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group Chapter 10 The tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members Chapter 10 A deterioration of mental efficiency reality testing and moral judgment resulting from pressures within group Chapter 10 A structured approach to group decision making that focuses on generating alternatives and choosing one Chapter 10 A technique for generating as many ideas as possible on a given subject while suspending evaluation until all the ideas have been suggested Chapter 10 A debate between two opposing sets of recommendations Chapter 10 A technique for preventing groupthink in which a group or individual is given the role of critic during decision making Chapter 10 quality circle quality team Chapter 10 Chapter 10 participative decision making Chapter 10 A team that is part of an organization s structure and is empowered to act on its decisions regarding product and service quality Chapter 10 A small group of employees who Work Voluntarily on company time typically one hour per week to address workrelated problems such as quality control cost reduction production planning and techniques and eVen product design Chapter 10 Decision making in which individuals who are affected by decisions in uence the making of those decisions Chapter 10 CHAPTER 12 LEADERSHIP MGMT Advocate stability and the status quo LEADERS Agitate for change and new approaches PERSONAUYV DIMENSIDN MANAGER LEADER H l 9 goals duse nul m neoessdy desire and mmgmannn High Cuunlry Club Team am mamy Management Mllllagcmenl Conceptions of work Vinwx work as in menu tom rm has applnaches to u L9 99 process Ina no mes people om nmhrems seeks lilghrnsk Mm and things ea ya poslhons especially wrih mun Pd 5 Middleni thcRoad m m 7 am rm lhrnuglv mammauan and Dalunto prerean lo Wm mm ulhsrs acnwty encourages mm use lnlunse rslaliunr do quotso wovk mu relzmonv m aids conihd 5m m mum avert 5quot N Ilripoverished Authority is once bum makes 4 suaiglu ls Mice norm engages in a Management Cnmpliancc Sam 0 saw lorwavd Mo admsunem struggle Im a sum oi order m I l l mans me as u as lice1mm we Low 5mm Drymum i mmquot m llumm m a mi wakuwwmm meMnnsuammmlnmlmAli wylll wamvmllVolaxdeJmmrv I I 7 3 4 3 6 7 s 9 sumrm n WWW Automatic Style the leader uses strong directive controlling actions to enforce the rules regulations activities and relationships followers have little discre onary in uence Democratic S le the leader 39139 e 39 reciprocal 39 high degree of discretionary in uence LaissezFaire Style the leader fails to accept the responsibilities of the position creates chaos in the work environment with followers followers have OHIO STATE Initiating Structure 1eader behavior aimed at de ning and organiz39ng work relationships and roles establishing clear patterns of organization communication and ways of getting things done Consideration 1eader behavior aimed at nurturing friendly warm working relationships as well as ululuul trust and 39 re pent within the work unit MICHIGAN ProductionOriented Leader Focus gating things done Uses direct close supervision Many written or unwritten rules Empl eeOriented Leader Focus relationships Less direct close supervision Fewer written or unwritten rules Disp1ays concern for people and their needs If 139 tron Man 55 7 a rniddleof theroad leader Authority Compliance Manager 91 7 a leader who emphasizes ef cient production Country Club Manager 19 7 a leader who creates a happy comfortable work environment Team Manager 99 7 a leader who builds a highly productive team of committed people lmpoverished Manager 11 7 a leader who exerts just enough effort to get by Paternalistic father knows best Manager 99 7 a leader who promises reward and threatens punishment Opportunistic What s in it for me Manager Opp 7 a leader whose style aims to maximize selfbene t y here must 4 reap tyle and the demands of the situation for the leader to be l 4 1 A e T a match between the leader s 5 effective Asswnpt139unx Leadership style does not change If a mismatch occurs between style and the situation change Ire srtzza tron Determine Leadership Style via Least Preferred CoWorker Scale LPC Relationshipmotivated leader high LPC Taskmotivated leader low LPC Ind endence motivated leader middle LPC Match Leadership Style to Situational Contingencies Classify the favorableness of the leader s situation lLeaderMember Relations 7 quality of interpersonal relationships between the leader and group members 2Task Structure 7 degree of clarity or ambiguity in group s work activities 3Leader Position Power 7 authority associated with leader s formal organizational position Favorable leadership situation 7 structured task for the work group strong position power for leader good leader member relations Unfavorable leadership situation 7unstructured task weak position power for leader poor leadermember relations Premzse The leader s responsibility is to clarify the path that subordinates need to take to obtain workrelated goals Assz1mpt139anx Leaders can change styles and accurately assess situational contingencies Two Groups of Contingency Variables 7Employee Characteristics 7Environmental Factors 394 leadership styles that emerge cvm two broad categories of leader 7lnstrumental taskoriented and 7Supportive peoplefeelings oriented behaviors Directive gives directions Supportive shows concern Achievement emphasizes excellence Pa1ticipative involves subordinates E 39ective Leadership Style Outcomes in Path Goal Theory Job Satisfaction 7 ob leads to valued rewards Acceptance afLeader 7Leader leads to valued rewards MatiVa 1017a 3611a VI39ar 7Expectancy that effort leads to performance 7lnstrumentality that such a performance is the path to valued rewards Desired outcomes can be obtained if the leader correctly matches their style to the situation 3 7 31M 1 J Premzsex The leader should assess followerneeds readiness and adapt their style to those needs Assumptim Leaders are diagnosticians and are capable of changing their style IE ective leader behavior depends on the readiness level of a leader s followers Readiness follower s ability and willingness to complete a task Focuses on the qualit of relatronslups between managers and subordinates as opposed to the behaviors or traits of either leaders or followers Assumes that leaders develop unique oneonone relationships with direct reports Leaders develop special relationships with a small group of compatible subordinates based on Personal characteristics such as age gender personality characteristics professional a iliation Andor a high levd of competence These subordinates are the leader s ingroup Ingroup exchanges exhibit onest communication 7Support of others actions Confidence and consideration Mutual admiration Substitutes for Leadership Satisfying task 39Performance feedback 39Employee s high skill level Team cohesiveness 39Or anization s formal controls Focuses on clarifying employees roles Proviies rewards contingent on performance Performs fundamental managerial activities As a transactional leader Iuse formal rewards and punishments INCREASES FIRM PERFORMANCE Transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over selfinterests Fosters high levels of employee trust intrinsic motivation commitment and loyalty Develops communicates and enacts a vision As a transformational leader I inspire and excite followers to high levels of performance Charisma individualized consideration inspirational motivation intellectual stimulation CAN BE LEARNED RELY 0N PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES INSTEAD OF POSITION to in uence Inspirational motivation establishing an attractive vision of the future the use of emotional arguments and exhibition of optimism and enthusiasm IdeaIized in uence sacrificing for the good of the group being a role model and displaying high ethical standards IndividuaIized consideration providing support encouragement empowerment and coaching to employees InteIIectuaI stimulation behavior that encourages employees to question the status quo and to seek innovative solutions to or anizational problems 39 39 quotITquot quotquot27 f HH formance quot 39 MM Charismatic leaders use the force of personal abilities and talents to have wers ue systems Gender amp Leadership Men and women were seen as displaying more task and social leadership respectively Women used a more democratic or participative style than men and men used a more autocratic and directive style than women FOLLOWERSHIPTraditionally followers viewed as passive More contemporary views cast follower as active role with potential for leadership 4 qualities of effective followers 1Self Management and SelfResponsibility 20rganizational CommitmentPurpose 3Self Investment C0mpetence Pr0fessi0nal Development Seek out Challenges 4C0urageous honest amp credible Leaders and organizations should appreciate the unique attributes predispositions and talents of each leader Leaders should be chosen who challenge the organizational style without destroying it Participative considerate leadership enhances the health and wellbeing of followers Different leadership situations call for different leadership talents and behaviors oGood leaders are likely to be good followers Mwwmmmm mun u mu mm rum in quotLZ km W m 9 ml leadership formal leadership Chapter 12 Chapter 12 informal leadership leader Chapter 12 Chapter 12 manager autocratic style Chapter 12 Chapter 12 democratic style laissezfaire style Chapter 12 Chapter 12 initiating structure consideration Chapter 12 Chapter 12 Officially sanctioned leadership based on the authority of a formal position Chapter 12 The process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the Work environment Chapter 12 An advocate for change and new approaches to problems Chapter 12 Unofficial leadership accorded to a person by other members of the organization Chapter 12 A style of leadership in which the leader uses strong directive actions to control the rules regulations activities and relationships in the work environment Chapter 12 An advocate for stability and the status quo Chapter 12 A style of leadership in which the leader has a hands off approach Chapter 12 A style of leadership in which the leader uses interaction and collaboration with followers to direct the work and Work environment Chapter 12 Leader behavior aimed at nurturing friendly Warm working relationships as Well as encouraging mutual trust and interpersonal respect Within the Work unit Chapter 12 Leader behavior aimed at defining and organizing work relationships and roles as Well as establishing clear patterns of organization communication and ways of getting things done Chapter 12 Leadership Grid Chapter 12 organization man manager 55 Chapter 12 authoritycompliance manager 91 country club manager 19 Chapter 12 Chapter 12 team manager 99 impoverished manager 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 12 paternalistic father knows best manager 99 opportunistic What s in it for me manager Opp Chapter 12 Chapter 12 least preferred coworker LPC task structure Chapter 12 Chapter 12 A middleof theroad leader Chapter 12 An approach to understanding a leader s or manager s concern for results production and concern for people Chapter 12 A leader who has great concern for people and little concern for production attempts to avoid con ict and seeks to be Well liked Chapter 12 A leader who emphasizes efficient production Chapter 12 A leader who exerts just enough effort to get by Chapter 12 A leader who builds a highly productive team of committed people Chapter 12 A leader who uses Whichever style will maximize self benefit Chapter 12 A leader who promises reward and threatens punishment Chapter 12 The degree of clarity or ambiguity in the Work activities assigned to the group Chapter 12 The single person a leader has least preferred to Work Chapter 12 position power leader member relations Chapter 12 Chapter 12 charismatic leadership followership Chapter 12 Chapter 12 The quality of interpersonal relationships among a leader and the group members Chapter 12 The authority associated with the leader s formal position in the organization Chapter 12 The process of being guided and directed by a leader in the Work environment Chapter 12 A leader s use of personal abilities and talents in order to have profound and extraordinary effects on followers Chapter 12


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