CJ 355 Criminalistics: Drugs
CJ 355 Criminalistics: Drugs CJ 355
U of L
Popular in Criminalistics
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by George Maxwell Miller on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 355 at University of Louisville taught by Cassandra Rausch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Criminalistics in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
CJ 355 Criminalistics: Drug Investigations 03/22/2016 ▯ Drug Investigations Most investigations begin before a crime actually occurs Goal: to establish probable cause that an individual is breaking the law by using, manufacturing, or selling drugs o Once established by surveillance, informant use, or undercover work, search warrants can be granted and arrests can be made ▯ ▯ Gathering information Drug investigations rely on information from outside resources The case is ultimately dependent on how well the investigators can locate and identify leads that will strengthen their argument Sources can include telephone complains, confidential informants, patrol officers, private sector sources, outside agencies, internal police records, and much more. ▯ ▯ Anonymous tips Can come from people with varying motives as to why they are calling Telephone calls are the most common When taking a complaint, one should note whether or not the caller has actually witnessed the crime that they are reporting o If they are reporting what they heard from a third party, the report will not take priority as compared to someone who reports seeing/witnessing a crime; first hand information. ▯ ▯ Confidential informants Narcotics investigators rely heavily on then These informants have first-hand knowledge of the task at hand, however, they are difficult to control as they are typically criminals themselves. ▯ ▯ Types of Informants Motivational: fear of punishment for what they’re doing Mercenaries: Money-motivated Egotistical: Need positive reinforcement “Wannabe”: Those who failed to qualify for law enforcement Perversly: Those who gather intel about law enforcement by becoming informants Restricted-use: Some people, due to the nature of their criminality, should be used only when necessary (ex. Juveniles, parolees, etc.) “James Bond Syndrome”: Often exaggerate their knowledge Problem informants: those with questionable motives ▯ Surveillance Defined as the surreptitious observation of persons, places, objects, or conveyances for the purpose of determining criminal involvement Expensive and time-consuming Basic information (physical description, vehicle, etc.) should be known before hand Electronic surveillance o Supplements mobile and stationary surveillance o Subject to more legal considerations o Wiretapping Now requires probable cause and a warrant However, when using an undercover officer, this is not subject to warrants Video and photo surveillance Sifting through trash ▯ ▯ Undercover Operations These officers need to be intelligent, reliable, confident, resourceful, have good judgment, and excellent communication skills o Need to have solid knowledge base of the type(s) of drugs they are investigating May be as simple as a purchase from a dealer or as complex as posing as someone needed by a trafficker Buying drugs from a suspect is the best means of gathering evidence about a drug operation ▯ ▯ Four categories of undercover operations Buy-walk o Undercover buys drugs from a suspect but does not complete an arrest after the deal o Usually makes multiple buys Buy-bust o Undercover officer buys drugs from a suspect and then the suspect is immediately arrested o Undercover usually is not involved in the arrest Buy(flash)/Bust o “flash” is large quantities of money that an undercover shows to a suspect without actually giving it to them, assuring that they can pay for large amounts of drugs o Very dangerous due to the amount of money involved Reverse operations o Undercover sells the drugs in order to obtain probable cause against drug buyers o More complex due to the element of entrapment ▯ ▯