CJ 355 Criminalistics: Sex related offenses
CJ 355 Criminalistics: Sex related offenses CJ 355
U of L
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Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by George Maxwell Miller on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 355 at University of Louisville taught by Cassandra Rausch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Criminalistics in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
CJ 355: Sex related offenses 03/22/2016 ▯ Definitions Rape or sexual battery is legally defined as the crime of a person’s having sexual relations with another person under the following circumstances o Against a person consent o White the person is unconscious o While the person is under the influence of alcohol or drugs ▯ ▯ Sex related homicide A homicide is sex-related when evidence of sexual activity is observed at the crime scene or upon the body of the victim o Type of or lack of attire on the victim o Evidence of seminal fluid on and/or near the body o Evidence of sexual injury and/or sexual mutilation o Sexualized position of the body o Evidence of substitute sexual activity o Multiple stabbing or cutting of the body, including slicing wounds abdomen, throat slashing, etc. ▯ ▯ Important considerations Physical evidence needs to be recorded, taken, and preserved ASAP in order to keep it preserved ALWAYS consider different DNA testing techniques Bruises and marks should be carefully documented Fingernail scraping are particularly important in these types of scenes Look for evidence of a struggle ▯ ▯ Modus Operandi vs. Signature Modus Operandi o Learned behavior that tends to change as offenders fain experience and/or build confidence in their crimes o This is how of the crime What did the offender do to accomplish the act? What did he do to ensure the success of the crime? What did he do to protect his identity and escape? M.O. is a thought-driven process based on past successes Signature o Refers to the psychodynamics of the event o Core signature is constant, but can evolve o This is the why of the crime What did the offender do to the victim of the crime? What was the “theme” of the event? Signature is a fantasy-driven process, with rituals incorporated into the criminal act/ What were the behavioral aspects of the crime? ▯ ▯ Organized vs. Disorganized motives What is the motive? o Psychopathic: sadistic, impulsive, organized o Psychotic: motiveless, bizarre, disorganized Organized offenders o Antisocial personality disorder o Above average intelligence, methodical, forethought, fantasy, socially adept, trophies, further away from the crime, more likely to engage in torturing the victim, goes out of the way to avoid leaving evidence, knows police protocol. Disorganized offenders o Psychotic disorders o Distortion of reality, crime of opportunity, below average intelligence, proximate to the scene, socially inadequate, impulsively or under stress, access (but not ownership) of vehicle, “blitz” style of attack, no conscious plan, clustered crime scene, usually depersonalizes the victim. ▯ ▯ Four Classifications Interpersonal violence-oriented disputes and assaults o Most common type o Based upon elements of rage, hate, anger, jealousy, or revenge o Significance of fantasy Rape and/or sodomy-oriented assault o Primary intent Assailant used excessive force in overcoming the resistance of the victim and/or furthering the sexual assault Death is intentional because the victim knows the assailant or the assailant kills the victim to prevent identification o Usually more brutal than others, with victims of opportunity ▯ ▯ Types of offenders: Power reassurance o Assaults to assure himself of his masculinity, lacks the confidence to interact socially and sexually with women Power assertive o No doubts of masculinity, uses rape to express his dominance over women Anger retaliatory o Getting “even” with women, uses sex as a weapon to punish and degrade Anger excitation o Sexually aroused by the victim’s reaction to physical and/or emotional pain ▯ ▯ Deviant-oriented assault Psychodynamics o Those who engage in necrophilia may not want to witness suffering o May torture victims before killing them and then recall after- images o Viewed as behaviors of sexual psychopaths Serial murder o Two or more separate murders where an individual, acting alone or with another, commits multiple homicides over a period of time, with time breaks between each murder event. o Crimes are repetitive in nature and mostly sexually oriented, planned, researched operations to access and control victims as well as thwart police investigations. ▯ ▯ Three main methods used to link murders Physical evidence Offender description Crime scene behaviors ▯ ▯ Interview of the victim Interviews need to be conducted tactfully and with compassion Sometimes referred to as the “second-rape” by victims and rape counselors All victims typically experience some emotional or psychological disturbance as a result of the trauma Frequently experience signs of PTSD Initial interview should be as brief as possible while gathering the information needed o Account of event o Description of the perpetrator o Detailed interview should be conducted at a later date Protection should be provided if the victim has been threatened ▯ ▯ Types and sequence of sexual acts Important to determine motivation Sequence of events can help the investigator determine whether or not the offender was acting out a fantasy, experimenting, or trying to punish or degrade the victim Verbal activity of the rapist o Can indicate motivations behind the rape o Threatening, compliance, aggressiveness, etc. Verbal activity of the victim o What the rapist demands the victim to say Sudden change of attitude o Behavioral changes can be insightful, may indicate the difference between experiences offenders Rapists often target their victims beforehand and it is important for the investigator to determine whether the victim experiences any of the following: o Calls or notes from unidentified persons o Residential or automobile break-ins o Prowlers or peeping toms o Feelings of being watched This must be reported in a timely manner!!! ▯ ▯ Why rape is not reported Lack of belief in the ability of the police to apprehend the suspect Worries about unsympathetic treatment from police and discomforting procedures Belief that they are somehow at fault for the rape Embarrassment about publicity Fear of reprisal by the rapist Apprehension or further victimization
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