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This 25 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Valentina Adarraga on Tuesday November 25, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 2001 at Florida International University taught by Micheal Brillman in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see WOH in History at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 11/25/14
N ampu Religion 112514 1108 AM SOOOAD iSOOAD aka Age of Faithquot We have religion because its how people explained natural phenomena s 1492 discovered New World 0 opened up new trade Belifes ofi5OO around religion 0 Universe was created as an act of god Jesus died for Christians sins 0 Church was extension of Christ hemarticle that ex bones Martin Luther thought it was superstitious j British Z 0 British 0 Wycliffsm 0 Early reformer of catholic church 0 Bible was originally in Latin 0 First translator of bible into English o He translated bible into vernacular of certain country 0 Liked by the king Edward III of England so he had protection 0 Believed they shouldn39t be so superstitious of communion confess for sins taken with wafer and wine o Believed it was actually the body and blood ofJesus 0 Thought authority over scripture was wrong 0 SIGNIFICANCE PROMOTED LITERACY 0 Czech aka Bohemia Greatly influence by Wycliffe 0 Borrowed and added to his own ideas from Wycliff 0 Liked part dealing with people and abuse of church authority o Liked that you needed to interpret word as own Did not have protection like Wycliffe Pope passed document that punished people who spoke of Wycliffsm o So was easily punished and killed because he spoke of Wycliffsm Father wanted Martin to study Law Became monestair at age 22 Broke away from catholic and started protestant reformation Translated Latin bible into German so everyone can interpret words as own Didn39t believe in communion Didn39t believe that pope was infallible could do no wrong o He should not have such authority Justification by faith Opposed corruption of catholic church o Selling indulgences giving confession through payment 95 thesis Separation between church and state Wanted a German movement not international Justification by Faith Main teaching of Martin Luther All you need to be a good Christian is faith That is the onlyjustification That39s is what39s most important Indulgences Take communion through payment Pay way out of hell sold byjohan Tetzel Ninetyfive theses Oct 151517 By Martin Luther Nailed the thesis to his university campus door It was what he felt was done wrong by catholic church French reformer Believed in justification by faith but more concerned with Predestinaton 9 Calvinist o Freewill opposite of predestination believed by atheist o Goal was to honor God rather than reach salvation Had a group elect those who were chosen for heaven o If you do bad things you won39t be part of elect Wanted international movement Wanted church run government One of the most influential cities Geneva o Became model for Christianity After he moves to Geneva o Rules were made very strict Cannot laugh in Church drunk dancing swearing 9 punishable No new industry except book publish K Swiss Dies in battle because of what he believe by pope39s forces 1525 Didn39t have protection Special about him preached everyday Agree with Calvin and Luther but differed because he fought church Made political statements in sermon Ate meat during lent really bad CalvinLuther were happy that he died because of less competition Anglican Church Catholics Lutherans and Calvinist thought as radical threat They later emerge in New World as Quakers f 33 Wanted male heir to throne Queen Katherine of Aragon was not giving He wanted divorce so he separated from catholic church new act of Anglican church beginning of Anglican church Maintained some things Henry declared himself new head of state ran Catholics orJews could not hold office vote pay the Anglican church Catholics who did not agree were executed Henry VIII Heir Queened during defeat of Spanish navy during Shakespeare Underestimated because of gender Defeated Spanish Armanda Spread Anglican faith Counter attack on part of Catholics in repose to protestant reformation Cou nt of Trent attempt to re examine doctrine of catholic church to get more Catholics to counter reformation 1540 Founded by Missionary movement Became known as I Wanted to keep education growing in Europe Wanted to spread Christianity faith lt1572gt France was 85 o 90 o catholics French Catholics went looking for French protestants 10 o 15 o in France and killed them Death toll1O thousands Issued 1598 allowed for religious toleration of Huguenots in France 1618 1648 Fighting between Catholics and protestants Taken place in Germany collection of city states Stopped with Legacy of Reformation Positives o Promoted literacy and education Luther Wycliffe Huss wanted bible to be translated so people read more o Emphasis on morality you can decide yourself what bible means need priest no more Negatives o Religious intolerance Bartholomew Day Massacre 30 years war the fact that people were willing to shed blood for these believes 112514 1108 AM 112514 1108 AM Midterm Review 1125141110 AM No essay question Part 1 Identification define in complete sentences 10 you choose Grading first10 we see At least 23 sentences Answer who what when where or why Extra credit talk about significance 0 Avoid obvious o Prince Henry was Navigator Part 2 Multiple Choice based on book 10 Quotes o Who said what T Read Eric Williams Columbus Las Casas Castillo Equiano39s travels Christopher Columbus traveled to new world how many times 3 m Centunes ex 1800 919 century 1500 916 century Email professor with ANY questions MEDVAL EUROPE iohn Wyclffe aka quotmorning start of reformationquot 14th century British Wycliffsm 0 Early reformer of catholic church Before Martin Luther Bible was originally in Latin o First translator of bible into English o He translated bible into vernacular of certain country 0 Liked by the king Edward III of England so he had protection Believed they shouldn39t be so superstitious of communion confess for sins taken with wafer and wine o Believed it was actually the body and blood ofJesus Thought authority over scripture was wrong SIGNIFICANCE PROMOTED LITERACY John Huss Czech aka Bohemia Greatly influence by Wycliffe Borrowed and added to his own ideas from Wycliff Liked part dealing with people and abuse of church authority o Liked that you needed to interpret word as own Did not have protection like Wycliffe Pope passed document that punished people who spoke of Wycliffsm o So was easily punished and killed because he spoke of Wycliffsm Martin Luther 16th century German Father wanted Martin to study Law Became monestair at age 22 Broke away from catholic and started protestant reformation Translated Latin bible into German so everyone can interpret words as own Didn39t believe in communion Didn39t believe that pope was infallible could do no wrong o He should not have such authority Justification by faith Opposed corruption of catholic church o Selling indulgences giving confession through payment 95 thesis Separation between church and state Wanted a German movement not international Protestant reformation 1517 By Martin Luther Against selling indulgences Church thought educated peasant dangerous peasant Translation of bible by Luther and followers Felt Catholics were very superstitious o the lighting of incest the taking of communion you believe you are ta king literally bloodbody ofJesus Didn39t believe that pope was infallible could do no wrong LEGACY Positive o Produced higher literacy rate o Increase in printing largely due to protestant o Emphasis on morality I individuals need faith in lives scripture to achieve salvation rather than rituals or relics or priest telling you right from wrong Negative o St Bartolommeo Massacre o 30 years war o Religious intolerance o The fact that people were willing to shed blood for these believes Justification by Faith Main teaching of Martin Luther All you need to be a good Christian is faith o That is the onlyjustification o That39s is what39s most important Ninetyfive theses Oct 311517 By Martin Luther Nailed the thesis to his university campus door It was what he felt was done wrong by catholic church Indulgences Take communion through payment Pay way out of hell so the rich can do wrong as many times as the want sold byJohan Tetzel great enemy of Luther John Calvin 16th century French reformer Believed in justification by faith but more concerned with o Came up with I Predestination God decided trajectory of your life always written unchangeable I Freewill opposite of predestination believed by atheist I Goal was to honor God rather than reach salvation Had a group elect those who were chosen for heaven o lfyou do bad things you won39t be part ofelect Wanted international movement Wanted church run government Didn39t believe that pope was infallible could do no wrong One of the most influential cities Geneva o Became model for Christianity After he moves to Geneva o Rules were made very strict I Cannot laugh in Church drunk dancing swearing 9 punishable I No new industry except book publish Ulrich Zwingli Swiss Special about him preached everyday Agree with Calvin and Luther but differed because he fought church Made political statements in sermon Ate meat during lent really bad Dies in battle because ofwhat he believe by pope39s forces 1525 Didn39t have protection CalvinLuther were happy that he died because of less competition 2 major points around 1500 that historians use to mark the advent of modern penod 1 1492 Columbus discovered new world 2 1519 protestant reformation ANABAPTIST Sect that came from protestant traditions Had adult baptisms main difference Quakers Mennonites kind of Amish life Amish Rose in New World Calvinist Lutherans Catholics thought the were a radical threat Henry V16 century Wanted male heir to throne Spanish Queen Katherine ofAragon was not giving Before separation aka defender of faithprotector of realm title give by POPE He wanted divorce so he separated from catholic church Act of Supremacy 1534 o Separation of catholic church o New actbeginning ofAnglican church o State religion Maintained some things like sacraments hierarchy of bishops and other rituals Head of English church was monarch himself o Anglican Church state ran I Catholics or Jews could not hold office vote but still paid ledges of allegiance to the Anglican church Redistributed land among followers Catholics who did not agree were executed Elizabeth I 16th century Henry VIII Heir Queened during defeat of Spanish navy during Shakespeare Underestimated because of gender despite that she went to be a great queen o Defeated Spanish Armanda o Spread Anglicanism CounterReformation 16th century Counter attack on part of Catholics in repose to protestant reformation Count of Trent attempt to re examine doctrine of catholic church to get more Catholics to counter reformation Ignatius Loyola Spanish Sees Indians not as evil or savages but as ignorant who can be taught the was of God created Society of Jesus Society of JesusJesuits 1540 Catholic responses to fight protestant reformation o Ex Blackrobe Missionary movement Wanted to keep education growing in Europe Wanted to spread Christianity faith Huguenots French protestant 10 o 15 o of population Majority of France was Catholic St Bartholomew39s Day Massacre o Were assassinated by French Catholics o Death toll 1O thousands Henry IV of Navarre 16th century Open minded king Issued Edict of Nantes 1598 allowed for greater religious tolerance for Huguenots in France Gave the freedom to worship hold office own property and pay taxes held for almost century Later revoked by Louie the 14 30 years war 16181648 Fighting between Catholics and protestants Taken place in Germany which was collection of city states o Some places were catholic others were protestant Protestant won because they had Swedish Scandinavia Denmark support But many deaths on both sides Treaty of Westphalia ended 30 years war and conflict between protestant and Catholics Exploration Cheng Ho Zheng He 3 jeweled Eunuch 14th century Made expedition around Indian ocean up to east coast of Africa o Brought back a giraffe Eunuch testicle have been cut off o Use for choirs so boys can have high voices o But created so that they would not taint purity of royal blood line o Became king39s most trusted visor because not seen as threat o Thus could rise up to high political class Had no desire to conquer and explore because they thought China was center of civilization After Cheng Ho emperor cut off expeditions o Became isolationist we have everything we need in china we don39t need to explore Prince Henry the Navigator 15th century Wanted to avoid overland routes when ottoman Turks took overland routes Found trade routes silk road o Started to fund expeditions to west coast of Africa o Reached Cape ofGood Hope and Indian ocean New technology under him o Sail rigging better navigational chartsmap better weaponry magnetic compass Did little navigation but funded it for 40 years Had famous observatory when navigators planed their routes Silk Road before tried to fiend ocean trade routes mainly Indian and Portuguese ocean main one was from China Mid 15 century Turks took over Two reasons Europeans went for ocean trade o Turks controlled land routes o Wanted to cut out middle men and for economic reasons Bartolemo Dias 15th century First European navigator to successfully round the Cape of good Hope Vasco da Gama 15th century Portuguese sailor Opened up trade between India and Portugal o Reached India first to set up trade Not good guy o encountered a ship of Muslim39s going to Mecca asked them to surrender they didn39t so he bombed their ship bombed Christopher Columbus 16th century Italian Sailed for Spain Thought he could find a route to Indies through the Atlantic ocean Reached Dominican Republic and thought it was India o Would tell crew they were closer than they really were to keep hopesup o Indians he encountered were very generous with their goods o Later reached Cuba and Honduras Panama Venezuela Total voyages 3 over 12 years Died believing he found India instead of New World Treaty of Tordesillas I493 Made by pope Longitudinal I34 east line east of it everything was Portugal39s west of it belonged to Spain Later moved 500 west so it included more of Brazil for Portugal They39re still believing its Indian Isabella and Ferdinand Kingqueen ofSpain Gave Columbus title of Viceroy of ndies and Admiral of Sea Amerigo Vespucci 15th century Cartographer First demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies did not represent Asia39s eastern outskirts as Columbus thought Credited for naming America Vasco Nunez de Balboa 15th century Spaniard Steeled in new world as planter Got into debt trouble went to panama Located pacific ocean in small strip of land that connect Pacific to Atlantic ocean o Claimed for Spain Behead for debt trouble o Borrow from rich and did not pay back Ferdinand Magellan 15th century Portuguese Sailed for Spain First who circumnavigated the globe o His ships and crew made it but himself did not People did not like him spread rumors that he played as double agents Because of bad publicity he had trouble finding good crew member o Those who signed on were dregs of society nomads with diseases dirty He was a ruthless commander Respected by men and popular within crew o Weren39t adequately provisioned ran out of supplies Found Tierra del Fuego Rounded Argentina and made it to Pacific ocean Make it to Philippians Voyage took 3 years Men were desperate for women o Started raping them o Spanish priest said they can have sex with them because their not Christian so they started to covert the women o Outstayed their welcome o Philippians felt hospitality was taken advantage Magellan wanted to convert them to Spanish Philippians didn39t want to Magellan had 60 solders consisted of cooks and cabin boys Philippians had 400 Poisoned arrow hit Magellan s right foot then speared in face 4 Magellan s solders survived Tierra del Fuego Argentina Portuguese saw Indians used to fire to warm themselves still name of state o Jointstock companies 2 major differences between these two o Catholics Spanish I Wanted more conversions I Don39t have as much individual opportunity o ProtestantHollandEngland I Not really pushing conversion I More room for individual entrepreneurship to make money I Ifyou were a member of one of VOCECI you would invest and make money Dutch East India Company VOC prodestant joint stock company ex London East India Company EIC prodestant joint stock company ex Kind of like stock market Conquest of Mesoamerica Mexica Commonly called Aztecs Conquered most of Mexico Mesoamerica Maze culture Believed in animism the the attribution ofa soul to plants inanimate objects and natural phenomena Mexica language Nahuatl Nomads following their priest Huitzilopochtli in search of promised land Society oriented by expanding empire predicating on dominating on other people including them into their empire People were extreme Violent conquest people and land conquered through war Made tribute people would pay for protection o Ex Mexica would take over neighbors include them into empire take tribute gold food sort of payment Moctezuma 1519 Mexica Ruler Welcomed Spanish in their home Taken prisoner by Spanish kept on House arrest 0 Killed attempting to calm down a mob of his own people Huitzilopochtli aka hummingbird on the left God ofsunwar Ordered Mexica to find place to settle o Found place to settle on Lake Texcoco Venice of new world I Much cleaner and more modern than European cities I Capital city was Tenochtitlan near Mexico City Conquistadors Lead by Hernan Cortez Subdued the Mexica with more advance weapons Smaller in numbers than Mexica Had alliances with indigenous people Chinampas Floating gardens agriculture which used small rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds Queztacoatl Mexia legend that predicted this snake God with feathers and jaguar teeth would return as bearded white skinned man Hernan Cortes died because Spanish kept into house arrest Believed that his on people killed him At first thought of as Queztacoatl so Mexica were very nice and generous Tlaxcalans Subjugated by Mexica Spanish used as alliances After they helped defeat Mexica Spanish conquered them as well Dona Marina La Malinche Mexica woman translator for Spanish o Interpreted between Meixcan traitorsSpanish hero Gave Cortes a son Martin Granted land and encomienda but died a decade after Spanish arrival La Noche Triste 600 Spanish died Cort s and his army ofSpanish conquistadors and native allies fought their way out of the Mexican capital at Tenochtitlan following the death of the Aztec king Moctezuma ll Many Spanish drowned because had too much gold in pockets heavy o Hence the name La Noche Triste followers felt and expressed at the loss of life and treasure incurred in the escape from Tenochtitlan Epidemic disease mainly small pox Was what mainly killed off the Mexica Even though they were larger in number than Spanish they did not have immunity to their diseases Encomienda system Indians and later Africans were coerced into forced labor on plantations or silver mines Bartolome de Las Casas Spoke out against forced labor torture and murder Spanish enemies mainly English used writing as propaganda Protector of the Indians Columbian Exchange After his exploration Certain good going across Atlantic refers to the widespread transfer of animals plants culture human populations communicable diseases technology and ideas between the American and Afro Eurasian hemispheres in the 15th and 16th centuries related to European colonization and trade including AfricanAmerican slave trade after Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage Sugarcane Caribbean9New World o demand for was increasing so demand for slaves increased as well Tobacco New World 9 Old World Horses Old World 9 New World Gun powder Asia9 New World Western Learning Old World 9New World Coffee Middle Eastern 9 New World Potatoes New World9 Old World Slavery Mercantilism The economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances which a government should encourage by means of protectionism Economic doctrine of Europe i5th i6th century gov t regulate international trade 1 Defined in national terms to better a country quotwe re going to better France 2 Object is to get as much wealth gold and silver 3 Absence of 2 get natural resourcesraw materials 4 Favorable balance of trade o Exports exceed imports 5 Fiscal military state wealth and power are mutually reinforcing entities o lfyou have wealth you can get more power ifyou have power you cant get more wealth Middle Passage Journey from Africa 9 New world Women were given free range for sexual exploit Men were kept shackled below deck for fear of rebellion Light pack vs loose pack Food was bad barely any Many disease aid in own filth for months also with dead bodies Triangular Trade New World 9 Europe raw materials and natural resources Europe 9 Africa metal utensils liquor metals weapons MANUFACTORED GOODS Africa 9 New world slaves Maroons Escaped slaved who set up societies in mountains and jungles Jamaica Haiti Barbados Hispaniola Est successfully because had military and government training in Africa Never recaptured Underground Railroad Run by Harriet Tubman Help many runaway slaves get to North or out West to live with Indians Very slow sometimes had to hide and then go Eric Williams Black Prime minister ofTrinidad and Tobago went to Oxford to study The Williams thesis decline ofslavery was not for ethical moral religion reason but for economical reasons o As sugar supply was high demand went down so slavery went down He doesn39t dispute other ideas just says 1 reason is economics Said racism is caused by slavery not other way around ANABAPTIST Huguenots French Catholics St Barthelome Massacre Henry IV of Navarre Passed Edict of Nantes Edict of Nantes Allowed religious tolerance Anglicanism Started by Henry 8 Separated to get divorce Know as protector of realm by pope 16 act of supremacy led to Anglican state religion Compensated State Run Gov t Henry VII Act of Supremacy of 1534 Elizabeth I underestimate because of gender defeated Spanish Armanda spread Anglican Counter Reformation Council of Trent Society of JesusJesuits Responses to prodestant reformation Formed by Catholics Ignatius Loyola Wanted education and conversion Ignatius Loyola Sees Indians as ignorant who can be taught the was of God Spanish St Bartholomew39s Day Massacre Treaty of Westphalia ended Thirty Years War 112514 1110 AM 30 years war 112514 1110 AM