Introduction to Photography
Introduction to Photography CNPH 14100
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Review Notes Introduction to Photography CNPH 1410005 Fall 2008 FILM PROCES SING Photographic Film is made up of three layers A polyester base provides the structural support of the lm The anti halation layer prevents light from scattering in the lm and producing an indistinct picture The emulsion contains the light sensitive compounds that form the photographic 1mage Photographic lm is panchromatic that is it is sensitive to all colors of light A latent image is the invisibly faint picture formed when lm is exposed in the camera Processing the lm chemically ampli es the latent image to form a visible negative image The functional steps involved in processing include Developing which converts the latent image to a visible negative image Stopping which arrests the action of the developer Fixing which renders the lm no longer sensitive to light Hypo Clearing which removes potentially harmful xer from the lm Wetting agent which minimizes drying spots and stains following the nal lm wash SHUTTER AND APERTURE The shutter is the mechanism that exposes the lm in a camera for a set duration of time Most 35mm cameras have a focal plane shutter which is located near the lm inside the body of the camera Most medium and large format cameras use a leaf shutter which resides in the lens Long shutter speeds allow a lot of light to reach the lm Short shutter speeds let relatively little light reach the lm The aperture is a hole in the lens through which light passes The aperture can be made bigger or smaller by the iris diaphragm which is made of thin blades of metal connected to a ring on the outside of the lens Large apertures permit a lot of light to reach the lm small apertures allow relatively little light to reach the lm The ASA or ISO setting tells the camera meter information about the lm s light sensitivity so that an accurate combination of aperture and shutter may be recommended Each doubling or halving of the ASNISO number represents a 100 percent increase or decrease in light sensitivity High ASNISO lms may be used in dim Intro to Photo Review Notes 2 lighting conditions but they produce relatively grainy enlargements Low ASNISO lms produce relatively little grain but they must be used in bright lighting conditions An exposure consists of a combination of a particular aperture and shutter at a given ASA Shutter speeds are designated according to a standard numerical sequence as follows 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 Note that 1 above indicates one second and the numbers that follow are the bottom digits of fractions so they designate fractions of seconds 12 sec 14 sec 18 sec115 sec Each change up or down one exposure level cuts the exposure in half eg 250th sec to 500th sec or doubles it eg 1000th to 500th Aperture settings are described by fnumbers The standard fnumber sequence is 114 28 4 56 81116 22 32 64 Note something potentially confusing about fnumbers Small fnumbers describe apertures that let a lot of light into the camera Conversely large fnumbers designate apertures that let in only a little light So f 28 lets in more light than f 11 The reason for this is that the fnumber is derived from a fraction fnumber Focal Length of LensDiameter You don t really have to know the fraction but the reason fnumbers are calculated this way is to ensure that the amount of light described by a specific fnumber is the same from lens to lens regardless of design or focal length Each change up or down one aperture level cuts the exposure in half e g f 28 to f 4 or doubles it eg f 16 to f 11 MISCELLANY In photo parlance one refers to a doubling or halving of exposure as a stop So for example changing from 1 second to 12 second exposure gives one more stop of exposure Changing from f 8 to f 11 gives one stop less light of exposure An fstop refers specifically to an aperture setting Intro to Photo Review Notes 3 Keep in mind that the progression through the shutter speed and aperture sequences is geometrical not arithmetic So for instance changing from f 4 to f 22 represents a five stop change or 132 the original exposure 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 Going from 14 sec to 1 sec to offer another eXample represents two stops or increasing eXposure by a factor of4 2 X 2 EXPOSURE EQUIVALECE The same eXposure can be created using different fstop and shutter speed combinations at a given ISO EX 1 assume an ISO of 400 for both f56 at 1500th sec f 8 at Since f 8 represents one stop less light than f 56 to maintain equivalent eXposure the shutter speed must be slowed to compensate by recovering one stop more light Thus the shutter should be changed to 1250th sec F 56 at 1500th sec f8 at 1250th sec EX 2 assume an ISO of 400 for both f28 at 1500th sec f at 130th sec Since 130th second is four stops 16 times more light that 1500th second the aperture must be made smaller remember designated by a larger fnumber to compensate by getting rid of five stops of light 1 16th the original setting f28 at 1500th sec f 11 at 130th sec SHUTTER AND APERTURE EFFECTS ON MOTION AND SPACE A slow shutter speed will emphasize camera andor subject motion blurring it Fast shutter speed will arrest or freeze motion See eXamples at the bottom of this document A small aperture described by a large fnumber increases depth of field A wide aperture described by a small fnumber decreases depth of field Depth of field is defined as the area in front and behind the plane of focus that also remains sharply focuses See eXamples an the bottom ofthis document Intro to Photo Review Notes 4 When changing aperture or shutter to affect motion or depth of eld don t forget to maintain exposure equivalence apropos the discussion above Examples Fast shutter speed Photo by JacquesHenn39 Lartigue Slow shutter speedinote boy s blurred arms and hands photo by Ralph Eugene Meatyard Intro to PhotoReview Notes 5 Deep depth of eld Photo by Sabastio Salgado Shallow depth of eldinotice the outoffocus background Photo by Sally Mann