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PhysicalHistorical Geology I

by: Treva Williamson

PhysicalHistorical Geology I GEOL 121

Marketplace > Lake Superior State University > Geology > GEOL 121 > PhysicalHistorical Geology I
Treva Williamson
GPA 3.86

Lewis Brown

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Lewis Brown
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Treva Williamson on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 121 at Lake Superior State University taught by Lewis Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/222326/geol-121-lake-superior-state-university in Geology at Lake Superior State University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
Gas change is timed closer to the volume of land ice Ch4 is a function of monsoon strength There is a strong forcing of ch4 from isolation ce responds slowly to external forcing Components of the climate system that are seen to change with the ice are presumed to be caused by the ice For the General Circulation Models Mid and high northern latitudes have lower temperatures GCM gas response is timed with ice Gases can amplify the changes over the timescales Wind patterns strength and temperature all change when there is a huge ice sheet 41000 year cycles saw smaller sea level variation than did the 100000 year cycles but during the 41000 year cycle ice sheets reached even further south in America Sediment off Canada got coarser shortly before the 100000 year cycle If the variation of something matches the variation of ice volume it is forced by the ice sheet Glacial growth responds more to the obliquity cycle Since the glacial cycle responds more to the 41000 year cycle and coZ seems to listen more to ice any positive feedback from coZ is stronger on the 41000 year cycle The 100000 year cycle shows evidence of the variation at the 23000 and 41000 year cycles C02 drops more precipitously with the 41000 year cycle that with the 23000 year cycle During the Last Glacial Maximum sand dunes covered larger areas and windblown dust more extensive Major differences between the LGM included ice sheet extent sea level sea level extent vegetation type wind windblown dust and atmospheric gas concentrations Climate zones were much farther south in Eurasia during LCM Although the world was colder it should have been drier but some areas were much wetter During glacial periods ice deflected jet stream further south in this part of the world bringing more moisture from pacific and more rain and more clouds and less evaporation from direct sunshine The jet stream was further south during the LGM North Atlantic was much cooler Used plankton to estimate surface temp Low latitudes were likely cooler by 3c during the LGM With insulation at the LGM much the same as today and with no direct effect on climate at low latitudes from ice sheets at high latitudes and cooling for law latitudes is measure of the sensitivity of climate to changes in greenhouse gases Low latitude ocean 15c cooler Snowlines and tree lines suggest low latitude land was 5c cooler ce volume is estimated using sea level nterglacial change occurred in 310 years it is possible it only took 1 year With glacial ice age gone high latitudes were warmer year round Pollen reveals climate variation Ice cores reveal numerous rapid climate change events Atlantic Ocean heat from the south flows north cools and sinks When this shuts off more heat remains south warming south and cooler north While variations in the sun might help pace some climate change it doesn t have the strength or periodicity or phase to explain a significant amount of climate change Climate change during the Holocene is weaker Ruddiman thinks the coZ and ch4 levels are typical and come from animals waste and agriculture If he is right then positive feedbacks in the climate system must have quadrupled the input from humans Without this concentration the world would be in glacial conditions a long time ago The 40ppm coZ is not solely from clearing forests Areas of north Atlantic cooled significantly throughout most of the last 1000 years Coral is a good measure of temperature El Ni o is a semi periodic shift of warm surface water east across equatorial pacific with also shifts clouds and storms and in many other areas too Tree rings indicate coldest conditions of the last 2000 years were prior to the 20 h century Sea level change is a measure of climate change Climate proxies reveal recent warming preceded by prolonged cooling for North America All oceans are warming Sea level has been on the rise for more than a century Average decline in snow cover Average increase in length of growing season Earth dirt and rocks are warmer excess heat is penetrating into the ground on every continent Most glaciers in retreat Arctic sea ice is decreasing Old thicker sea ice on the decline Volcanic eruptions and soZ cool the earth but are short lived and do not effect average temperature Recent global warming can t be explained by suns 11 year cycle orbits tectonic cooling sulfate rise Loss of stratospheric ozone caused some cooling but increase in troposphere ozone warms C02 is poisoning the oceans Average 25c warmer for 2X coZ 7c temp increase so far is less than 1c but warming has a time lag Fast feedback such as surface ocean heating or sea ice decay may delay warming Historical average more consistent with 45c warming for 2X coZ Warm water crucial for hurricanes 5c 40 increase Test Questions Isolation changes are dominated by a 23000 year cycle r 39 39 39 39 39 of the r 39 cycle result in very strong summer insulation about every 100000 years The strongest summer insulation peaks cooccur with rapid deglaciations Tectonic scale changes are inadequate for a change in the climate over the last Myr because the rates of plate motion are too slow Ice sheets prior to lmyr differ from those existing after lmyr because ice sheets prior to 1 myr overrode more soft sediment and less bare rock The global sea level was 110125m lower than today is a characterization for the last glacial maximum At the last glacial maximum summer and winter insulation levels were similar to those of today Less frequent summer melting episodes in ice caps on Arctic Island supports renewed cooling in the last several thousand years Millennial oscillations in climate are not orbitally controlled are not observed only in the north Atlantic are not observed in proxy climate records spanning the last 1000 years and do not have a regular periodicity of 1000 years The fluctuations between laminated and bioturbated sediments in the Santa Barbara basin reflect changes in the oxygen content of the bottom waters in the basin and reflect the fluctuating presence and absence of burrowing organisms in the basin The bipolar seesaw may result from changes in the northward redistribution of heat by the Atlantic Ocean circulation The medieval warm period was marked by less sea around Iceland Melting of land based ice and thermal expansion of sea water account for the sea level rise of the 20 h century The recent 7c global warming is in the opposite direction of orbital forcing Global dimming masks the effects of global warming Sensitivity tests in general circulation models GCM indicate that a doubling of preindustrial oc2 levels should result in a global average temperature rise of 25 c Clouds have the largest feedback related uncertainty in GCM models


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