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Abnormal Psychology

by: Darron Osinski II

Abnormal Psychology PSYC 259

Darron Osinski II
GPA 3.7

Howard Searight

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Howard Searight
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Darron Osinski II on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 259 at Lake Superior State University taught by Howard Searight in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/222334/psyc-259-lake-superior-state-university in Psychlogy at Lake Superior State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Exam Abnormal Psychology gt4 Anxiety Disorders 0 Concept of Anxiety I quot Isenseof rr 39 39 or 39 quot g o Distinction between normal and abnormal anxiety I No environmental challenge I Out of proportion to the threat I Emotional reaction persistsbeyond the threat I Anticipatory anxiety 0 Average age of onset I 11 years 0 Separation Anxiety Disorder I Primay affecting children I Unreasonable fear of separation from parent or caregiver 0 They will be harmed or caregiver will be harmed I Reluctance 0 Go to school or alone 0 Go to sleep without being near caregiver I Repeated nightmares with separation theme I Physical complaints when separated from caregiver o Heritability N Panic disorder and Panic Attacks 0 Main FeaturesKey Symptoms I Period of intense fear or discomfort with 4 symptoms developing abruptly and escalating rapidly o Palpitations increased heart rate 0 Sweating o Tremblingshaking 0 Experience of shortness of breath o Choking sensation 0 Chest pains or tightening 0 Challenge Tests I 6070 React I Heightened heart rate 0 Two types and Agoraphobia I With or without Agoraphobia 0 Sleep Paralysis 0 Panic attack while asleep Cultural Anxiety sensitivity model cognitivebehavioral Oversensitivity to bodily sensations Misinterpret normal physical reatcions as signs of significant physical problems Interpretation escalates these reactions Fears losing control Three physical processes 0 Increased carbon monoxide in blood 0 Shifts in BP 0 Increased Heart rate Anxiety Sensitivity 0 Becoming anxious about signs of anxiety N Generalized Anxiety Disorders 0 O 0 Key symptoms Excess worry anxiety and apprehension for 6 mo Inability to control the worry 3 Or more of these 6 symptoms 0 Feeling restless orquoton edge 0 Easily fatigued 0 Concentration problems 0 Irritability 0 Muscle tension 0 Sleep disturbance Role and function of worry If I worry it won t happen It hasn t happened because I worry about it Relative heritability Least heritable 1520 gt4 Social Anxiety Disorder 0 N Phobias 0 Key features Marked persistent fear of social or performance situations Exposure to unfamiliar people or scrutiny by others Person fears humiliation and or embarrassment Social situation provokes painclike experience Recognition that fear is excessive Avoid or endure with intense anxiety social performance situations Age of onset of various phobias Infancy 0 Loss of physical support 0 Sudden intense and unexpected noises o Heights 0 Strangers o Toiletingactivites 0 Being injured 0 Animals dogs 0 Imaginary creatures 0 Dark 0 Being alone I 69 0 Animals 0 Lightningandthunder o Personalsafety 0 School I 912 0 Test 0 Personal health 0 Personal injury 0 Social interaction and personal conduct 0 Economic and political catastrophe I Animal 0 7 I Blood 0 9 I Shots 0 8 I Dental o 12 I Social o 16 I Claustrophobia o 20 I Agoraphobia o 28 o Preparedness I Evolutionary history has contributed to biological predisposition to be more likely to be phobic of potentially dangerous thingsevents SI Abnormal Psychology Final Exam Review Abuse Maladaptive pattern of recurrent use extending over a period of twelve months and continuing despite social occupational psychological physical or safety problems Dependence Maladaptive pattern of use extending over a twelve month period and characterized by unsuccessful efforts to control use despite knowledge of harmful effects taking more of substance than intended tolerance or withdrawal Intoxication condition in which a substance affecting the central nervous system has been ingested and certain 39 J quot ve 39 39 39 or flu 39 39 39 39 changes such as r belligerence and impaired judgment and functioning are evident Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzyme that eliminates low levels of the first breakdown product of alcohol acetaldehyde It is said that women and Asians have lower levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase resulting in problems metabolizing alcohol Powder Cocaine and Crack Rocks Powder cocaine is an addictive substance that can be eaten intravenously injected but typically inhaled or snorted Crack Rocks are a puri ed and more potent form of cocaine produced by heating cocaine with ether freebasing Crack is less expensive and more addictive than powder cocaine Effects of Marijuana DSM does not technically classify marijuana as a hallucinogen although it shares many of the same effects as hallucinogens Physiological Subjective effects of marijuana include feelings of euphoria tranquility and passivity Some users report sensory experiences as well as perceptual distortions Some may feel anxious or depressed Physical Red eyes Dry mouth Increased heart rate Increased hunger Cognitive Impaired short term memory Vacuous speech Impaired reaction time Time perspective is altered Effects of Hallucinogens Lysergic Acid Diethylamide LSD Synethesia fusion of sensory modalities hear colors see music Time passes slowly Enhanced sensitivity to art music and feelings Phencyclidine PCP perceptual distortions euphoria nausea confusion delusions violent psychotic behavior Inheritance of Alcoholism Incidence of alcoholism is 4 times higher among male biological offspring of alcoholic fathers than among offspring of nonalcoholic fathers Concordance rates show identical twins have a great chance of developing the disorder as well as fraternal twins Phases of Treatment 1 Detoxification removal of the abusive substance 2 Long term maintenance without the abusive substance a Community programs b Interventions Major Symptoms of Schizophrenia Delusions Hallucinations Thought disorder shifting and unrelated ideas that produce incoherent Communication Bizarre behavior Positive Symptoms present during acute phase of the illness Hallucinations Delusions Disorganized speech Agitation or catatonia Negative Symptoms absence of something Bluntinappropriate affect emotional expression Vague speech Minimal verbalization Limited social interaction Little initiative or goal directed behavior Types of Delusionsfalse beliefs Thought transmission or broadcasting Thought insertion Thought withdrawal Nihilisticdepersonalization Somatic Paranoid Grandiose Types of Schizophrenia Paranoid Characterized by systematized delusions or auditory hallucinations and the absence of symptoms as disorganized speech and behavior or at affect most commonly delusions of persecution Disorganized Grossly disorganized behaviors manifested in disorganized Speech and behavior and at or grossly inappropriate affect Catatonic Marked disturbance in motor activity extreme excitement or Motoric immobility Undifferentiated Show prominent psychotic symptoms that do not meet criteria For paranoid disorganized or catatonic schizophrenia Residual have had at least one previous schizophrenic episode but are showing An absence of prominent psychotic features Role of Genetics in Schizophrenia Close blood relatives run greater risk of developing schizophrenia Relatives share similar genes and environmental stressors Diathesisstress model applies Monozygotic twins are 24 times more likely to develop symptoms than Dizygotic Duration of symptoms in Schizophrenia At least two of the following symptoms each present for a significant period Of time during a one month period Delusions Hallucinations Disorganized speech Grossly disorganized or catatonic symptoms Negative symptoms Functioning markedly below the level achieved prior to onset Continuous signs of the disturbance for at least siX months one month in Which symptoms are in full and active form Support for the Dopamine Hypothesis Excess dopamine in nonschizophrenic individuals produces symptoms Effective schizophrenia medications block dopamine receptors Brains of schizophrenics when autopsied have excess numbers of dopamine Receptors Double Bind Communication 2 people Contradictory messages Primary negative injunction Secondary negative injunction contradicting primary injunction Relationship is critical for survival Contradiction cannot be directly commented on Family Expressed Emotion High expressed emotion is characterized by Family member highly critical of patient s personality Emotionally over involved Greater level of interpersonal criticism Causes greater problems for patients Treatment of Schizophrenia First generation medications Did not address negative symptoms Side effects similar to Parkinson s disease Irreversible repetitive motor movements Tardive Dyskinesia Second generation medications current Fewer negative neurological effects Often improved negative symptoms Possible lower risk of Tardive Dyskinesia To be most effective psychosocial therapy and medication should both be used Psychosocial Therapy helps address strange behavior and teaches more Appropriate ways to function Personality Disorders Stable patterns of inner experience and behavior that leads to impaired social educational and occupational functioning This pattern of behavior is not readily changed Key Symptoms of Personality Disorders Antisocial Illegal Behavior Borderline Unstable relationships identity and mood Histrionic Dramatic Schizoid Minimal emotionasocial PassiveAggressive Indirect expression of angerresistance to authority Narcissistic Intense self focus sense of entitlement Schizotypal Discomfort with relationships cognitive distortions eccentric Soft Schizophrenia Role of Heredity in Antisocial Personality Disorder 10 concordance rate if one parent has ASP and reared in non ASP home 20 concordance rate if reared with biological parents Trichotillomania Disorder characterized by an inability to resist impulses to pull out one s own hair Most often hair from scalp but may include eyelashes beard eyebrows etc Pathological Gambling Chronic and progressive failure to resist impulses to gamble Gambling occurs despite detrimental consequences such as financial failure disruptions of family and social life and engaging in illegal activities to support it Attention De cit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Inattenti0n F ails to give close attention to detailsmakes careless mistakes Diff1culty sustaining attention in tasks Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish activities Diff1culty organizing tasks and activities Avoids sustained mental effort Loses things necessary for tasks or activities Easily distracted by extraneous stimuli Forgetful in daily activities Hyperactivity Fidgets and squirms in seat Leaves seat continuously when expected to remain seated Climbs excessively in inappropriate situations Is often on the go or acts as if driven by a motor Talks excessively Causes of ADHD Some evidence of genetics D4 allele has been determined gene for attention Underdevelopment of specific brain regions Prenatal and perinatal complications eg prematurity maternal smoking alcohol use Considered a biological condition with specific central nervous system Involvement


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