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General Zoology, Week 8 Notes

by: Rodney Dingle

General Zoology, Week 8 Notes BIOL 2504

Rodney Dingle
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

This note section covers general arthropod features, chelicerate arthropods, and myriapodans.
General Zoology
Dr. Opell
Class Notes
Biological Science, General Zoology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rodney Dingle on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2504 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Opell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see General Zoology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 03/22/16
 General Zoology Week 8, Exam 4 Material Phylum  Arthro  pod :  jointed   foot  legs) Consists of over 1 million species and makes up about 80% of all living species Can be found in all free­living habitats Organization I.         Features of the first arthropods—trilobites  Trilobites—marine organisms that lived between 550­200 MYA External Features: head & trunk regions o Biramous (two branched) appendages; found in other  primitive, aquatic arthropods like horseshoe crabs o One pair of antennae and one pair of compound eyes  Ommatidia: light­sensing units of compound eye o No specialized mouthparts  Exoskeleton­ hard outer covering o Protects body o Allows for efficient muscle attachment o Allows legs to be rigid and jointed o Usually made of chitin­ a polysaccharide (sugar polymer)  similar to cellulose; chitin can be combined with:  Protein­ to be tough, yet flexible  Protein and tanning compounds (i.e. Phenol)­ to be  hard and brittle  Movement and muscles o Dorsal and ventral longitudinal muscles move body  segments o Protractor and retractor muscles move legs forward and  backward, respectively o Extender and flexor muscles move legs away from and  toward the body’s midline, respectively  Nervous system o Supraesophageal ganglion­ functions as the brain o Circumesophageal connective­ connects upper and lower  ganglia o Subesophageal ganglion­ controls feeding and mouthparts o Ventral nerve cord o Segmental ganglia­ controls muscles and legs of segments  Circulatory system o Open system (hemocoel blood cavity)  Digestive system o The ectodermis, which secretes chitinous material,  invagenates, or pushes in on itself, to form the foregut and  hindgut o The endodermis, which does NOT secrete chitinous  material, opens to form the midgut  o Foregut­ food storage and/or grinding o Midgut­ absorption of nutrients o Hindgut­ water absorption II. Terrestrial Adaptations in Arthropods  Terrestrial Adaptations are present in three lineages: oArachnida (scorpions, spiders, ticks, mites, etc.) oMyriapoda (centipedes and millipedes) oInsecta (I think you get the picture)  Excretory Products o Unlike aquatic arthropods which produce ammonia or annelids and onychophorans which produce urea, terrestrial arthropods uric acid (insects) and guanine (spiders and scorpions); producing these  wastes requires a higher energy cost, but it allows the waste to be  less toxic and conserve more water  Excretory System o Malpighian Tubules (M.T.): tubular extensions from the gut that  remove guanine or uric acid from the blood (hemolymph); tubules  are located between the midgut and hindgut  Guanine and water are removed from the blood by the M.T.  Guanine and water are then moved to the hindgut where the water is reabsorbed and the guanine is excreted  Respiratory System o Tracheae that carry air directly to tissues (found in myriapods,  insects, and some arachnids) o Lungs that oxygenate blood (only found in arachnids; one pair of  book lungs)  III. Arthropod Diversity  Subphylum Chelicerata oNamed for their chelicerae: mouthparts formed from pincers at the  ends of appendages oBody consists of two main parts:  Cephalothorax: front section of animal built for feeding and locomotion; houses the chelicerae, walking legs, and a pair  of pedipalps, which can function as tactile organs (spiders)  or as large, modified weapons (claws of scorpions)  Abdomen: back section of animal built for respiration o Other feature include a loss of antennae, a primitively marine  ancestry, and the presence of coxal glands (used for collecting  and excreting waste) o Earliest members: Sea scorpions (Eurypterids); large marine  predators that lived 500 to 225 MYA o Class Arachnida—Terrestrial chelicerates  Respiration­ book lungs and/or tracheae  Excretion­ Malpighian tubules, guanine  Reproduction­ sperm transfer and internal fertilization   Superclass  Myri  pod : many legs o Centipedes: 8,000 species, 20 to over 300 pairs of legs o Millipedes: 12,000 species, 34 to over 400 pairs of legs o Retained Primitive Features:  Head and trunk regions  One pair of antennae  Compound eyes o Terrestrial Adaptations:  Uniramous (single branched) appendages  Uric acid production  Malpighian tubules o Centipedes: Class  Chilo   po  (Mouth foot)  Fast moving predators  One pair of legs per segment  Flat body   poison claws (modified first legs held underneath  mouthparts)  No defensive secretions o Millipedes: Class  Diplo  pod  (Two feet)  Slow moving detritivores   Two pairs of legs per segment  No poison claws  Defensive secretions (some can produce a form of cyanide)


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